Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members.[1]

It was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. An initiative of Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru[3] and Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries.[4] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement".

The purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics." [5] The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is particularly concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement also has a number of developed nations.

Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were actually quite closely aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War, even despite several conflicts between members which also threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world, especially those within the Global South.

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
  Member countries   Observer countries
  Member countries
  Observer countries
LocationJakarta, Indonesia (Headquarters)
Coordinating BureauNew York City, New York, U.S.
Membership[1]
  • 120 members
  • 17 observers
Leaders
• Principal decision-
making organ
Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries[2]
• Presidency
 Azerbaijan
• Secretary-General
Ilham Aliyev
Establishment1961 in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade, Yugoslavia as the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries
Website
csstc.org

History

Origins and the Cold War

The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'.

The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers".[6]

The Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations.[7]

But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:

  • Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Mutual non-aggression.
  • Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.
  • Equality and mutual benefit.
  • Peaceful co-existence.

A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Nkrumah and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, and Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Nehru's five principles, and a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War. Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, which was held in September 1961 in Belgrade.[8] The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement.[9]

At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries.[10]

Some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members (e.g. India and Pakistan, Iran and Iraq).

Cuba's role

In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola greatly impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba also established military advisory missions, and economic and social reform programs. The 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies." The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The conference in September 1979 marked the zenith of Cuban prestige. Most, but not all, attendees believed that Cuba was not aligned with the Soviet camp in the Cold War.[11] However in December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, an active member of the Nonaligned Movement. At the United Nations, Nonaligned members voted 56 to 9, with 26 abstaining, to condemn the Soviet Union. Cuba in fact was deeply in debt financially and politically to Moscow, and voted against the resolution. It lost its reputation as nonaligned in the Cold War. Castro, instead of becoming a high profile spokesman for the Movement, remain quiet and inactive, and in 1983 leadership passed to India, which had abstained on the UN vote. Cuba lost its bid to become a member of the United Nations Security Council and its ambitions for a role in global leadership had totally collapsed.[12] More broadly the Movement was deeply split over the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. Although Moscow's allies supported the Soviet invasion, other members of the movement (particularly predominantly Muslim states) condemned it.[13]

Post-Cold War

Because the Non-Aligned Movement was formed as an attempt to thaw out the Cold War,[10] it has struggled to find relevance since the Cold War ended. After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was suspended[14] in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.[15][16] The successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, though Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina have observer status. In 2004, Malta and Cyprus ceased to be members and joined the European Union. Belarus is the only member of the Movement in Europe. Azerbaijan and Fiji are the most recent entrants, joining in 2011. The applications of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998, respectively.[16]

Since the end of the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement has been forced to redefine itself and reinvent its purpose in the current world system. A major question has been whether many of its foundational ideologies, principally national independence, territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism, can be applied to contemporary issues. The movement has emphasised its principles of multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South, and an instrument that can be utilised to promote the needs of member nations at the international level and strengthen their political leverage when negotiating with developed nations. In its efforts to advance Southern interests, the movement has stressed the importance of cooperation and unity amongst member states,[17] but as in the past, cohesion remains a problem since the size of the organisation and the divergence of agendas and allegiances present the ongoing potential for fragmentation. While agreement on basic principles has been smooth, taking definitive action vis-à-vis particular international issues has been rare, with the movement preferring to assert its criticism or support rather than pass hard-line resolutions.[18]

The movement continues to see a role for itself, as in its view, the world's poorest nations remain exploited and marginalised, no longer by opposing superpowers, but rather in a uni-polar world,[19] and it is Western hegemony and neo-colonialism that the movement has really re-aligned itself against. It opposes foreign occupation, interference in internal affairs and aggressive unilateral measures, but it has also shifted to focus on the socio-economic challenges facing member states, especially the inequalities manifested by globalization and the implications of neo-liberal policies. The Non-Aligned Movement has identified economic underdevelopment, poverty, and social injustices as growing threats to peace and security.[20]

The 16th NAM summit took place in Tehran, Iran, from 26 to 31 August 2012. According to Mehr News Agency, representatives from over 150 countries were scheduled to attend.[21] Attendance at the highest level includes 27 presidents, two kings and emirs, seven prime ministers, nine vice presidents, two parliament spokesmen and five special envoys.[22] At the summit, Iran took over from Egypt as Chair of the Non-Aligned Movement for the period 2012 to 2015.[23] and latest one held in Venezuela 2016.

