Nordic League

The Nordic League was a far right organisation in the United Kingdom from 1935 to 1939 that sought to serve as a co-ordinating body for the various extremist movements whilst also seeking to promote Nazism. The League was a private organisation that did not organise any public events.[1]

Development

The Nordic League (NL) originated in 1935 when agents of Alfred Rosenberg's Nordische Gesellschaft arrived in Britain to establish a UK version of their movement.[2] The main force behind this new group was Unionist MP Archibald Maule Ramsay who chaired the group's 14-man leadership council.[3] The group's constitution described it as an "association of race conscious Britons" and sought to co-ordinate all far-right and fascist movements whilst giving particular emphasis to anti-Semitism.[3]

The League sought to unite leading figures from across the far right, as demonstrated in April 1939 when a meeting addressed by Ramsay was chaired by a member of the British Union of Fascists who was supported by former British Fascists president R. B. D. Blakeney and Imperial Fascist League member E. H. Cole.[1] Other leading members included J. F. C. Fuller, the United Empire Fascist Party leader and Nazi agent Serocold Skeels, Henry Hamilton Beamish, Arnold Leese and P. J. Ridout.[3] The latter was credited with helping to popularise the NL's slogan "Perish Judah", which was frequently rendered "P.J." in public.[4]

BUF leader Oswald Mosley, fearful of being too closely associated with the League's extremist rhetoric, did not join but he permitted party members to do so which the likes of Fuller, Robert Gordon-Canning and Oliver C. Gilbert did readily.[2] As a result of these links the BUF was able to absorb the National Socialist Workers Party, a small group led by NL member Lieutenant-Colonel Graham Seton-Hutchison.[5]

Front groups

The NL was closely linked to the White Knights of Britain, a secret society otherwise known as the Hooded Men with ritual initiation based on Freemasonry and compared to the Ku Klux Klan that was active from 1935 to 1937.[6] The White Knights and the NL shared the same building as their headquarters.[2] Another group, the Militant Christian Patriots, that was active after the Munich Crisis urging Neville Chamberlain not to become involved in a "Jewish war", was also closely connected to the NL and said by MI5 to be a front organisation.[3] By using this group and another front organisation, the Liberty Restoration League, the NL was able to ensure that high-ranking figures such as the Duke of Wellington, the Duchess of Hamilton, Baron Brocket, and Michael O'Dwyer became involved in their movement.[5]

Response and demise

The NL came under increasing scrutiny after Kristallnacht, particularly for the violence of Ramsay, William Joyce and A. K. Chesterton in their anti-Semitic speeches.[7] Others such as Elwin Wright, who until 1937 was secretary of the Anglo-German Fellowship, called for the shooting of Jews, whilst Commander E. H. Cole condemned the House of Commons as being full of "bastardised Jewish swine".[7] However, such extremist language worked against the NL because its speakers were seen by the public at large as quite mad and so their pro-appeasement arguments were ignored.[8]

Following the outbreak of the Second World War, two leading members, T. Victor-Rowe and Oliver Gilbert, were interned, and the NL largely went into abeyance, with members joining other, more public, anti-war groups.[8] The League had officially disbanded as soon as war was declared although it continued to meet secretly at Gilbert's house until his arrest in late September 1939.[9] Two of its members, Joyce and Margaret Bothamley, left Britain for Nazi Germany after the outbreak of war.[10] Given the association of the NL with Nazism, BUF organiser Alexander Raven Thomson even suggested that Mosley publicly denounce the League as traitors in an attempt to present a more patriotic image, although Defence Regulation 18B came into force before this could be attempted.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b Benewick, p. 289
  2. ^ a b c Dorril, p. 425
  3. ^ a b c d Thurlow, p. 80
  4. ^ Thurlow, p. 81
  5. ^ a b Dorril, p. 426
  6. ^ Thurlow, pp. 80-81
  7. ^ a b Thurlow, p. 82
  8. ^ a b Thurlow, p. 83
  9. ^ Dorril, p. 465
  10. ^ Thurlow, pp. 170-171
  11. ^ Dorril, p. 493

Bibliography

  • Benewick, Robert, Political Violence and Public Order, Allan Lane, 1969
  • Dorril, Stephen, Blackshirt: Sir Oswald Mosley & British Fascism, Penguin Books, 2007
  • Thurlow, Richard, Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918-1985, Basil Blackwell, 1987

External links

Alps Tour

The Alps Tour is a developmental professional golf tour for men which is sanctioned by the national golf associations of France, Italy, Austria, Switzerland and Morocco. Established in 2001, it is a third level tour, the highest level of men's golf in Europe being the European Tour, and the second level being the Challenge Tour. Other third level tours in Europe include the United Kingdom-based PGA EuroPro Tour, the Germany-based Pro Golf Tour, and the Nordic League in the Nordic countries. Beginning in July 2015, the four third-level tours will carry Official World Golf Ranking points.Like the other third-tier European tours, the top ten players on the Order of Merit are exempt through the second stage of European Tour Qualifying School, and the top five win playing privileges on the Challenge Tour.

Alumni who have gone on to win on the European Tour include Marco Crespi, Guido Migliozzi, Chris Paisley, Julien Quesne, and Matt Wallace.

Henry Hamilton Beamish

Henry Hamilton Beamish (2 June 1873 – 27 March 1948) was a leading British antisemite and the founder of The Britons.

