Leeds, Ritter, Mitchell, & Long (2002) have distinguished between the concept of the terms non-aggression pact and neutrality pact. Leeds et al. (2002) posit that the term non-aggression pact is considered to be a pact that includes the promise not to attack the other pact signatories, whereas, according to Leeds et al. (2002), a neutrality pact includes a promise to avoid support of any entity that acts against the interests of any of the pact signatories. The most readily recognized example of the aforementioned entity is another country, nation-state, or sovereign organization that represents a negative consequence towards the advantages held by one or more of the signatory parties.
In the 19th century neutrality pacts have historically been used to give permission for one signatory of the pact to attack or attempt to negatively influence an entity not protected by the neutrality pact. The participants of the neutrality pact agree not to attempt to counteract an act of aggression waged by a pact signatory towards an entity not protected under the terms of the pact. Possible motivations for such acts by one or more of the pacts' signatories include a desire to take, or expand, control of, economic resources, militarily important locations, etc.
Such pacts were a popular form of international agreement in the 1920s and 1930s, but have largely fallen out of use after the Second World War. Since the implementation of a non-aggression pact necessarily depends on the good faith of the parties, the international community, following the Second World War, adopted the norm of multilateral collective security agreements, such as the treaties establishing NATO, ANZUS, SEATO and Warsaw Pact.
An example of non-aggression pact is the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. The Pact lasted until the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.
The 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania was an oral ultimatum which Joachim von Ribbentrop, Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany, presented to Juozas Urbšys, Foreign Minister of Lithuania on 20 March 1939. The Germans demanded that Lithuania give up the Klaipėda Region (also known as the Memel Territory) which had been detached from Germany after World War I, or the Wehrmacht would invade Lithuania. The Lithuanians had been expecting the demand after years of rising tension between Lithuania and Germany, increasing pro-Nazi propaganda in the region, and continued German expansion. It was issued just five days after the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia. The 1924 Klaipėda Convention had guaranteed the protection of the status quo in the region, but the four signatories to that convention did not offer any material assistance. The United Kingdom and France followed a policy of appeasement, while Italy and Japan openly supported Germany, and Lithuania was forced to accept the ultimatum on 22 March. It proved to be the last territorial acquisition for Germany before World War II, producing a major downturn in Lithuania's economy and escalating pre-war tensions for Europe as a whole.Anglo-Thai Non-Aggression Pact
The Anglo-Thai Non-Aggression Pact was concluded in Bangkok on 12 June 1940 between the governments of the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Thailand. It was concluded as part of the British policy at that time of refraining from resisting by force the actions of the Japanese Empire in East Asia, as Thailand was about to become Japan's ally.
Ratifications were exchanged in Bangkok on 31 August 1940 and the pact became effective on the same day. It was designated to remain in force for five years, unless extended. The pact was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 6 June 1941.Disgrace of Gijón
The "Disgrace of Gijon" is the name given to a 1982 FIFA World Cup football match played between West Germany and Austria at the El Molinón stadium in Gijón, Spain, on 25 June 1982. The match was the last game of the first-round Group 2, with Algeria and Chile having played the day before. With the outcome of that match already decided, a win by one or two goals for West Germany would result in both them and Austria qualifying at the expense of Algeria, who had defeated West Germany in the first game. West Germany took the lead after 10 minutes, after which the remaining 80 minutes was characterized by few serious attempts by either side to score. Both sides were accused of match-fixing, although FIFA ruled that neither team broke any rules.
