Nordic League

The Nordic League was a far right organisation in the United Kingdom from 1935 to 1939 that sought to serve as a co-ordinating body for the various extremist movements whilst also seeking to promote Nazism. The League was a private organisation that did not organise any public events.[1]


The Nordic League (NL) originated in 1935 when agents of Alfred Rosenberg's Nordische Gesellschaft arrived in Britain to establish a UK version of their movement.[2] The main force behind this new group was Unionist MP Archibald Maule Ramsay who chaired the group's 14-man leadership council.[3] The group's constitution described it as an "association of race conscious Britons" and sought to co-ordinate all far-right and fascist movements whilst giving particular emphasis to anti-Semitism.[3]

The League sought to unite leading figures from across the far right, as demonstrated in April 1939 when a meeting addressed by Ramsay was chaired by a member of the British Union of Fascists who was supported by former British Fascists president R. B. D. Blakeney and Imperial Fascist League member E. H. Cole.[1] Other leading members included J. F. C. Fuller, the United Empire Fascist Party leader and Nazi agent Serocold Skeels, Henry Hamilton Beamish, Arnold Leese and P. J. Ridout.[3] The latter was credited with helping to popularise the NL's slogan "Perish Judah", which was frequently rendered "P.J." in public.[4]

BUF leader Oswald Mosley, fearful of being too closely associated with the League's extremist rhetoric, did not join but he permitted party members to do so which the likes of Fuller, Robert Gordon-Canning and Oliver C. Gilbert did readily.[2] As a result of these links the BUF was able to absorb the National Socialist Workers Party, a small group led by NL member Lieutenant-Colonel Graham Seton-Hutchison.[5]

Front groups

The NL was closely linked to the White Knights of Britain, a secret society otherwise known as the Hooded Men with ritual initiation based on Freemasonry and compared to the Ku Klux Klan that was active from 1935 to 1937.[6] The White Knights and the NL shared the same building as their headquarters.[2] Another group, the Militant Christian Patriots, that was active after the Munich Crisis urging Neville Chamberlain not to become involved in a "Jewish war", was also closely connected to the NL and said by MI5 to be a front organisation.[3] By using this group and another front organisation, the Liberty Restoration League, the NL was able to ensure that high-ranking figures such as the Duke of Wellington, the Duchess of Hamilton, Baron Brocket, and Michael O'Dwyer became involved in their movement.[5]

Response and demise

The NL came under increasing scrutiny after Kristallnacht, particularly for the violence of Ramsay, William Joyce and A. K. Chesterton in their anti-Semitic speeches.[7] Others such as Elwin Wright, who until 1937 was secretary of the Anglo-German Fellowship, called for the shooting of Jews, whilst Commander E. H. Cole condemned the House of Commons as being full of "bastardised Jewish swine".[7] However, such extremist language worked against the NL because its speakers were seen by the public at large as quite mad and so their pro-appeasement arguments were ignored.[8]

Following the outbreak of the Second World War, two leading members, T. Victor-Rowe and Oliver Gilbert, were interned, and the NL largely went into abeyance, with members joining other, more public, anti-war groups.[8] The League had officially disbanded as soon as war was declared although it continued to meet secretly at Gilbert's house until his arrest in late September 1939.[9] Two of its members, Joyce and Margaret Bothamley, left Britain for Nazi Germany after the outbreak of war.[10] Given the association of the NL with Nazism, BUF organiser Alexander Raven Thomson even suggested that Mosley publicly denounce the League as traitors in an attempt to present a more patriotic image, although Defence Regulation 18B came into force before this could be attempted.[11]


  1. ^ a b Benewick, p. 289
  2. ^ a b c Dorril, p. 425
  3. ^ a b c d Thurlow, p. 80
  4. ^ Thurlow, p. 81
  5. ^ a b Dorril, p. 426
  6. ^ Thurlow, pp. 80-81
  7. ^ a b Thurlow, p. 82
  8. ^ a b Thurlow, p. 83
  9. ^ Dorril, p. 465
  10. ^ Thurlow, pp. 170-171
  11. ^ Dorril, p. 493