In 2019 Colombia and Peru suspended their participation in the Movement under the presidency of Venezuela, because their governments did not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolás Maduro's regime.

Organizational structure and membership

The movement stems from a desire not to be aligned within a geopolitical/military structure and therefore itself does not have a very strict organizational structure.[2] Some organizational basics were defined at the 1996 Cartagena Document on Methodology[24] The Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned States is "the highest decision making authority". The chairmanship rotates between countries and changes at every summit of heads of state or government to the country organizing the summit.[24]

Requirements for membership of the Non-Aligned Movement coincide with the key beliefs of the United Nations. The current requirements are that the candidate country has displayed practices in accordance with the ten "Bandung principles" of 1955:[24]

  • Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
  • Recognition of the movements for national independence.
  • Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small.
  • Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country.
  • Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country.
  • Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation.
  • Respect for justice and international obligations.

Policies and ideology

Non-Aligned Movement (emblem - South Africa Conference)
The South Africa Conference NAM logo

Secretaries General of the NAM had included such diverse figures as Suharto,[25] militaristic[26] anti-communist, and Nelson Mandela, a democratic socialist and famous anti-apartheid activist. Consisting of many governments with vastly different ideologies, the Non-Aligned Movement is unified by its declared commitment to world peace and security. At the seventh summit held in New Delhi in March 1983, the movement described itself as "history's biggest peace movement".[27] The movement places equal emphasis on disarmament. NAM's commitment to peace pre-dates its formal institutionalisation in 1961. The Brioni meeting between heads of governments of India, Egypt and Yugoslavia in 1956 recognized that there exists a vital link between struggle for peace and endeavours for disarmament.[27]

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the NAM also sponsored campaigns for restructuring commercial relations between developed and developing nations, namely the New International Economic Order (NIEO), and its cultural offspring, the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO). The latter, on its own, sparked a Non-Aligned initiative on cooperation for communications, the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, created in 1975 and later converted into the NAM News Network in 2005.

The Non-Aligned Movement espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN.[28] African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine[28] and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia and South Africa.[29]

Current activities and positions

Criticism of US policy

In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated, "The United States is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities."[30]

Self-determination of Puerto Rico

Since 1961, the organization has supported the discussion of the case of Puerto Rico's self-determination before the United Nations. A resolution on the matter was to be proposed on the XV Summit by the Hostosian National Independence Movement.[31]

Self-determination of Western Sahara

Since 1973, the group has supported the discussion of the case of Western Sahara's self-determination before the United Nations.[32] The movement reaffirmed in its last meeting (Sharm El Sheikh 2009) the support to the Self-determination of the Sahrawi people by choosing between any valid option, welcomed the direct conversations between the parties, and remembered the responsibility of the United Nations on the Sahrawi issue.[33]

Sustainable development

The movement is publicly committed to the tenets of sustainable development and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, but it believes that the international community has not created conditions conducive to development and has infringed upon the right to sovereign development by each member state. Issues such as globalization, the debt burden, unfair trade practices, the decline in foreign aid, donor conditionality, and the lack of democracy in international financial decision-making are cited as factors inhibiting development.[34]

Reforms of the UN

The movement has been outspoken in its criticism of current UN structures and power dynamics, stating that the organisation has been utilised by powerful states in ways that violate the movement's principles. It has made a number of recommendations that it says would strengthen the representation and power of "non-aligned" states. The proposed UN reforms are also aimed at improving the transparency and democracy of UN decision-making. The UN Security Council is the element it considers the most distorted, undemocratic, and in need of reshaping.[35]

South-South cooperation

The movement has collaborated with other organisations of the developing world – primarily the Group of 77 – forming a number of joint committees and releasing statements and documents representing the shared interests of both groups. This dialogue and cooperation can be taken as an effort to increase the global awareness about the organisation and bolster its political clout.