As a result of this, and similar events at the previous World Cup in Argentina, FIFA revised the group system for future tournaments, so that the final two games in each group would be played simultaneously. In German, the match is known as Nichtangriffspakt von Gijón (lit. "Non-aggression pact of Gijón") or Schande von Gijón (lit. "Disgrace of Gijón"), while in Algeria it is called فضيحة خيخون (faḍīḥa Khīkhūn, "Scandal of Gijón"); it is also called the Anschluss (in reference to the unification of Austria and Nazi Germany in 1938).Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance
The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was a bilateral treaty between France and the Soviet Union with the aim of enveloping Nazi Germany in 1935 in order to reduce the threat from central Europe. It was pursued by Louis Barthou, the French foreign minister, but he was assassinated in October 1934, before negotiations were finished. His successor, Pierre Laval, was skeptical of both the desirability and the value of an alliance with the Soviet Union. However, after the declaration of German rearmament in March 1935 the French government forced the reluctant foreign minister to complete the arrangements with Moscow that Barthou had begun. The pact was concluded in Paris on May 2, 1935 and ratified by the French government in February 1936. Ratifications were exchanged in Moscow on March 27, 1936, and the pact went into effect on the same day. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on April 18, 1936.On May 2, 1935, France and the USSR concluded the pact of mutual assistance. Laval had taken the precaution of ensuring that the bilateral treaty agreement was strictly compatible with the multilateral provisions of the League of Nations Covenant and Locarno Treaties. What this meant in practice was that military assistance could be rendered by one signatory to the other only after an allegation of unprovoked aggression had been submitted to the League and only after prior approval of the other signatories of the Locarno pact (the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium) had been attained. The effectiveness of this pact was undermined even further by the French government's insistent refusal to accept a military convention stipulating the way in which the two armies would coordinate actions in the event of war with Germany.
The pact was no longer what Louis Barthou had originally planned, but it remained to serve the purpose of acting as a hollow diplomatic threat of war on two fronts for Germany, should Germany pursue an aggressive foreign policy. Most of the Locarno powers felt that it would only act as a means of dragging them into a suicidal war with Germany for Russia's benefit. It marked a large scale shift in Soviet policy in the Seventh Congress of the Comintern from a pro-revisionist stance against the Treaty of Versailles to a more western-oriented foreign policy as championed by Maxim Litvinov. Adolf Hitler justified the remilitarization of the Rhineland by the ratification of the treaty in the French parliament, claiming that he felt threatened by the pact. Pro-German David Lloyd George stated in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom that Hitler's actions in the wake of this pact were fully justified, and he would have been a traitor to Germany if he had not protected his country.The military provisions were practically useless because of multiple conditions and the requirement that Britain and Italy approve any action. The effectiveness was undermined even further by the French government's insistent refusal to accept a military convention stipulating the way in which the two armies would coordinate actions in the event of war with Germany. The result was a symbolic pact of friendship and mutual assistance of little consequence other than raising the prestige of both parties. However after 1936, the French lost interest, and all parties in Europe realized the treaty was a dead letter. By 1938 the appeasement policies implemented by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French premier Édouard Daladier ended collective security and further encouraged Nazi aggression.German–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact
German–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact was signed in Berlin on June 7, 1939, by the Estonian and German Ministers of Foreign Affairs Karl Selter and Joachim von Ribbentrop. German–Latvian Non-Aggression Pact was also signed on the same day. Ratifications of the German-Estonian pact were exchanged in Berlin on July 24, 1939 and it became effective on the same day. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on August 12, 1939. The pact was intended for a period of ten years.
The pacts were intended to prevent western or Soviet powers from gaining influence in the Baltic States and thus encircling Germany (non-aggression pact with Lithuania was concluded in March after the 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania regarding the Klaipėda Region). These states were to provide a barrier against any Soviet intervention in a planned German–Polish War.Nazi Germany offered to sign non-aggression pacts with Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden on April 28, 1939. Sweden, Norway, and Finland rejected the proposal. First drafts were prepared the first week of May, but the signing of the treaties was twice delayed due to Latvia's requests for clarification.German–Latvian Non-Aggression Pact
The German–Latvian Non-Aggression Pact was signed in Berlin on June 7, 1939.
