North China

North China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáběi; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]

Qinling Huaihe Line
The Qinling Huaihe Line separates China into its Northern and Southern regions

The heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain. North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and Northeast China.

The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires and home to Confucian civilization. Historically, the language used in this area was Ancient Chinese of the Huaxia, Old Chinese of the Shang, Zhou and Han dynasties. In prehistory and early history, the plain (Henan in particular) is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history.

Rice domestication originated in this area at least 9000 years ago, although later on in Chinese history, cultivation of wheat took over as the soils became leeched with the arrivals of the Mongolians and Manchurians from the North, which greatly influenced the area culturally, politically, linguistically and genetically, while earlier scions and their descendants migrated South of the Yangtze River to flee from the invasion of the barbarians. Refugees have fled the area since the collapse of the Han dynasty established by Qinshihuang, especially the Royalty. Imperialty, as well as families of soldiers which formed the Hakka migration, in order to escape persecutions from the new dynasties of the barbarians.

In modern times, the area has shifted in terms of linguistic, cultural, socio-political, economic and genetic composition. Nowadays unique embracing a North Chinese culture, it is heavily influenced by Marxism, Communism, Leninism, Soviet systems of farming while preserving a Traditional Chinese indigenous culture. The region has been cultivating wheat, and most inhabitants here nowadays speak variants of Northern Chinese languages such as the standard (Mandarin), which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and its cousin variants. Jin Chinese and Mongolian are also widely spoken due to the political and cultural history of the area. Other than the British Colony of Hong Kong, the revival of Shanghai as financial center, the old imperial city of the Purple Forbidden Citadel of China's Last 24 Emperors known by Westerners as Peking, now modernized as Beijing City, this is the ancient and historical region which remains truly at the heart of Chinese civilisation. It remains the political, military, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China.

North China
Northern People's Republic of China region
Area
 • Total2,185,105 km2 (843,674 sq mi)
Population
 • Total164,823,136
 • Density75/km2 (200/sq mi)
Broader definition of north china
Another broader definition of North China (in pink)

History

In prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing (Peking).

Culturally Northern China also includes Shandong, northern parts of Anhui and Xuzhou.

Tens of millions of people have starved to death or died of floods in northern china, most notably the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 which killed about 13 million, 1938 Yellow River flood which killed up to 800,000, 1887 Yellow River flood killed 900,000, Chinese famine of 1942–43 killed 3 million and the Great famine which killed tens of millions of mandarin speaking peoples in Northern China and Sichuan.

Administrative divisions in the PRC

GB[2] ISO №[3] Province Chinese Name Capital Population¹ Density² Area³ Abbreviation/Symbol
BJ 11 Beijing Municipality 北京市
Běijīng Shì
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800
Jīng
TJ 12 Tianjin Municipality 天津市
Tiānjīn Shì
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305
Jīn
HE 13 Hebei Province 河北省
Héběi Shěng
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700
SX 14 Shanxi Province 山西省
Shānxī Shěng
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300
Jìn
NM 15 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region
內蒙古自治区
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000 蒙(內蒙古)
Měng (Nèi Měnggǔ)

Cities with urban area over one million in population

Provincial capitals in bold.

# City Urban area[4] District area[4] City proper[4] Prov. Census date
1 Beijing 16,446,857 18,827,262 19,612,368 BJ 2010-11-01
2 Tianjin 9,562,255 11,090,783 12,938,693 TJ 2010-11-01
3 Taiyuan 3,154,157 3,426,519 4,201,592 SX 2010-11-01
4 Shijiazhuang 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 HE 2010-11-01
5 Tangshan 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 HE 2010-11-01
6 Baotou 1,900,373 2,096,851 2,650,364 NM 2010-11-01
7 Hohhot 1,497,110 1,980,774 2,866,615 NM 2010-11-01
8 Datong 1,362,314 1,737,514 3,318,054 SX 2010-11-01
9 Handan 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 HE 2010-11-01
10 Baoding 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 HE 2010-11-01

See also

References

  1. ^ Shuangshuang, LI; Saini, YANG; Xianfeng, LIU (10 September 2015). "Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013". The Chinese journal of geography. 34 (3): 354–363. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  2. ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  4. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
Amur leopard

The Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a leopard subspecies native to the Primorye region of southeastern Russia and northern China. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. In 2007, only 19–26 wild leopards were estimated to survive in southeastern Russia and northeastern China. It was considered as one of the rarest cats on Earth.As of 2015, fewer than 60 individuals were estimated to survive in Russia and China. Camera-trapping surveys conducted between 2014 and 2015 revealed 92 individuals in a 8,398 km2 (3,242 sq mi) large transboundary area along the Russian-Chinese border.Results of genetic research indicate that the Amur leopard is genetically close to leopards in northern China and Korea, suggesting that the leopard population in this region became fragmented in the early 20th century. The North Chinese leopard was formerly recognised as a distinct subspecies P. p. japonensis, but was subsumed under the Amur leopard in 2017.

Beijing–Harbin railway

The Beijing–Harbin railway, named the Jingha Railway, (simplified Chinese: 京哈铁路; traditional Chinese: 京哈鐵路; pinyin: Jīnghā Tiělù) is the railway that connects Beijing with Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang Province. It spans 1,249 km (776 mi). It is a very prominent route in the provinces of northeastern China.

Columbia (supercontinent)

Columbia, also known as Nuna and Hudsonland, was one of Earth's ancient supercontinents. It was first proposed by Rogers & Santosh 2002 and is thought to have existed approximately 2,500 to 1,500 million years ago in the Paleoproterozoic Era. Zhao et al. 2002 proposed that the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia was completed by global-scale collisional events during 2.1–1.8 Ga.

Columbia consisted of proto-cratons that made up the cores of the continents of Laurentia, Baltica, Ukrainian Shield, Amazonian Shield, Australia, and possibly Siberia, North China, and Kalaharia as well.

The evidence of Columbia's existence is based upon geological and paleomagnetic data.

Geography of China

China has great physical diversity. The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile lowlands and foothills. They are the location of most of China's agricultural output and human population. The southern areas of the country (South of the Yangtze River) consist of hilly and mountainous terrain. The west and north of the country are dominated by sunken basins (such as the Gobi and the Taklamakan), rolling plateaus, and towering massifs. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, and has much lower agricultural potential and population.

Traditionally, the Chinese population centered on the Chinese central plain and oriented itself toward its own enormous inland market, developing as an imperial power whose center lay in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River on the northern plains. More recently, the 18,000 km (11,000 mi) coastline has been used extensively for export-oriented trade, causing the coastal provinces to become the leading economic center.

The People's Republic of China has an area of about 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi). The exact land area is sometimes challenged by border disputes, most notably about Taiwan, Aksai Chin, the Trans-Karakoram Tract, and South Tibet. The area of the People's Republic of China is 9,596,960 km2 (3,705,410 sq mi) according to the CIA's The World Factbook. The People's Republic of China is either the third or fourth largest country in the world, being either slightly larger or slightly smaller than the United States depending on how the area of the United States is measured. Both countries are smaller than Russia and Canada and larger than Brazil.

Guanzhong

Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung; simplified Chinese: 关中; traditional Chinese: 關中; pinyin: Guānzhōng; Wade–Giles: Kuan1-chung1; literally: 'Inside the Pass'), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River. It is called Guanzhong or 'within the passes', as opposed to 'Guandong' or 'east of the pass', i.e., the North China Plain. The North China Plain is bordered on the west by mountains. The Yellow River cuts through the mountains at the Hangu Pass or Tong Pass separating Guanzhong from Guandong.

Hebei

Hebei (河北; formerly romanised as Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928.

Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.

A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Laurasia

Laurasia () was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around 335 to 175 million years ago (Mya). It separated from Gondwana 215 to 175 Mya (beginning in the late Triassic period) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther north after the split.

The name combines the names of Laurentia, the name given to the North American craton, and Eurasia. As suggested by the geologic naming, Laurasia included most of the land masses which make up today's continents of the Northern Hemisphere, chiefly Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia, Kazakhstania, and the North China and East China cratons.

List of Christian colleges in China

The following colleges and universities were founded by Christian organisations. The list covers universities and colleges that were founded in the then British crown colony of Hong Kong and the Portuguese overseas province of Macau. It also covers universities and colleges that were founded in mainland China but were later moved to or reestablished in Taiwan.