Cultural diversity and human rights

The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation. In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region.[36]

Working groups, task forces, committees[37]
  • Committee on Palestine
  • High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations
  • Joint Coordinating Committee (chaired by Chairman of G-77 and Chairman of NAM)
  • Non-Aligned Security Caucus
  • Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation
  • Task Force on Somalia
  • Working Group on Disarmament
  • Working Group on Human Rights
  • Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations

Summits

Konferencija Pokreta nesvrstanih 1961. godine
1st summit, Belgrade
Meeting of the heads of state at the 16th summit of the NAM (1)
16th summit of the NAM, Tehran

The conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, often referred to as Non-Aligned Movement Summit is the main meeting within the movement and are held every few years:[38]

Date Host country Host city
1st 1–6 September 1961  Yugoslavia Belgrade
2nd 5–10 October 1964  United Arab Republic Cairo
3rd 8–10 September 1970  Zambia Lusaka
4th 5–9 September 1973  Algeria Algiers
5th 16–19 August 1976  Sri Lanka Colombo
6th 3–9 September 1979  Cuba Havana
7th 7–12 March 1983  India New Delhi
8th 1–6 September 1986  Zimbabwe Harare
9th 4–7 September 1989  Yugoslavia Belgrade
10th 1–6 September 1992  Indonesia Jakarta
11th 18–20 October 1995  Colombia Cartagena
12th 2–3 September 1998  South Africa Durban
13th 20–25 February 2003  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
14th 15–16 September 2006  Cuba Havana
15th 11–16 July 2009  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh
16th 26–31 August 2012  Iran Tehran
17th 13–18 September 2016  Venezuela Porlamar
18th 2019  Azerbaijan TBA

A variety of ministerial meetings are held between the summit meetings. Some are specialist, such as the meeting on "Inter-Faith Dialogue and Co-operation for Peace", held in Manila, the Philippines, 16–18 March 2010. There is a general Conference of Foreign Ministers every three years. The most recent were in Bali, Indonesia, 23–27 May 2011 and Algiers, Algeria, 26–29 May 2014.

The Non-Aligned Movement celebrated its 50th anniversary in Belgrade on 5–6 September 2011.[39][40]

Secretary general

Between summits, the Non-Aligned Movement is run by the secretary general elected at the last summit meeting. The Coordinating Bureau, also based at the UN, is the main instrument for directing the work of the movement's task forces, committees and working groups.

Image Secretary-General[41] Country (holding the Presidency) Party From To
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980)  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1961 1964
Nasser portrait2 Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918–1970)  United Arab Republic Arab Socialist Union 1964 1970
Kenneth David Kaunda detail DF-SC-84-01864 Kenneth Kaunda (1924–)  Zambia United National Independence Party 1970 1973
Houari Boumediene's Portrait Houari Boumediène (1932–1978)  Algeria Revolutionary Council 1973 1976
William Gopallawa William Gopallawa (1896–1981)  Sri Lanka Independent 1976 1978
Junius Richard Jayawardana (1906-1996) Junius Richard Jayewardene (1906–1996) United National Party 1978 1979
Fidel Castro - MATS Terminal Washington 1959 Fidel Castro (1926–2016)  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 1979 1983
NeelamSanjeevaReddy Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913–1996)  India Janata Party 1983
Giani Zail Singh 1995 stamp of India Zail Singh (1916–1994) Indian National Congress 1983 1986
Robert Mugabe May 2015 (cropped) Robert Mugabe (1924–)  Zimbabwe ZANU-PF 1986 1989
Drnovsek Janez Drnovšek (1950–2008)  Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia 1989 1990
Borisav Jović Borisav Jović (1928–) Socialist Party of Serbia 1990 1991
StipeMesic1 Stjepan Mesić (1934–) Croatian Democratic Union 1991
Branko Kostić Branko Kostić (1939–) Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro 1991 1992
S.Kragujevic, Dobrica Cosic 1961 Dobrica Ćosić (1921–2014)  FR Yugoslavia Independent 1992
President Suharto, 1993 Suharto (1921–2008)  Indonesia Golkar 1992 1995
Ernesto Samper (cropped) Ernesto Samper (1950–)  Colombia Colombian Liberal Party 1995 1998
Andrespastranaarango Andrés Pastrana Arango (1954–) Colombian Conservative Party 1998
Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit) (cropped) Nelson Mandela (1918–2013)  South Africa African National Congress 1998 1999
SthAfrica.ThaboMbeki.01 Thabo Mbeki (1942–) 1999 2003
Mahathir 2007 Mahathir Mohamad (1925–)  Malaysia United Malays National Organisation 2003
AB April 2008 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (1939–) 2003 2006
Fidel Castro Fidel Castro[42](1926–2016)  Cuba Communist Party of Cuba 2006 2008
Raúl Castro, July 2012.jpeg Raúl Castro (1931–) 2008 2009
Hosni Mubarak ritratto Hosni Mubarak (1928–)  Egypt National Democratic Party 2009 2011
Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi 2002 Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (1935–) Independent 2011 2012
Mohamed Morsi-05-2013 Mohamed Morsi (1951–) Freedom and Justice Party 2012
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad crop Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (1956–)  Iran Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran 2012 2013
Hassan Rouhani Hassan Rouhani (1948–) Moderation and Development Party 2013 2016
Nicolás Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped Nicolás Maduro (1962–)  Venezuela United Socialist Party 2016 2019
Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev - President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev (1961–)  Azerbaijan New Azerbaijan Party 2019 present