In light of the German advance in the east, the Soviet government demanded an Anglo–French guarantee of the independence of the Baltic states, during their negotiations for an alliance with the Western Powers. The Latvian and Estonian governments, ever suspicious of Soviet intentions, decided to accept a mutual non-aggression pact with Germany. The German–Estonian and German–Latvian Non-aggression pacts were signed in Berlin on June 7, 1939 by Latvian foreign minister Vilhelms Munters and Joachim von Ribbentrop. On the next day Adolf Hitler received the Estonian and Latvian envoys, and in course of this interviews stressed maintaining and strengthening commercial links between Germany and Baltic states. Ratifications of the German-Latvian pact were exchanged in Berlin on July 24, 1939 and it became effective on the same day. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on August 24, 1939. The pact was intended for a period of ten years.
The pacts were intended to prevent western or Soviet powers from gaining influence in the Baltic States and thus encircling Germany (non-aggression pact with Lithuania was concluded in March after the 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania regarding the Klaipėda Region). These states were to provide a barrier against any Soviet intervention in a planned German–Polish War.Nazi Germany offered to sign non-aggression pacts with Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden on April 28, 1939. Sweden, Norway, and Finland rejected the proposal. First drafts were prepared the first week of May, but the signing of the treaties was twice delayed due to Latvia's requests for clarification.German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact
The German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact (German: Deutsch-polnischer Nichtangriffspakt; Polish: Polsko-niemiecki pakt o nieagresji) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic, signed on January 26, 1934. Both countries pledged to resolve their problems by bilateral negotiations and to forgo armed conflict for a period of ten years. It effectively normalized relations between Poland and Germany, which were previously strained by border disputes arising from the territorial settlement in the Treaty of Versailles. Germany effectively recognized Poland's borders and moved to end an economically damaging customs war between the two countries that had taken place over the previous decade. Before 1933 Poland had worried that some sort of alliance would take place between Germany and the Soviet Union, to the detriment of Poland. Therefore, Poland had a military alliance with France. The Nazis and the Communists were bitter enemies of each other, so when Hitler came to power in 1933 the likelihood of hostile alliance seemed remote.German–Turkish Treaty of Friendship
The German–Turkish Treaty of Friendship (German: Türkisch-Deutscher Freundschaftsvertrag, Turkish: Türk-Alman Dostluk Paktı) was a Non-Aggression Pact signed between Nazi Germany and Turkey on June 18, 1941, in Ankara by German ambassador to Turkey Franz von Papen and Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs Şükrü Saracoğlu. It became effective on the same day.
The pact, which was intended to be in force for a period of ten years, lasted only until 23 February 1945, when Turkey declared war on Germany.Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, officially known as the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939 by foreign ministers Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, respectively.The clauses of the Nazi–Soviet Pact provided a written guarantee of non-belligerence by each party towards the other, and a declared commitment that neither government would ally itself to, or aid an enemy of the other party. In addition to stipulations of non-aggression, the treaty included a secret protocol that defined the borders of Soviet and German "spheres of influence" in the event of possible rearrangement of the territories belonging to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland. The secret protocol also recognized the interest of Lithuania in the Vilno region; in addition, Germany declared complete disinterest in Bessarabia. The Secret Protocol was just a rumor until it was made public at the Nuremberg trials.Thereafter, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September, one day after a Soviet–Japanese ceasefire at the Khalkhin Gol came into effect. After the invasion, the new border between the two powers was confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. In March 1940, parts of the Karelia and Salla regions in Finland were annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War. This was followed by Soviet annexations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and parts of Romania (Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and the Hertza region). Advertised concern about ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians had been proffered as justification for the Soviet invasion of Poland. Stalin's invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis.The territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union after the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland (east to the Curzon Line) remained in the USSR at the end of World War II, and currently are the parts of Ukraine and Belarus. The former Polish Vilno region is currently a part of Lithuania, and the city of Vilnius is its capital. Only the region around Białystok and a small part of Galicia east of the San river around Przemyśl were returned to the Polish state. Of all other territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–40, the ones detached from Finland (Western Karelia, Petsamo), Estonia (Estonian Ingria and Petseri County) and Latvia (Abrene) remain part of the Russian Federation, the successor state of the USSR upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The territories annexed from Romania had also been integrated into the Soviet Union (as the Moldavian SSR, or oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR); nowadays, the core of Bessarabia forms Moldova, while the northern part of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza form the Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine, and Southern Bessarabia is part of the Odessa Oblast, also in Ukraine.
