Norrbotten

Norrbotten (Swedish: [²nɔrːˌbɔtːɛn]), known in English as North Bothnia, is a Swedish province (landskap) in northernmost Sweden. It borders south to Västerbotten, west to Swedish Lapland, and east to Finland.

Norrbotten
Coat of arms of Norrbotten

Coat of arms
Sverigekarta-Landskap Norrbotten
CountrySweden
LandNorrland
CountyNorrbotten County
Area
 • Land26,671 km2 (10,298 sq mi)
Population
(2016)[1]
 • Total195,024
Ethnicity
 • LanguageSwedish
Culture
 • FlowerArctic raspberry
 • AnimalSiberian jay
 • Bird
 • FishVendace
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Administration

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes, but are historical and cultural entities. In this case, however, the county is older than the province. When the new national border to the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland formed, the province of Västerbotten split in two, and formed the municipalities of Kolari, Muonio, Pello, Tornio, and Ylitornio. However, Finnish Västerbotten is not recognized enough as its own historical province, so it's usually merged instead with Ostrobothnia, however leaving out Muonio to Laponia. The northernmost of the counties of Sweden were created in 1810 consisting of the northern parts of Lappland and Västerbotten. After that, northern Västerbotten has gradually evolved as a province of its own.

Heraldry

Not being one of the old historical provinces of Sweden Norrbotten had not been granted a coat of arms in the same way as the others. As recently as 1995, after decades of controversy, Norrbotten got its arms, thus recognized as a "real" province.

History

During the Middle ages, the area was sparsely populated by Sami people, who lived on hunting, fishing and reindeer herding. From the Middle Ages and forward, the Swedish kings tried hard to colonise and Christianize the area. Settlers from Finland, the most important of which were known as Birkarls, controlled the trade and even the taxing on the area long into the 16th century.[2] From the mid-16th century, the area was more firmly tied to Sweden. An important sign of Swedish control was the large Nederluleå stone church from 1492. Still today, Finnish and Sami minorities live in Norrbotten and they have kept their culture and language.

Historically, Västerbotten was the denomination for northern Sweden, together with the Lappland areas. The Eastern Botten or Ostrobothnia was in the Finnish side.

Cultural identification in Sweden is closely related to the historical provinces, and the people in Norrbotten live in this sense in Northern Västerbotten, or Norra Västerbotten. In order not to be confused with people from Southern Västerbotten, i.e. the coastal region of Västerbotten County, they started to identify themselves with the county rather than with the historical province.

Norrbotten had gradually become synonymous with the area that was previously referred to as northern Västerbotten. It started to evolve as a separate province. During the 20th century it got all of the symbols (animals, flowers etc.) which are assigned to the other provinces of Sweden. But there was still some resistance to the idea of Norrbotten being a province.

As recently as 1995, after decades of debate, Norrbotten was granted a coat of arms, thus at last being fully recognized as one of provinces of Sweden.

The coat of arms symbolizes the four large rivers in Norrbotten that drain into the Gulf of Bothnia: Torne River, Kalix River, Lule River and Pite River.

The summers can bring surprisingly warm temperatures for such northerly altitudes, and Norrbotten holds the all-time high temperature record for the entire Norrland at 37°C (98°F).

Population

As of December 31, 2016, the population is 195,024,[1] distributed over 26,671 km2, which gives a density of 7.3 inhabitants/km2.

Culture

Norrbotten has around 8,000 ancient remains. Languages spoken in the province include Swedish (including North Swedish regiolects), Meänkieli, Finnish, and Sami. Some Meänkieli speakers have gradually been considering themselves part of the Kven people, which supposedly arrived to the area much earlier than the Swedish settlers.

The Church Village of Gammelstad outside Luleå has been named a UNESCO World heritage site.

Sports

Football in the province (and Norrbotten County as a whole) is administered by Norrbottens Fotbollförbund. Ice hockey is also popular, with Luleå HF, and basketball with the BC Luleå men's team and the Luleå BBK women's team.

References

  1. ^ a b "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. March 21, 2017. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  2. ^ Vahtola, Jouko. Tornionlaakson historia I. Birkarlit, 'pirkkalaiset'. Malungs boktryckeri AB. Malung, Sweden. 1991.