Members, observers and guests

Current members

The following countries are members of the NAM, arranged by continent, showing their year of admission:[1][41]

Africa

Currently every African country (except South Sudan and Western Sahara) is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

  1.  Algeria (1961)
  2.  Angola (1976)
  3.  Benin (1964)
  4.  Botswana (1970)
  5.  Burkina Faso (1973)
  6.  Burundi (1964)
  7.  Cameroon (1964)
  8.  Cape Verde (1976)
  9.  Central African Republic (1964)
  10.  Chad (1964)
  11.  Comoros (1976)
  12.  Democratic Republic of the Congo (1961)
  13.  Djibouti (1983)
  14.  Egypt (1961)
  15.  Equatorial Guinea (1970)
  16.  Eritrea (1995)
  17.  Eswatini (1970)
  18.  Ethiopia (1961)
  19.  Gabon (1970)
  20.  Gambia (1973)
  21.  Ghana (1961)
  22.  Guinea (1961)
  23.  Guinea-Bissau (1976)
  24.  Côte d'Ivoire (1973)
  25.  Kenya (1964)
  26.  Lesotho (1970)
  27.  Liberia (1964)
  28.  Libya (1964)
  29.  Madagascar (1973)
  30.  Malawi (1964)
  31.  Mali (1961)
  32.  Mauritania (1964)
  33.  Mauritius (1973)
  34.  Morocco (1961)
  35.  Mozambique (1976)
  36.  Namibia (1979)
  37.  Niger (1973)
  38.  Nigeria (1964)
  39.  Republic of the Congo (1964)
  40.  Rwanda (1970)
  41.  São Tomé and Príncipe (1976)
  42.  Senegal (1964)
  43.  Seychelles (1976)
  44.  Sierra Leone (1964)
  45.  Somalia (1961)
  46.  South Africa (1994)
  47.  Sudan (1961)
  48.  Tanzania (1964)
  49.  Togo (1964)
  50.  Tunisia (1961)
  51.  Uganda (1964)
  52.  Zambia (1964)
  53.  Zimbabwe (1979)

Americas

  1.  Antigua and Barbuda (2006)
  2.  Bahamas (1983)
  3.  Barbados (1983)
  4.  Belize (1976)
  5.  Bolivia (1979)
  6.  Chile (1973)
  7.  Colombia (1983)
  8.  Cuba (1961)
  9.  Dominica (2006)
  10.  Dominican Republic (2000)
  11.  Ecuador (1983)
  12.  Grenada (1979)
  13.  Guatemala (1993)
  14.  Guyana (1970)
  15.  Haiti (2006)
  16.  Honduras (1995)
  17.  Jamaica (1970)
  18.  Nicaragua (1979)
  19.  Panama (1976)
  20.  Peru (1973)
  21.  Saint Kitts and Nevis (2006)
  22.  Saint Lucia (1983)
  23.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2003)
  24.  Suriname (1983)
  25.  Trinidad and Tobago (1970)
  26.  Venezuela (1989)