  • Benewick, Robert, Political Violence and Public Order, Allan Lane, 1969
  • Dorril, Stephen, Blackshirt: Sir Oswald Mosley & British Fascism, Penguin Books, 2007
  • Thurlow, Richard, Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918-1985, Basil Blackwell, 1987

External links

Alps Tour

The Alps Tour is a developmental professional golf tour for men which is sanctioned by the national golf associations of France, Italy, Austria, Switzerland and Morocco. Established in 2001, it is a third level tour, the highest level of men's golf in Europe being the European Tour, and the second level being the Challenge Tour. Other third level tours in Europe include the United Kingdom-based PGA EuroPro Tour, the Germany-based Pro Golf Tour, and the Nordic League in the Nordic countries. Beginning in July 2015, the four third-level tours will carry Official World Golf Ranking points.Like the other third-tier European tours, the top ten players on the Order of Merit are exempt through the second stage of European Tour Qualifying School, and the top five win playing privileges on the Challenge Tour.

Alumni who have gone on to win on the European Tour include Marco Crespi, Guido Migliozzi, Chris Paisley, Julien Quesne, and Matt Wallace.

Henry Hamilton Beamish

Henry Hamilton Beamish (2 June 1873 – 27 March 1948) was a leading British antisemite and the founder of The Britons.

The son of Rear-Admiral Henry Hamilton Beamish, who had served as an A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, Beamish was born in London. He served in the Second Boer War as captain and settled in South Africa afterwards. However, he left the country, having decided that the Jews held too much influence there.Returning to London in 1918, Beamish set up The Britons as a specifically antisemitic propaganda organisation and also became involved with the Silver Badge Party. He ran as an independent in a 1918 by-election in Clapham on an anti-immigrant platform, supported by right-wing MP Noel Pemberton Billing, but did not win, receiving 43% of the votes cast. Along with Lieutenant-Commander E.M. Frazer, Beamish produced a poster in 1919 denouncing Commissioner of Works Sir Alfred Mond (Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett) as a traitor. This poster resulted in a libel suit filed by Mond, who was successful and was awarded £5000, although Beamish left Britain without paying.Following his departure from Britain, Beamish travelled the world preaching anti-Semitism. He was one of the earliest developers of the Madagascar Plan for Jewish deportation. He spoke in Germany, where he claimed, rather dubiously, to have taught Adolf Hitler. In the early 1920s Beamish announced that "Bolshevism was Judaism." He served as vice-president of the Imperial Fascist League for a time and was a member of the Nordic League. In 1932 he addressed a meeting of the New Party alongside Arnold Leese on the subject of "The Blindness of British Politics under the Jew Money-Power", although he otherwise had little involvement with the initiatives of Oswald Mosley.Described by a judge in South Africa in 1934 as an "anti-Jewish fanatic"., Beamish travelled to the United States in 1935, where he was actively working as a representative of the German government as a Nazi agent. In September 1936 he visited Japan, and then spoke at a meeting of the Canadian Nationalist Party in Winnipeg in 1936. before embarking on a major lecture tour of Nazi Germany as a guest of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. He met fellow fanatical anti-Semite Julius Streicher in Nuremberg in January 1937. In the same year he spoke at several meetings in North America with Canadian fascist leader Adrien Arcand, including some organized by the German American Bund.Eventually he settled in 1938 in Southern Rhodesia, where he served as an independent MP and was interned in 1940 for his pro-Nazi sentiments. He remained president of The Britons until his death in Southern Rhodesia in 1948.

Jan-Are Larsen

Jan-Are Larsen (born 18 May 1976) is a Norwegian professional golfer.

Having shown promise as an amateur golfer, Larsen earned a scholarship to play on the golf team at the University of Alabama. Upon graduating in 2002, he entered qualifying school for the European Tour as an amateur, and was successful in claiming the fifth card for the full tour. However, his debut professional season was a struggle, making only seven cuts and failing to retain his card. Since then, Larsen has progressed to the European Tour twice more via qualifying school, but has mostly played on the second-tier Challenge Tour, where he has recorded two runner-up finishes. His best season on the European Tour has been 2008, when he finished 146th in the Order of Merit.

Larsen also has two professional wins on the Scandinavian Nordic League circuit.

Joachim B. Hansen

Joachim Brandt Hansen (born 18 August 1990) is a Danish professional golfer who currently plays on the European Tour.