The Pact was terminated on 22 June 1941, when the Wehrmacht launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union (thus as well executing the ideological goal of Lebensraum). After the war, von Ribbentrop was convicted of war crimes and executed. Molotov died aged 96 in 1986, five years before the USSR's dissolution. Soon after World War II, the German copy of the secret protocol was found in Nazi archives and published in the West, but the Soviet government denied its existence until 1989, when it was finally acknowledged and denounced. Vladimir Putin while condemning the pact as 'immoral' has also defended the pact as a "necessary evil", a U-turn following his earlier condemnation.Non-aggression Pact (band)
Non-aggression Pact (abbv. as N.A.P.) is an urban-electro-industrial music group from
Tampa, Florida. The band was formed in 1992 by keyboardist/drummer, Jeff Hillard (a.k.a. Chillard) and keyboardist/vocalist Jason Whitcomb. Their music featured an abrasive industrial-dance sound, with funky, grind-hop drum loops overlain by harsh vocals and thought-provoking audio samples from various movies and documentaries. Their lyrics focused mostly on the issues of racism and mass media.
N.A.P. released their first album Gesticulate in 1993 with bassist and pianist Dan Bates on the now defunct General Purpose Cassettes (G.P.C.) label. The electronic music was composed and sequenced with an Ensoniq EPS 16+ digital sampler. Additional sounds were taken from a Roland Juno-106 analog synthesizer.
The G.P.C. label usually sold merchandise with unusual packaging, as such, the Gesticulate CD was a limited-edition release with an aluminum foil cover and screen-printed artwork. The cassette tape version was sold in a metal can. There were two different versions of the CD cover printed.
The band's second release was 9mm Grudge in 1994 on the California-based Re-Constriction recording label. It was more guitar driven, however much of it was sampled including a riff from Van Halen appearing in a song.
Five years later, Broadcast-Quality Belligerence was released. This marked a change in production with a shift to PC based recording software instead of their previous "Live Take" approach via DAT. This also appears to be the band's final commercial release. Newer material was released on their MP3.com page until the site changed formats.Non-aggression pact of 1979
The Southern Africa Non-aggression Pact required signatory states to ensure that no individual or organization attacked a signatory state from signatory soil. Presidents Jose Eduardo dos Santos of Angola, Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire, and Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia signed the agreement on October 14, 1979. The signatories also signed a treaty on transportation and communication cooperation the same day. The non-aggression pact largely held together until Angola, along with most of Southern Africa, invaded the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1996 in the First Congo War.The treaty came in direct response to Cuba's invasions of Zaire from Angola in 1977 and 1978. Mobutu and Kaunda's support for National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) rebels in the Angolan Civil War and dos Santos' support for the Front for the National Liberation of the Congo in Zaire led to repeated clashes in the 1970s.Most notable is South Africa's absence in signing the treaty, considering the apartheid government's support for UNITA in Angola exceeded all other nations and South Africa's support for Renamo in Mozambique.OPANAL
The OPANAL (which stands for el Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes a non-aggression pact and nuclear disarmament in much of the Americas. In English, its name is the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The agency was created as a result of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, ratified in 1969, which forbids its signatory nations from use, storage, or transport of nuclear weapons.
The first official Secretary General was Leopoldo Benites from Ecuador.Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (traditional Chinese: 中蘇互不侵犯條約; simplified Chinese: 中苏互不侵犯条约; pinyin: Zhōng-sū hù bù qīnfàn tiáoyuē) was signed in Nanjing on August 21, 1937, between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It went into effect on the day it was signed. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on September 8, 1937.Soviet–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact
Soviet–Estonian Non-Aggression Pact was a non-aggression pact, signed between the Soviet Union and Estonia on May 4, 1932.
The terms of the treaty were:
Article 1. Each party guarantees the borders of each other, set by the Treaty of Tartu, and must not infringe upon each other's borders.