North China Craton

The North China Craton is a continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes. It is located in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea. The term craton designates this as a piece of continent that is stable, buoyant and rigid. Basic properties of the cratonic crust include being thick (around 200 km), relatively cold when compared to other regions, and low density. The North China Craton is an ancient craton, which experienced a long period of stability and fitted the definition of a craton well. However, the North China Craton later experienced destruction of some of its deeper parts (decratonization), which means that this piece of continent is no longer as stable.The North China Craton was at first some discrete, separate blocks of continents with independent tectonic activities. In the Paleoproterozoic (2.5-1.8 billion years ago) the continents collided and amalgamated and interacted with the supercontinent, creating belts of metamorphic rocks between the formerly separate parts. The exact process of how the craton was formed is still under debate. After the craton was formed, it stayed stable until the middle of the Ordovician period (480 million years ago). The roots of the craton were then destabilised in the Eastern Block and entered a period of instability. The rocks formed in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic eons (4.6-1.6 billion years ago) were significantly overprinted during the root destruction. Apart from the records of tectonic activities, the craton also contains important mineral resources, such as iron ores and rare earth elements, and fossils records of evolutionary development.

North China Electric Power University

North China Electric Power University (NCEPU; Chinese: 华北电力大学; pinyin: Huáběi Diànlì Dàxué) is a national Project 211 key university based in Beijing, China under the national Ministry of Education that specialises in polytechnic disciplines. The main campus is located in Beijing, and it has a branch campus in Baoding, Hebei Province. There are about 3,000 full-time faculty and staff, 20,000 undergraduates and 7,000 graduate students in this university. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines.

North China Plain

The North China Plain (Chinese: 華北平原; pinyin: Huáběi Píngyuán) is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and then modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, and to the east by the Yellow Sea. The Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea.

Below the Sanmenxia Dam is the multipurpose Xiaolangdi Dam, located in the river's last valley before the North China Plain, a great delta created from silt dropped at the Yellow River's mouth over the millennia. The North China Plain extends over much of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces. and merges with the Yangtze Delta in northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. The Yellow River meanders over the fertile, densely populated plain emptying into the Bohai Sea. The plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing corn, sorghum, winter wheat, vegetables, and cotton. Its nickname is "Land of the yellow earth."

The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain (pinyin: Zhōngyuán), which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.The plain covers an area of about 409,500 square kilometers (158,100 sq mi), most of which is less than 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. This flat yellow-soil plain is the main area of sorghum, millet, maize, and cotton production in China. Wheat, sesame seed, and peanuts are also grown here. The plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world.

Beijing, the national capital, is located on the northeast edge of the plain, with Tianjin, an important industrial city and commercial port, near its northeast coast. Shengli Oil Field in Shandong is an important petroleum base. It is also home to the Yellow River.

Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79

The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 occurred in the late Qing dynasty in China. It is usually referred to as Dīngwù Qíhuāng (丁戊奇荒) in China. A drought began in northern China in 1875, leading to crop failures the following years. The provinces of Shanxi, Zhili (now mostly part of Hebei), Henan, Shandong and the northern parts of Jiangsu were affected. Nine to 13 million people are estimated to have died in the famine out of a total population of the five provinces of 108 million.The drought was influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate mega-regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions is not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese nation, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities (simplified Chinese: 乡土; traditional Chinese: 鄉土; pinyin: xiāngtǔ; literally: 'localism') of the Chinese people.

Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger population in the Far East, particularly the Russian Far East and Northeast China. This population inhabits mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East. The Siberian tiger once ranged throughout Korea, north China, Russian Far East, and eastern Mongolia. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population had been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population was declining. An initial census held in 2015 indicated that the Siberian tiger population had increased to 480–540 individuals in the Russian Far East, including 100 cubs. This was followed up by a more detailed census which revealed there was a total population of 562 wild Siberian tigers in Russia.Results of a phylogeographic study comparing mitochondrial DNA from Caspian tigers and living tiger subspecies indicate that the common ancestor of the Siberian and Caspian tigers colonized Central Asia from eastern China, via the Gansu−Silk Road corridor, and then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Siberian tiger population in the Russian Far East. The Caspian and Siberian tiger populations were the northernmost in mainland Asia.The Siberian tiger was also called Amur tiger, Manchurian tiger, Korean tiger, and Ussurian tiger, depending on the region where individuals were observed.