Asia

  1.  Afghanistan (1961)
  2.  Bahrain (1973)
  3.  Bangladesh (1973)
  4.  Bhutan (1973)
  5.  Brunei (1993)
  6.  Cambodia (1961)
  7.  India (1961)
  8.  Indonesia (1961)
  9.  Iran (1979)
  10.  Iraq (1961)
  11.  Jordan (1964)
  12.  Kuwait (1964)
  13.  Laos (1964)
  14.  Lebanon (1961)
  15.  Malaysia (1970)
  16.  Maldives (1976)
  17.  Mongolia (1993)
  18.  Myanmar (1961)
  19.    Nepal (1961)
  20.  North Korea (1976)
  21.  Oman (1973)
  22.  Pakistan (1979)
  23.  Palestine (1976)
  24.  Philippines (1993)
  25.  Qatar (1973)
  26.  Saudi Arabia (1961)
  27.  Singapore (1970)
  28.  Sri Lanka (1961)
  29.  Syria (1964)
  30.  Thailand (1993)
  31.  East Timor (2003)
  32.  Turkmenistan (1995)
  33.  United Arab Emirates (1970)
  34.  Uzbekistan (1993)
  35.  Vietnam (1976)
  36.  Yemen (1990) [44]

Europe

  1.  Azerbaijan (2011)
  2.  Belarus (1998)

Oceania

  1.  Fiji (2011)
  2.  Papua New Guinea (1993)
  3.  Vanuatu (1983)

Former members

  1.  Cyprus (1961–2004)[45][46]
  2.  Malta (1973–2004)[46]
  3.  Yugoslavia (1961–1992)[14][47][48]

Observers

The following countries and organizations have observer status (2012):[1]

Countries

  1.  Argentina[49]
  2.  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  3.  Brazil
  4.  China
  5.  Costa Rica
  6.  Cyprus
  7.  Armenia
  8.  El Salvador
  9.  Kazakhstan
  10.  Kyrgyzstan
  11.  Macedonia
  12.  Mexico
  13.  Paraguay
  14.  Serbia
  15.  South Sudan
  16.  Tajikistan
  17.  Uruguay

Organisations

  1. African Union
  2. Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation
  3. Arab League
  4. Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  5. Commonwealth Secretariat
  6. Commonwealth of Nations
  7. Hostosian National Independence Movement
  8. Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front
  9. Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
  10. South Centre
  11. United Nations
  12. World Peace Council
  13. International Institute for Non-Aligned Studies

