Norman Friedman, Ph.D., is an American author and naval analyst. He has written over 30 books on naval matters, and appeared on television programs on PBS and the Discovery Networks.
|Occupation||Writer, Analyst, Historian|
|Period||World War I, World War II, Modern Age|
Friedman holds a doctorate in theoretical physics from Columbia University. From 1973 to 1984, he was at the Hudson Institute, becoming Deputy Director for National Security Affairs. He then worked for the United States Navy as in-house consultant. From 2002 to 2004, he served as a futurologist for the United States Marine Corps.
The C class was a class of 32 destroyers of the Royal Navy that were launched from 1943 to 1945. The class was built in four flotillas of 8 vessels, the "Ca", "Ch", "Co" and "Cr" groups or sub-classes, ordered as the 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th Emergency Flotillas respectively. The sub-class names are derived from the initial 2 letters of the member ships' names, although the "Ca" class were originally ordered with a heterogeneous mix of traditional destroyer names. A fifth flotilla, the "Ce" or 15th Emergency Flotilla, was planned but were cancelled in favour of the Weapon-class destroyers after only the first two ships had been ordered. The pennant numbers were all altered from "R" superior to "D" superior at the close of World War II; this involved some renumbering to avoid duplications.Chikugo-class destroyer escort
The Chikugo-class destroyer escort (or frigate) was a class of destroyer escorts built by the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force as the successor of the Isuzu class, with the same ASW mission. This class was followed by JDS Ishikari. This is the first Japanese destroyer escort class to carry ASROC anti-submarine missiles.
The class entered service with Chikugo in 1971. Eleven ships were constructed and saw service until the mid-1990s and early 2000s. All vessels in the class were retired with Noshiro being the last to decommission in 2003.Cleveland-class cruiser
The Cleveland class was a group of light cruisers built for the U.S. Navy during World War II, and were the most numerous class of light cruisers ever built.Commerce raiding
Commerce raiding is a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them.
It is also known, in French, as guerre de course (literally, "war of the chase") and, in German, Handelskrieg ("trade war"), from the nations most heavily committed to it historically as a strategy.Cuban packages
The Cuban packages (1972) was a Chilean smuggling scandal, involving President Salvador Allende, his Minister of the Interior, Hernán del Canto and the Director of the Civil Police Eduardo Paredes. It was cited by the authors of the Chamber of Deputies' Declaration of the Breakdown of Chile’s Democracy as one of the instances of government officials' illegality.The packages turned out to have contained automatic weapons, grenades and ammunition destined to form a small "revolutionary" army in Chile. These specific packages were just the tip of the iceberg of a constant smuggling of weapons from Cuba that were delivered regularly twice a week via Cubana de Aviación, hidden inside the diplomatic pouches.EL/M-2226
EL/M-2226 is an over-the-horizon radar system developed by Israel Aerospace Industries. It is used for both civilian and military coastal monitoring.EL/M-2238 STAR
The EL/M-2238 3D-STAR is a multi-purpose air and surface-search naval radar system developed by IAI Elta for medium-sized ships like corvettes and frigates. STAR is an acronym of Surveillance & Threat Alert Radar.Fargo-class cruiser
The Fargo-class cruisers were a modified version of the Cleveland-class cruiser design; the main difference was a more compact pyramidal superstructure with single trunked funnel, intended to improve the arcs of fire of the anti-aircraft (AA) guns. The same type of modification differentiated the Baltimore and Oregon City classes of heavy cruisers. Changes were made in order to reduce the instability of the Cleveland-class light cruisers, especially their tendency to roll dangerously. The main battery turrets sat about a foot lower and the wing gunhouses (the 5 inch, twin gun mounts on the sides of the ship) were lowered to the main deck. The medium (40 mm) anti-aircraft mounts were also lowered.In all, 13 ships of the class were planned but only Fargo and Huntington were ever completed, the rest being cancelled at varying states of completion with the de-escalation and eventual end of World War II.Fargo, the lead ship of the class, was launched on 25 February 1945, but was not commissioned until 9 December 1945, shortly after the war ended. Huntington was commissioned early in 1946. The two ships were decommissioned in 1949-1950, and never reactivated.Heavy artillery in the Royal Romanian Armed Forces
Throughout the existence of the Kingdom of Romania, its Army and Navy employed numerous pieces of heavy artillery (150 mm or greater).John C. Butler-class destroyer escort
The John C. Butler class were destroyer escorts that originated during World War II. The lead ship was USS John C. Butler, commissioned on 31 March 1944. The class was also known as the WGT type from their Westinghouse geared turbine drive. Of the 293 ships originally planned, 206 were canceled in 1944 and a further four after being laid down; three were not completed until after the end of World War II.Kingfisher-class sloop
The Kingfisher class was a class of nine patrol sloops of the British Royal Navy built in three groups of three each during the 1930s, that saw service during World War II, mainly on East coast convoys in the North Sea.Landing Craft Mechanized
The landing craft mechanized (LCM) also landing craft mechanical is a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles. They came to prominence during the Second World War when they were used to land troops or tanks during Allied amphibious assaults.New Mexico-class battleship
The New Mexico-class battleships of the United States Navy, all three of whose construction began in 1915, were improvements on the design introduced three years earlier with the Nevada class.
The twelve-gun main battery of the preceding Pennsylvania class was retained, but with longer 14-inch (356 mm)/50 caliber guns in improved triple turrets. Hull design was also upgraded with a 'clipper' bow for better seakeeping and a sleeker look. One ship, New Mexico, was fitted with turbo-electric propulsion.
Though eight secondary battery guns were located in extremely wet bow and stern positions and were soon removed, the rest of the ships' 5-inch (127 mm)/51 caliber guns were mounted in the superstructure, a great improvement over earlier U.S. Navy battleships' arrangements.Norman L. Friedman
Norman Friedman is an American sociologist and the former chairman of the Department of Sociology at California State University, Los Angeles.Oregon City-class cruiser
The Oregon City class was a class of heavy cruisers of the United States Navy. Although it was intended to build ten, only four were completed – one of those as a command ship. The three ships completed as cruisers were in commission from 1946 to 1970.Rudderow-class destroyer escort
The Rudderow-class destroyer escorts were destroyer escorts launched in the United States in 1943 to 1945. Of this class, 22 were completed as destroyer escorts, and 50 were completed as Crosley-class high speed transports and were re-classified as high speed transport APDs. One ship was converted to an APD after completion. They served in World War II as convoy escorts and anti-submarine warfare ships.Sa'ar 3-class missile boat
The Sa'ar 3 class ("Cherbourg") is a series of missile boats built in Cherbourg, France at the Amiot Shipyard based on Israeli Navy modification of the German Navy's Jaguar-class fast attack craft. They are also known as the stars of Cherbourg.Stenka-class patrol boat
The Stenka class is the NATO reporting name for a class of patrol boats built for the Soviet Navy and Soviet Allies. The Soviet designation was Project 205P Tarantul (not to be confused with the Tarantul-class corvette). The boats are an anti-submarine (ASW) patrol boat version of the Osa-class missile boat.Van Amstel-class frigate
The Van Amstel-class was a class of 6 frigates that were built during the Second World War in the United States and served as destroyer Escort during that war. After the war the destroyer escorts were loaned to the Dutch navy as part of the MDAP and from 1950 to 1967 served as the Van Amstel-class frigates.