Taihang Mountains

The Taihang Mountains (Chinese: 太行山; pinyin: Tàiháng Shān) are a Chinese mountain range running down the eastern edge of the Loess Plateau in Shanxi, Henan and Hebei provinces. The range extends over 400 kilometres (250 mi) from north to south and has an average elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 metres (4,900 to 6,600 feet). The principal peak is Xiao Wutaishan (2,882 metres (9,455 feet)). The Taihang's eastern peak is Cangyan Shan in Hebei; Baishi Mountain forms its northern tip.

The name of Shanxi Province, meaning "west of the mountains", derives from its location west of the Taihang Mountains, as does the name of Shandong Province (east of the mountains).The Red Flag Canal is located on the south edge of the Taihang Mountains.

The Shitai Passenger Railway crosses under the Taihang Mountains via the Taihang Tunnel, which, at almost 28 kilometres (17 mi), is the third longest railway tunnel in China.

Vitis bryoniifolia

Vitis bryoniifolia is a prolific and adaptable, polygamo-dioecious species of climbing vine in the grape family native to China, where it is known as ying yu, or hua bei pu tao (North China grape). The variant form ternata is known as san chu ying yu, meaning three-foliolate, or -leaflet ying yu. Ying yu translates to mean "hard jade".

V. bryoniifolia is found in a wide variety of tree-established habitats including forests and shrublands, or fields and valleys where trees are present, especially along the banks of streams; and can be found both in highlands and low- (100–2500 meters above sea-level). It has a long growing season, flowering from April to August, and bearing its fruit (rosy, plum-colored berries, 5–8 mm. in diameter) from June to October; and also a broad distributional range, being reported from 15 of China's 27 provinces and autonomous regions (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang).

Yan Mountains

The Yan Mountains, also known by their Chinese name Yanshan, are a major mountain range to the north of the North China Plain, principally in the province of Hebei.

The range rises between the Chaobai River on the west and the Shanhai Pass on the east. It is made up mostly of limestone, granite, and basalt. Its altitude ranges from 400 to 1000 meters. The main peak, Mount Wuling, is 2,116 meters (6,942 ft) above sea level and is located in Xinglong County in Hebei. The range contains many narrow passes, such as the Gubei Pass, the Xifeng Pass, and the Leng Pass. The eastern stretch of the Great Wall of China, including Badaling in northern Beijing, can be found in the Yan Mountains. The mountains are also an important traffic gateway between north and south.

Zhang Yang (warlord)

Zhang Yang (pronunciation ) (died 198), courtesy name Zhishu, was an official and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Originally from Yunzhong Commandery (雲中郡; northern Shanxi) in the north, he eventually became the de facto ruler of Henei Commandery (河內郡; southern Shanxi). Although threatened by powerful warlords such as Cao Cao and Yuan Shao, Zhang Yang still provided refuge for Emperor Xian of Han numerous times, eventually attaining the rank of Grand Marshal (大司馬).

Zhongyuan

Zhongyuan (Chinese: 中原; pinyin: Zhōngyuán), Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu (Chinese: 中土; pinyin: Zhōngtǔ), Chungtu or Zhongzhou (Chinese: 中州; pinyin: Zhōngzhōu), Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization. It forms part of the North China Plain.

In its narrowest sense, the Central Plain covers modern-day Henan, the southern part of Hebei, the southern part of Shanxi, and the western part of Shandong province. A broader interpretation of the Central Plain's extent would add the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi, the northwestern part of Jiangsu, and parts of Anhui and northern Hubei.

Since the beginning of recorded history, the Central Plain has been an important site for Chinese civilization.

In the pre-Qin era, present-day Luoyang and its nearby areas were considered the “Center of the World”, as the political seat of the Xia dynasty was located around Songshan and the Yi-Luo river basin.

Inscriptions on some bronze objects from this era contain references to the 'Central States' (Zhongguo), 'Eastern States', or 'Southern States'. This indicates that the Central Plain, which was referred to as the 'Central States' in these inscriptions, was considered to occupy the center of the world.

In a broader context, the term Zhongyuan refers to Chinese civilization and China proper, regions directly governed by centralized Chinese governments and dynasties. However, when used to describe the Chinese civilization, Zhongyuan often connotes Huaxia and Han Chinese cultural dominance.

The Dungans, who are Chinese descendants of Hui ethnicity, residing in Central Asia and Russia, are referred to using terms linked to Zhongyuan.

China articles

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.