Guests

There is no permanent guest status,[50] but often several non-member countries are represented as guests at conferences. In addition, a large number of organisations, both from within the UN system and from outside, are always invited as guests.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "NAM Members & Observers – 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement". Tehran. 26–31 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information". Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  3. ^ 1889–1964., Nehru, Jawaharlal, (2004). Jawaharlal Nehru. : an autobiography. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143031048. OCLC 909343858.
  4. ^ [1], znaci.net
  5. ^ Fidel Castro speech to the UN in his position as chairman of the non-aligned countries movement 12 October 1979 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine; "Pakistan & Non-Aligned Movement" Archived 2 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Board of Investment – Government of Pakistan. 2003.
  6. ^ Laskar, Rejaul Karim (June 2004). "Respite from Disgraceful NDA Foreign Policy". Congress Sandesh. 6 (10): 8.
  7. ^ Ma'aroof, Mohammad Khalid (1987). Afghanistan in World Politics: (a Study of Afghan-U.S. Relations). Gyan Publishing House. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-81-212-0097-4.
  8. ^ "Belgrade declaration of non-aligned countries" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  9. ^ "Fifth conference of heads of state or Government of non-aligned nations" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 6 September 1961. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  10. ^ a b Suvedi, Sūryaprasāda (1996). Land and Maritime Zones of Peace in International Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-198-26096-7.
  11. ^ Robert E. Quirk, Fidel Castro, (1993) pp 718-21, 782-83
  12. ^ Pérez, Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution (5th ed. 2015) p 301.
  13. ^ H. V. Hodson, ed. The annual register : a record of world events 1979 (1980) pp 372-75.
  14. ^ a b "The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States" Archived 9 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  15. ^ Lai Kwon Kin (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia casts shadow over non-aligned summit". The Independent. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Iran and several other Muslim nations want the rump state of Yugoslavia kicked out, saying it no longer represents the country which helped to found the movement.
  16. ^ a b Najam, Adil (2003). "Chapter 9: The Collective South in Multinational Environmental Politics". In Nagel, Stuard. Policymaking and prosperity: a multinational anthology. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 197–240 [233]. ISBN 0-7391-0460-8. Retrieved 10 November 2009. Turkmenistan, Belarus and Dominican Republic are the most recent entrants. The application of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Costa Rica were rejected in 1995 and 1998.
  17. ^ Putting Differences Aside Archived 12 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Daria Acosta, 18 September 2006.
  18. ^ Staff (7 August 2009). "Profile: Non-Aligned Movement". BBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  19. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document Archived 19 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, no. 10-11.
  20. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: NAM XII Summit: Basic Documents – Final Document: 1 Global Issues Archived 19 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Nam.gov.za. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  21. ^ NAM summit will raise Iran’s profile in the international arena Archived 28 January 2013 at Archive.today
  22. ^ NAM summit kicks off in Tehran Archived 29 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Southern Africa: Media Briefing By Deputy Minister Ebrahim Ebrahim On International Developments". 15 August 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2016 – via AllAfrica.
  24. ^ a b c "Meeting of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology of the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries, Caratagena de Indias, May 14–16, 1996". Head of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Countries. Government of Zaire. 14–16 May 1996. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  25. ^ "Suharto tops corruption rankings". BBC News. 25 March 2004. Retrieved 4 February 2006.
  26. ^ Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.
  27. ^ a b Ohlson, Thomas; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (1988). Arms Transfer Limitations and Third World Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-198-29124-4.
  28. ^ a b Morphet, Sally. "Multilateralism and the Non-Aligned Movement: What Is the Global South Doing and Where Is It Going?". Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations. 10 (2004), pp. 517–537.
  29. ^ Grant, Cedric. "Equity in Third World Relations: a third world perspective". International Affairs 71, 3 (1995), 567–587.
  30. ^ Staff (16 September 2006). "Non-Aligned Nations Slam U.S." CBC News. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  31. ^ Transcript (14 July 2009). "No Alineados preparan apoyo a la libre determinación de Puerto Rico – El texto se presentaría al cierre de la cita del NOAL en Sharm el Sheij" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  32. ^ "3162 (XXVIII) Question of Spanish Sahara. U.N. General assembly 28th session, 1973" Archived 13 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine (PDF format). United Nations.
  33. ^ XV Summit of heads of state and government of the Non Aligned Movement – Final Document. Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.16-04-2009. Archived 17 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine See points 237, 238 & 239.
  34. ^ Statement on the implementation of the Right to Development Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 7 January 2008.
  35. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: Final Document Archived 19 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, no. 55.
  36. ^ Declaration on the occasion of celebrating Human Rights Day Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 2.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ XV Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Sharm El Sheikh, 11–16 July 2009: Previous Summits Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Serbia, RTS, Radio televizija Srbije, Radio Television of. "Nesvrstani ponovo u Beogradu". Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  40. ^ "Secretary-General's Message to Additional Commemorative Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement – United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon". Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  41. ^ a b Cahoon, Ben. "Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  42. ^ Fidel Castro, having recently undergone gastric surgery, was unable to attend the conference and was represented by his younger brother, Cuba's acting president Raúl Castro. See "Castro elected President of Non-Aligned Movement Nations". People's Daily. 16 September 2006.
  43. ^ In a joint letter to the UN Secretary-General sent just prior to unification, the Ministers of Foreign affairs of North and South Yemen stated that "All treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect, and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic and other States will continue."Bühler, Konrad (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Martinus Nijhoff Publisher.
  44. ^  North Yemen is one of the founders in 1961.  South Yemen joined in 1970. In 1990 both were unified into a single state which accepted responsibility for all treaties of its predecessors.[43]
  45. ^ "Cyprus and the Non – Aligned Movement". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Cyprus. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  46. ^ a b "XIV Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement". South Africa Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  47. ^ "Final Document of the 7th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement -(New Delhi Declaration)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  48. ^ Kin, Lai Kwok (2 September 1992). "Yugoslavia Casts Shadow over Non-Aligned Summit". The Independent. Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  49. ^ Serrat, Oscar J. (20 September 1991). "Argentina Withdraws from Non-Aligned Movement". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  50. ^ XII Summit, Durban, South Africa, 2–3 September 1998: The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information 4.4. Archived 9 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

  • Jürgen Dinkel, The Non-Aligned Movement. Genesis, Organization and Politics (1927-1992), New Perspectives on the Cold War 5, Brill: Leiden/Boston 2019. ISBN:978-90-04-33613-1
  • Hans Köchler (ed.), The Principles of Non-Alignment. The Non-aligned Countries in the Eighties—Results and Perspectives. London: Third World Centre, 1982. ISBN 0-86199-015-3 (Google Print)