External links

Coordinates: 67°00′N 20°00′E / 67.000°N 20.000°E

Assi IF

Assi IF is a Swedish football team, located in Risögrund, Kalix Municipality, Norrbotten County, currently playing in Division 2 Norrland.

Boden, Sweden

Boden is a locality and the seat of Boden Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 18,277 inhabitants in 2010. It is part of the larger area around coastal city Luleå some 36 kilometres (22 mi) southeast.

Båvrojávrre

Båvrojávrre is a lake that lies on the border between Norway and Sweden. Most of the 6.08-square-kilometre (2.35 sq mi) lake lies in Norway in Tysfjord Municipality in Nordland county. Only 0.61 square kilometres (0.24 sq mi) of the lake lies in Sweden in Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County. The lake Baugevatnet lies just to the north. The ending -jávrre is the Lule Sami word for lake.

Coop Norrbotten Arena

Coop Norrbotten Arena is an indoor sporting arena located in Luleå, Sweden. The seating capacity of the arena is 6,300, and it is the home arena of the Luleå HF ice hockey team.It was opened on 13 September 1970, and was called Delfinen ("The Dolphin") until 2002 when it was refurbished and the naming rights were sold to the local division of the Swedish retail company Kooperativa Förbundet, who renamed it Coop Arena. In 2009, it was renamed Coop Norrbotten Arena, although it's still occasionally referred to as "Coop Arena".The arena hosted the first semi-final of Melodifestivalen 2011 on 5 February 2011.

Gällivare

Gällivare (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈjɛlːɪvarɛ]; Finnish: Jällivaara; Northern Sami: Jiellevárri or Váhčir; Meänkieli: Jellivaara) is a locality and the seat of Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County, province of Lapland, Sweden with 8,449 inhabitants in 2010. The town was founded in the 17th century. Together with nearby towns Malmberget and Koskullskulle it forms a conurbation with some 15,000 inhabitants. This conurbation is the second northernmost significant urban area of Sweden after Kiruna.

Gällivare is situated at the northern end of the Inlandsbanan railway line, just about 100 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle. Gällivare is located in a major iron ore mining region.

Adjacent to Gällivare (about five kilometres) is Malmberget, known as a site for iron ore extraction from deep mines by LKAB.

Outside Gällivare lies the ski resort Dundret, which is equipped with six ski lifts and ten groomed slopes along with a conference center and hotel. The ski season stretches from the end of October all the way into early May. The town has been host for several World Cup skiing events, both alpine and cross-country.

Gällivare is the central place for the Firstborn Laestadian movement.

It was the host town for the 2008 VIVA World Cup.

Gällivare is twinned with Barga in Tuscany, Italy.

Gällivare was the filming spot for Avicii's single Addicted To you.

Haparanda FF

Haparanda FF is a football club located in Haparanda.

Hedens IF

Hedens IF is a Swedish football club located in Boden.

Hemmingsmarks IF

Hemmingsmarks IF is a Swedish football club located in Hemmingsmark in Piteå Municipality outside Piteå.

Kjårdavatnet

Tjårdavatnet or Kjårdavatnet (Norwegian) or Čoađgejávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) is a lake that is located on the border of Norway and Sweden, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of the village of Elvegård in Norway. The Norwegian side lies in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county and the Swedish side lies in Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County. The lake has an area of about 3.63 square kilometres (1.40 sq mi), with 3.5 square kilometres (1.4 sq mi) being in Norway, the tiny remainder is in Sweden.

Langvatnet (Tysfjord)

Langvatnet (Norwegian) or Tjoaddnejávrre (Lule Sami) is a lake that lies on the border between Norway and Sweden. Almost all of the lake is located in Tysfjord Municipality in Nordland county, Norway with a very small part of the lake in Jokkmokk Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The 5.46-square-kilometre (2.11 sq mi) lake is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of the village of Kjøpsvik in Tysfjord.

Leinavatn

Leinavatn (Norwegian) or Lenesjávri (Northern Sami) is a lake on the border between Norway and Sweden. It is almost entirely located in Bardu Municipality in Troms county in Norway, but a very small area crosses over into Kiruna Municipality in Norrbotten County in Sweden. The lake's area is 28.32 square kilometres (10.93 sq mi) and it sits at an elevation of 491 metres (1,611 ft) above sea level. Its shoreline measures 62.83 kilometres (39.04 mi).