Hansen was born in Hillerød. He took up golf at the age of 12 enjoyed a successful amateur career which culminated with representing his country, and being the lowest-scoring player in the 2010 Eisenhower Trophy. He turned professional following this performance, earning a place on the Challenge Tour after three runner-up finishes on the third-tier Nordic League in 2011.

A further three runner-up finishes at Challenge Tour level, during Hansen's rookie 2012 season, earned him fourth place in the season-ending rankings and a further promotion to the European Tour. His best performance to date at this level has been a tie for third at the Aberdeen Asset Management Scottish Open, where he briefly led late in the final round despite carding a quadruple-bogey nine at his second hole.

Joakim Bäckström

Joakim Bäckström (born 16 March 1978) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Bäckström was born in Umeå. He turned professional in 1999.

Having failed to win a place on the European Tour in 2000, Bäckström spent his early career in Sweden on the Telia Tour, where he won the 2001 Gula Sidorna Grand Open and the 2002 Sunbyholm Open. He also picked up five wins in Denmark during 2003 and 2004.

Bäckström finally joined the European Tour in 2005 after coming through the 2004 qualifying school final stage, and won the Aa St Omer Open during his rookie season. However he has struggled to establish himself after that, never finishing inside the top 100 on the Order of Merit, and lost his tour card at the end of 2008.

Joakim Lagergren

Joakim Lagergren (born 15 November 1991) is a Swedish professional golfer who currently plays on the Challenge Tour having previously played on the European Tour.

Johan Edfors

Johan Edfors (born 10 October 1975) is a Swedish professional golfer who plays primarily on the European Tour.

Edfors was born in Varberg. He attended the University of Texas at San Antonio on a Division I athletic scholarship for men's golf. He played for the team under the coaching of Barry Denton for two years.

Edfors turned professional in 1997. He spent several years playing the second tier Challenge Tour, but failed to make the top hundred on the Order of Merit until 2003, when he won twice and topped the Challenge Tour Order of Merit. He narrowly failed to hold on to his tour card in 2004, but at the end of 2005 he regained it at the Final Qualifying School.

In 2006, Edfors achieved a maiden European Tour win at the TCL Classic and quickly followed up by winning the more prestigious Quinn Direct British Masters and the Scottish Open. His three victories took him into the top 50 of the Official World Golf Rankings in July 2006, and he finished the year placed 10th on the European Order of Merit.

Edfors had to wait almost three years for his next victory, which he achieved at the inaugural Black Mountain Masters in Thailand on the Asian Tour.

Edfors is known for being a big hitter averaging over 300 yards.

Kristoffer Broberg

Kristoffer Broberg (born 1 August 1986) is a Swedish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour.

Leif Westerberg

Leif Westerberg (born 28 August 1974) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Westerberg was born in Stockholm and turned professional in 1997. He has played predominantly on Europe's second tier Challenge Tour where he has won two tournaments. He has graduated from the Challenge Tour twice, in 2004 and 2007, when he finished 7th and 5th respectively on the end of season rankings. Both in 2005 and 2008 he failed to win enough money to retain his card on the top level European Tour, although he came through qualifying school in 2005 to regain his playing status for the 2006 season, when he finished a career high of 131st on the Order of Merit.

Magnus A. Carlsson

Magnus A. Carlsson (born 21 August 1980) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Carlsson was born in Västerås, Sweden. He turned professional in 2001.

Carlsson played on the Challenge Tour from 2003 to 2007. He secured his first ever professional win in 2007 at the Challenge of Ireland. He went on to finish seventh in the Challenge Tour Order of Merit that same year, ensuring he would play on the European Tour in 2008.

In his debut season on the European Tour, Carlsson was edged out in a playoff at the Joburg Open by Richard Sterne. He returned to the Challenge Tour in 2010, and again in 2012 and successfully regained his European Tour playing rights each time.

Mattias Eliasson

Mattias Eliasson (born 2 April 1975) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Morten Hagen

Morten Hagen (born 6 August 1974) is a Norwegian professional golfer. His home club is Vestfold Golfklubb.