External links

16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

The 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement was held from 26 to 31 August 2012 in Tehran, Iran. The summit was attended by leaders of 120 countries, including 24 presidents, 3 kings, 8 prime ministers and 50 foreign ministers.The summit's framework was the "Final Document" adopted during the Ministerial Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement Coordinating Bureau which was held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, from 7 to 10 May. The Foreign Ministry also said that the agenda would primarily consist of issues pertaining to nuclear disarmament, human rights and regional issues. Iran also intended to draw up a new peace resolution aiming to resolve the Syrian civil war.The summit consisted of two preceding events: a "Senior Officials Meeting" on 26 and 27 August 2012, and a "Ministerial Meeting" on 28 and 29 August 2012. The leaders summit took place on 30 and 31 August. Egyptian President Mohammad Morsi officially handed the presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, during the inaugural ceremony of Leaders' Meeting. Iran will hold the NAM presidency for four years until the 17th summit in Venezuela in 2016.

Andrés Pastrana Arango

Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the 30th President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002, following in the footsteps of his father, Misael Pastrana Borrero, who was president from 1970 to 1974. As of 2017, he is the last president to come from the Conservative Party.

Angola–India relations

Angola–India relations refers to the bilateral ties between the India and the Angola. Both nations are part of the Non-Aligned Movement. Being a member of the African Union, Angola supports India's candidature for a permanent seat in a reformed Security Council. India has an embassy in Luanda, Angola. Angola has an embassy in New Delhi, India.

Bandung Conference

The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on 18-24 April 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the Earth's land surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people, roughly 54% of the Earth's population at the time.

The conference was organised by Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and India and was coordinated by Ruslan Abdulgani, secretary general of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The conference's stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nation. The conference was an important step toward the Non-Aligned Movement.

In 2005, on the 50th anniversary of the original conference, leaders from Asian and African countries met in Jakarta and Bandung to launch the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP). They pledged to promote political, economic, and cultural cooperation between the two continents.

Branko Kostić

Branko Kostić (Serbian Cyrillic: Бранко Костић, born 28 August 1939) is a retired Montenegrin Serb politician. He served as the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro from March 1989 to December 1990, and then as the acting Chairman of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1991 to 1992. He was a member of the League of Communists of Montenegro until 1990, after which he joined the new Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro. On 16 May 1991 he became a member of the Collective Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

He was an intense proponent of Serbian-Montenegrin unionism. When a reporter asked him what the difference was between Montenegrins and Serbs, he replied: "a vast majority of Montenegrins can say they are Serbs, while a vast majority of Serbs cannot say they are Montenegrins".

Group of 15

The Group of 15 (G-15) is an informal forum set up to foster cooperation and provide input for other international groups, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Group of Seven. It was established at the Ninth Non-Aligned Movement Summit Meeting in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1989, and is composed of countries from Latin America, Africa, and Asia with a common goal of enhanced growth and prosperity. The G-15 focuses on cooperation among developing countries in the areas of investment, trade, and technology. Membership has since expanded to 18 countries, but the name has remained unchanged. Chile, Iran and Kenya have since joined the Group of 15, whereas Yugoslavia is no longer part of the group; Peru, a founding member-state, decided to leave the G-15 in 2011.

Houari Boumédiène

Houari Boumédiène, also transcribed Boumediene, Boumedienne etc. (Arabic: هواري بومدين‎ ; ALA-LC: Hawwārī Būmadyan; 23 August 1932 – 27 December 1978), served as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria from 19 June 1965 until 12 December 1976 and thereafter as the second President of Algeria until his death on 27 December 1978.

India and the Non-Aligned Movement

India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement.

India's policy was neither negative nor positive.

India–Morocco relations

India–Morocco relations refers to the bilateral ties between Morocco and India. Morocco has an embassy in New Delhi. It also has an Honorary Consul based in Mumbai. India operates an embassy in Rabat. Both nations are part of the Non-Aligned Movement.In the United Nations, India supported the decolonisation of Morocco and the Moroccan freedom movement. India recognised Morocco on June 20, 1956 and established relations in 1957. The Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India states that "India and Morocco have enjoyed cordial and friendly relations and over the years bilateral relations have witnessed significant depth and growth."

India–Vanuatu relations

India–Vanuatu relations are bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Vanuatu. The Indian High Commission in Suva, Fiji is jointly accredited to Vanuatu. Formal relations between the two countries began in 1986, after then prime minister Walter Lini joined the Non-Aligned Movement in 1983.