Leirvatnet (Sørfold)

Leirvatnet is a lake located on the border between Norway and Sweden. The majority of the 2.57-square-kilometre (0.99 sq mi) lake lies in Sørfold Municipality in Nordland county, Norway, and the remaining 0.06 square kilometres (15 acres) of the lake are located in Jokkmokk Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The lake lies at one end of the large Blåmannsisen glacier.

Luleå

Luleå (Swedish: [ˈlʉːlɛɔ] (listen), locally [ˈlʉːlɛ] (listen); Westrobothnian: Lul, Leul, or Leol; Lule Sami: Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden. Luleå has about 75,000 inhabitants and is the seat of Luleå Municipality (with a total population of 76,770).

Luleå has the seventh biggest harbor in Sweden for shipping goods. It has a large steel industry and is a center for extensive research. Luleå University of Technology is one of Sweden’s three technology universities (the other two are KTH and Chalmers) and the northernmost university in Sweden.

Norrbotten County

Norrbotten County (Swedish: Norrbottens län; Finnish: Norrbottenin lääni) is the northernmost county or län of Sweden. It borders Västerbotten County to the southwest, the Gulf of Bothnia to the southeast. It also borders the counties of Nordland and Troms in Norway to the northwest, and Lapland Province in Finland to the northeast.

The name "Norrbotten" is also used for a province of the same name. Norrbotten province covers only the eastern part of Norrbotten County – the inland mostly belongs to the Swedish Lapland province (Lappland).

The northern part of Norrbotten lies within the Arctic Circle.

Piteå

Piteå is a locality and the seat of Piteå Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden.

Siiddašjávri

Siiddašjávricode: sme promoted to code: se (Northern Sami) or Sijdasjávrre (Lule Sami) or Sitasjaure (Swedish) is a lake on the border between Norway and Sweden. Only 0.96 square kilometres (0.37 sq mi) of the 71.91-square-kilometre (27.76 sq mi) lake lies in Norway and the vast majority of the lake lies in Sweden. The Norwegian side is located in Ballangen Municipality in Nordland county. The Swedish side is located in Gällivare Municipality in Norrbotten County. The name of the lake comes from the Sami languages, with the ending -jávri or -jávrre being the word for "lake".

Unna Guovdelisjávri

Unna Guovdelisjávri or Vuolip Čoarvejávri is a lake that is located on the border of Norway and Sweden. The Norwegian side lies in Narvik Municipality in Nordland county and the Swedish side lies in Kiruna Municipality in Norrbotten County. The lake lies just east of the lake Gautelisvatnet, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of the village of Elvegård in Norway. The ending -jávri is the word for "lake" in the Northern Sami language.

Veiki moraine

A Veiki moraine (Swedish: Veikimorän) is a type of moraine found in northern Sweden, Finnmark in Norway, and parts of Canada. This moraine is characterized by forming a hummocky landscape of irregular moraine plateaus with elevated rims that are intercalated with ponds. Gunnar Hoppe was the first to define the Veiki moraine concept in 1952, naming it after a locality consisting of two farms located about 10 kilometers north of Gällivare and Malmberget. To the east in Finnish Lapland, a moraine type similar to Veiki moraine but smaller is known as Pulju moraine since 1967.The disposition of the Veiki moraines reflects the last glacier movements before an ice sheet retreats, and their final form is given by the melting of dead-ice and the development and sedimentation of glacial lagoons between dead-ice cored rims during interstadial periods. In the case of the Veiki moraines of Sweden, the interstadial during which the lagoons sedimented is believed to have occurred in the early Weichsel glaciation. Thus, the Veiki moraines of Sweden are a relict landform that has largely survived later glacier action.

Vuolep Sårjåsjávrre

Vuolep Sårjåsjávrre (English: Lower Lake Sårjås) is a lake which lies on the border between Norway and Sweden. The western part lies in Fauske Municipality in Nordland county, Norway, and the eastern part lies in Jokkmokk Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden. The 7.17-square-kilometre (2.77 sq mi) lake lies just to the east of the large Blåmannsisen glacier and smaller neighboring lake Bajep Sårjåsjávrre (Upper Lake Sårjås).

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