The son of Rear-Admiral Henry Hamilton Beamish, who had served as an A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, Beamish was born in London. He served in the Second Boer War as captain and settled in South Africa afterwards. However, he left the country, having decided that the Jews held too much influence there.Returning to London in 1918, Beamish set up The Britons as a specifically antisemitic propaganda organisation and also became involved with the Silver Badge Party. He ran as an independent in a 1918 by-election in Clapham on an anti-immigrant platform, supported by right-wing MP Noel Pemberton Billing, but did not win, receiving 43% of the votes cast. Along with Lieutenant-Commander E.M. Frazer, Beamish produced a poster in 1919 denouncing Commissioner of Works Sir Alfred Mond (Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett) as a traitor. This poster resulted in a libel suit filed by Mond, who was successful and was awarded £5000, although Beamish left Britain without paying.Following his departure from Britain, Beamish travelled the world preaching anti-Semitism. He was one of the earliest developers of the Madagascar Plan for Jewish deportation. He spoke in Germany, where he claimed, rather dubiously, to have taught Adolf Hitler. In the early 1920s Beamish announced that "Bolshevism was Judaism." He served as vice-president of the Imperial Fascist League for a time and was a member of the Nordic League. In 1932 he addressed a meeting of the New Party alongside Arnold Leese on the subject of "The Blindness of British Politics under the Jew Money-Power", although he otherwise had little involvement with the initiatives of Oswald Mosley.Described by a judge in South Africa in 1934 as an "anti-Jewish fanatic"., Beamish travelled to the United States in 1935, where he was actively working as a representative of the German government as a Nazi agent. In September 1936 he visited Japan, and then spoke at a meeting of the Canadian Nationalist Party in Winnipeg in 1936. before embarking on a major lecture tour of Nazi Germany as a guest of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. He met fellow fanatical anti-Semite Julius Streicher in Nuremberg in January 1937. In the same year he spoke at several meetings in North America with Canadian fascist leader Adrien Arcand, including some organized by the German American Bund.Eventually he settled in 1938 in Southern Rhodesia, where he served as an independent MP and was interned in 1940 for his pro-Nazi sentiments. He remained president of The Britons until his death in Southern Rhodesia in 1948.

Jan-Are Larsen

Jan-Are Larsen (born 18 May 1976) is a Norwegian professional golfer.

Having shown promise as an amateur golfer, Larsen earned a scholarship to play on the golf team at the University of Alabama. Upon graduating in 2002, he entered qualifying school for the European Tour as an amateur, and was successful in claiming the fifth card for the full tour. However, his debut professional season was a struggle, making only seven cuts and failing to retain his card. Since then, Larsen has progressed to the European Tour twice more via qualifying school, but has mostly played on the second-tier Challenge Tour, where he has recorded two runner-up finishes. His best season on the European Tour has been 2008, when he finished 146th in the Order of Merit.

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A further three runner-up finishes at Challenge Tour level, during Hansen's rookie 2012 season, earned him fourth place in the season-ending rankings and a further promotion to the European Tour. His best performance to date at this level has been a tie for third at the Aberdeen Asset Management Scottish Open, where he briefly led late in the final round despite carding a quadruple-bogey nine at his second hole.

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Bäckström finally joined the European Tour in 2005 after coming through the 2004 qualifying school final stage, and won the Aa St Omer Open during his rookie season. However he has struggled to establish himself after that, never finishing inside the top 100 on the Order of Merit, and lost his tour card at the end of 2008.

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In 2006, Edfors achieved a maiden European Tour win at the TCL Classic and quickly followed up by winning the more prestigious Quinn Direct British Masters and the Scottish Open. His three victories took him into the top 50 of the Official World Golf Rankings in July 2006, and he finished the year placed 10th on the European Order of Merit.

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Edfors is known for being a big hitter averaging over 300 yards.

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Magnus A. Carlsson

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Carlsson was born in Västerås, Sweden. He turned professional in 2001.

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Morten Hagen

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Beginning in July 2015, Nordic Golf League tournaments carry Official World Golf Ranking points.Alumni who went on to win on the European Tour include Lucas Bjerregaard, Alexander Björk, Kristoffer Broberg, Rikard Karlberg, Mikko Korhonen, Morten Ørum Madsen, Christian Nilsson, and Thorbjørn Olesen.

Patrik Sjöland

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Rikard Karlberg

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Karlberg earned his 2010 Asian Tour card through qualifying school. He won the second Asian Tour event he played, the SAIL Open. Later in the year, he won his second Asian Tour title at the Hero Honda Indian Open.

Karlberg earned a 2015 European Tour card through qualifying school, and won the Open d'Italia during his rookie season.

Steen Tinning

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Tinning was born in Copenhagen. After a successful amateur career he turned professional in 1985 and soon won a place on the European Tour. This career was interrupted when he and his wife were involved in a multiple car crash in Germany in 1990, which badly damaged his right arm. He recovered and went on to win two European Tour events, the 2000 Celtic Manor Resort Wales Open and the 2002 Telefonica Open de Madrid. His last season on the European Tour was 2003, and his best year-end ranking on the Order of Merit was 30th in 2000. He represented his country in international team competitions several times.

In 2013 Tinning won twice on the European Senior Tour, his rookie season on that tour. In August he captured his maiden victory at the Berenberg Masters. In October he won the English Senior Open.

Steven Jeppesen

Steven Jeppesen (born 22 April 1984) is a Danish-born Swedish professional golfer.

Thorbjørn Olesen

Jacob Thorbjørn Olesen (born 21 December 1989) is a Danish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour, where he has won five times including the 2016 Turkish Airlines Open and the 2018 Italian Open. He has also won two important pairs events, representing Denmark, the 2016 World Cup of Golf with Søren Kjeldsen and the 2017 GolfSixes with Lucas Bjerregaard.

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