Article 2. Each party agrees not to form a coalition against one another, form an alliance against one another, or politically or economically embargo each other.Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact
The Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact was a non-aggression treaty signed in 1932 by representatives of Finland and the Soviet Union. The pact was unilaterally renounced by the Soviet Union in 1939, after it had committed the deception operation Shelling of Mainila, where it shelled its own village and claimed Finland to be responsible.
The Soviet Union had started non-aggression pact negotiations with its neighbouring countries in Europe during the Invasion of Manchuria, due to which the Soviet Union wanted to secure its borders. Although Finland was the last to sign the pact on January 21, 1932, after Estonia, Latvia and Poland, it was the first to ratify it in July 1932. Both parties guaranteed to respect the borders between the countries, and agreed to stay neutral. Disputes were promised to be solved peacefully and neutrally.
The pact was extended to December 31, 1945 in Moscow on April 7, 1934. It was signed by the Finnish foreign minister Aarno Yrjö-Koskinen and the Soviet foreign minister Maxim Litvinov.
The pact was renounced by the Soviet Union on 28 November 1939, two days before its invasion of Finland, claiming Finland had shelled a Soviet village. According to the Article Five, parties should have called for a joint commission to examine the incident, which Finland tried to call but the Soviet Union refused.Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact
The Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (日ソ中立条約, Nisso Chūritsu Jōyaku), also known as the Japanese–Soviet Non-aggression Pact (日ソ不可侵条約, Nisso Fukashin Jōyaku), was a neutrality pact (non-aggression pact) between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War. The pact was signed to ensure the neutrality between the Soviet Union and Japan during World War II, in which both countries participated.Soviet–Lithuanian Non-Aggression Pact
Soviet–Lithuanian Non-Aggression Pact (Lithuanian: Lietuvos–TSRS nepuolimo sutartis) was a non-aggression pact, signed between the Soviet Union and Lithuania on September 28, 1926. The pact confirmed all basic provisions of the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty of 1920. The Soviet Union continued to recognize Vilnius and Vilnius Region to Lithuania, despite the fact that the territories were under Polish control since the Żeligowski's Mutiny in 1920. It also recognized Lithuania's interests in the Klaipėda Region. In exchange Lithuania agreed not to join any alliances directed against the Soviet Union, which meant international isolation at the time when Soviet Union was not a member of the League of Nations. Ratifications were exchanged in Kaunas on November 9, 1926, and the pact became effective on the same day. The pact was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on March 4, 1927.The pact was initiated by Lithuanians who sought a new direction in the foreign policy after the Locarno Treaties. The negotiations started on December 25, 1925 when People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs Georgy Chicherin stopped in Kaunas on his way to Moscow. The negotiations were difficult as Latvia and Estonia disapproved the pact because it prevented creation of the Baltic Entente, Poland claimed that the agreement violated the Peace of Riga, and Germany was wary over strengthening Lithuanian claims to the Klaipėda Region.The pact was controversial in Lithuania and its ratification by the Third Seimas on November 5, 1926 caused student protests against "Bolshevization" of Lithuania. As one of the protests was dispersed by force, it is cited as one of the reasons for the military coup in December 1926. However, the diplomats believed that keeping the dispute over Vilnius Region relevant in the European politics was worth the cost. The original pact was set to expire in five years, but on May 6, 1931, it was extended for another five years. On April 4, 1934, it was further extended to December 31, 1944. A separate convention was signed to define "aggression" on July 5, 1933. The pact was broken when on June 15, 1940, the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania.Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact
The Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact (Polish: Polsko-radziecki pakt o nieagresji, Russian: Pakt o nenapadenii mezhdu SSSR i Pol’shey) was an international treaty of non-aggression signed in 1932 by representatives of Poland and the USSR. The pact was unilaterally broken by the Soviet Union on September 17, 1939, during the German and Soviet invasion of Poland.Timeline of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
The timeline of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact is a chronology of events, including Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact negotiations, leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The Treaty of Non-aggression between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union was signed in the early hours of August 24, 1939, but was dated August 23.