Hagen has spent most of his career playing in events on the various Scandinavian tours, where he has collected several victories and finished top of the Nordic League Ranking in 2005. He has also played many events over the course of six seasons on the second tier Challenge Tour, winning the Telia Challenge Waxholm in 2005. He has made just two appearances on the European Tour, the first in the 2005 Abama Open de Canarias and the second in 2006 at the OSIM Singapore Masters.

Morten Ørum Madsen

Morten Ørum Madsen (born 9 April 1988) is a Danish professional golfer. He played on the European Tour from 2013 to 2016, winning the South African Open Championship in late 2013.

Nordic Golf League

The Nordic Golf League is one of the four PGA European Tour-recognised third-tier men's professional golf tours that are known as the Satellite Tours. The top five players on the rankings list at the end of each season earn a place on the second tier Challenge Tour for the following year.The Nordic Golf League is based in Scandinavia, and consists primarily of tournaments on the national tours of Denmark (Ecco Tour) and Sweden (Swedish Golf Tour).

Beginning in July 2015, Nordic Golf League tournaments carry Official World Golf Ranking points.Alumni who went on to win on the European Tour include Lucas Bjerregaard, Alexander Björk, Kristoffer Broberg, Rikard Karlberg, Mikko Korhonen, Morten Ørum Madsen, Christian Nilsson, and Thorbjørn Olesen.

Patrik Sjöland

Patrik Sjöland (born 13 May 1971) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Sjöland was born in Borås. He turned professional in 1990 and after several season on the second tier Challenge Tour, graduated to the European Tour for the start of the 1996 season. His most successful year by far was 1998, when he finished 5th on the European Tour Order of Merit and featured in the top 50 of the Official World Golf Rankings. After a poor 2005 season, during which he slipped outside the top 100 on the Order of Merit and lost his European Tour card, he took a break from the tour, playing just two tournaments in 2006.Sjöland secured a return to the European Tour at the end of season qualifying school season in 2006. He was unable to regain his early career form during 2007 and returned to qualifying school at the end of the year where he again regained his card, helped by a holed 7 iron for eagle during the final round. Having again missed out on retaining his card again in 2008, he was not able to repeat the trick and would have limited opportunities in 2009.

Sjöland has won twice on the European Tour, the first title coming in the 1998 Italian Open and the second in the 2000 Irish Open. He has won several other tournaments around the world, including the 1999 Hong Kong Open.

Rikard Karlberg

Rikard Karlberg (born 1 December 1986) is a Swedish professional golfer.

Karlberg was born in Gothenburg. He turned professional in 2006. He topped the Nordic League rankings in 2007 to earn a tour card on the Challenge Tour. His best finish on the Challenge Tour was T4 at the 2008 Reale Challenge de España.

Karlberg earned his 2010 Asian Tour card through qualifying school. He won the second Asian Tour event he played, the SAIL Open. Later in the year, he won his second Asian Tour title at the Hero Honda Indian Open.

Karlberg earned a 2015 European Tour card through qualifying school, and won the Open d'Italia during his rookie season.

Steen Tinning

Steen Tinning (born 7 October 1962) is a Danish professional golfer who plays on the European Senior Tour.

Tinning was born in Copenhagen. After a successful amateur career he turned professional in 1985 and soon won a place on the European Tour. This career was interrupted when he and his wife were involved in a multiple car crash in Germany in 1990, which badly damaged his right arm. He recovered and went on to win two European Tour events, the 2000 Celtic Manor Resort Wales Open and the 2002 Telefonica Open de Madrid. His last season on the European Tour was 2003, and his best year-end ranking on the Order of Merit was 30th in 2000. He represented his country in international team competitions several times.

In 2013 Tinning won twice on the European Senior Tour, his rookie season on that tour. In August he captured his maiden victory at the Berenberg Masters. In October he won the English Senior Open.

Steven Jeppesen

Steven Jeppesen (born 22 April 1984) is a Danish-born Swedish professional golfer.

Thorbjørn Olesen

Jacob Thorbjørn Olesen (born 21 December 1989) is a Danish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour, where he has won five times including the 2016 Turkish Airlines Open and the 2018 Italian Open. He has also won two important pairs events, representing Denmark, the 2016 World Cup of Golf with Søren Kjeldsen and the 2017 GolfSixes with Lucas Bjerregaard.

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