Indonesia–Kenya relations

Indonesia–Kenya relations refers to the bilateral relations of Republic of Indonesia and Kenya. Indonesia has an embassy in Nairobi, also accredited to Mauritius, Seychelles, and Uganda, while Kenya did not establishes embassy in Indonesia yet, diplomatic relations with Indonesia is accredited to its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both nations are partners in multilateral organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Non-Aligned Movement.

Indonesia–Serbia relations

Indonesia–Serbia relations was established in 1954, the legal frameworks was inherited from the Yugoslavian era. Indonesia has an embassy in Belgrade and Serbia has an embassy in Jakarta. Both nations are the founders of Non Aligned Movement.

Indonesia–Tanzania relations

Indonesia–Tanzania relations refers to the bilateral relations of Indonesia and Tanzania. The relations between both nations are mostly in agriculture sector, where Indonesia provides training for Tanzanian farmers. In 2011 both countries established Indonesia-Tanzania Joint Agriculture Cooperation Committee (JACC), as a vehicle to improve agricultural sector co-operations, such as capacity building through training, joint research, and the expansion of market access to agricultural products.

Indonesia has an embassy in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania has a non-resident ambassador in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both countries are members of multilateral organisations such as World Trade Organization (WTO), the Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.

Mohamed Hussein Tantawi

Mohamed Hussein Tantawy Soliman (Arabic: محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان‎, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ħeˈseːn tˤɑnˈtˤɑːwi seleˈmæːn]; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former politician. He was the commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces and, as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, was the de facto head of state from the ousting of Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011 to the inauguration of Mohamed Morsi as President of Egypt on 30 June 2012. Tantawy served in the government as Minister of Defence and Military Production from 1991 until Morsi ordered Tantawy to retire on 12 August 2012.

NAM News Network

The NAM News Network (NNN) is a news agency established by countries of the Non-Aligned Movement to disseminate news which is not prejudicial to the third-world countries.

Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference

The Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference was held in Georgetown, Guyana from 8 August to 11 August 1972.

During the conference, a monument to the four founders of the Non-Aligned Movement - President Nasser of Egypt, President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Jawaharlal Nehru of India and President Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia - was erected in Company Path Garden and was unveiled by the then President, Arthur Chung.

The conference adopted an Action Programme for Economic Co-operation.

Serbia–Zimbabwe relations

Zimbabwe–Serbia relations are bilateral ties between Zimbabwe and Serbia. Yugoslavia (and now Serbia as its successor state) a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, of which Zimbabwe is also a part.

Third World Socialism

Third World socialism was a variant of socialism proponed by Kwame Nkrumah, Modibo Keïta, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Fidel Castro, Julius Nyerere, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Michel Aflaq, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Juan Perón, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sukarno, David Ben-Gurion, Muammar Gaddafi, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Buddhadasa, Walter Lini and other such socialist leaders of the Third World who saw a non-Soviet version of socialism as the answer to a strong and developed nation. It could be argued that the new "turn to the left" leadership in Latin America (see socialism of the 21st century), with its anti-Americanism, connection with less developed Eastern Europe, sense of undeveloped countries/developing countries unity and pro-Arabism/pro-Islamism, is a new kind of Third World socialism. It may be described as an ideologically specific form of Third-Worldism and it is made up of African socialism, Arab socialism, Nasserism, Peronism, Nehruism, Labor Zionism, Islamic socialism, Buddhist socialism and Melanesian socialism.

Zail Singh

Gyani Zail Singh (pronunciation ; born Jarnail Singh, 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994) was the seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987. Prior to his presidency, he was a politician with the Indian National Congress party, and had held several ministerial posts in the Union Cabinet, including that of Home Minister. He also served as the Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1983 to 1986.

His presidency was marked by Operation Blue Star, the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. He died of injuries in 1994 after a car accident.

Early life

He was born in [Sandhwan], [Faridkot district] on 5 May 1916 to Kishan Singh. He was named Jarnail, meaning “General”, but as a young man, he changed his first name to Zail after being imprisoned several times for opposing the rule of the maharajah of Faridkot. He was a Sikh by religion, was given the title of Gyani, as he was educated and learned about Guru Granth Sahib at Shaheed Sikh Missionary College in Amritsar.

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