Noah

In Abrahamic religions, Noah[a] (/ˈnoʊ.ə/ NOH-ə)[1][2] was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs. The story of Noah's Ark is told in the Bible's Genesis flood narrative. The biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Ham.

In addition to the Book of Genesis, Noah is mentioned in the Old Testament in the First Book of Chronicles, and the books of Tobit, Wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 2 Esdras, 4 Maccabees; in the New Testament, he is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew, and Luke, the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1st Peter and 2nd Peter. Noah was the subject of much elaboration in the literature of later Abrahamic religions, including the Quran (Surahs 71, 7, 1, and 21).

Noah
NoahsSacrifice
Noah's Sacrifice by Daniel Maclise
Venerated inJudaism
Christianity
Islam
Mandaeism
Baha'i Faith

Biblical account

Noah mosaic
12th-century Venetian mosaic depiction of Noah sending the dove

The primary account of Noah in the Bible is in the Book of Genesis.

Noah was the tenth of the Pre-Flood (Antediluvian) Patriarchs. His father was Lamech and his mother is not named in the biblical accounts.[3] When Noah was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham and Japheth (Genesis 5:32).

Genesis flood narrative

The Genesis flood narrative makes up chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis, in the Bible.[4] The narrative, one of many flood myths found in human cultures, indicates that God intended to return the Earth to its pre-Creation state of watery chaos by flooding the Earth because of humanity's misdeeds and then remake it using the microcosm of Noah's ark. Thus, the flood was no ordinary overflow but a reversal of Creation.[5] The narrative discusses the evil of mankind that moved God to destroy the world by the way of the flood, the preparation of the ark for certain animals, Noah, and his family, and God's guarantee (the Noahic Covenant) for the continued existence of life under the promise that he would never send another flood.[6]

After the flood

After the flood, Noah offered burnt offerings to God, who said: "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done" (8:20–21).

"And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth" (9:1). They were also told that all fowls, land animals, and fishes would be afraid of them. Furthermore, as well as green plants, every moving thing would be their food with the exception that the blood was not to be eaten. Man's life blood would be required from the beasts and from man. "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man" (9:6). A rainbow, called "my bow", was given as the sign of a covenant "between me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations" (9:2–17), called the Noahic covenant or the rainbow covenant.

Noah died 350 years after the flood, at the age of 950,[7] the last of the extremely long-lived Antediluvian patriarchs. The maximum human lifespan, as depicted by the Bible, gradually diminishes thereafter, from almost 1,000 years to the 120 years of Moses.[8]

Noah's drunkenness

Egerton Genesis Noahs Drunkeness
Noah's drunkenness, Ham mocks Noah, Noah is covered, Canaan is cursed. Egerton Genesis

After the flood, the Bible says that Noah became a husbandman and he planted a vineyard. He drank wine made from this vineyard, and got drunk; and lay "uncovered" within his tent. Noah's son Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his brothers, which led to Ham's son Canaan being cursed by Noah.[9] As early as the Classical era, commentators on Genesis 9:20–21 have excused Noah's excessive drinking because he was considered to be the first wine drinker; the first person to discover the effects of wine.[10] John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, and a Church Father, wrote in the 4th century that Noah's behavior is defensible: as the first human to taste wine, he would not know its effects: "Through ignorance and inexperience of the proper amount to drink, fell into a drunken stupor".[11]

Philo, a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher, also excused Noah by noting that one can drink in two different manners: (1) to drink wine in excess, a peculiar sin to the vicious evil man or (2) to partake of wine as the wise man, Noah being the latter.[12]

In Jewish tradition and rabbinic literature on Noah, rabbis blame Satan for the intoxicating properties of the wine.[13][14]

Curse of Ham

Noah-Curses-Ham
Noah curses Ham by Gustave Dore

In the field of psychological biblical criticism, J. H. Ellens and W. G. Rollins address the narrative of Genesis 9:18–27 that narrates the unconventional behavior that occurs between Noah and Ham. Because of its brevity and textual inconsistencies, it has been suggested that this narrative is a "splinter from a more substantial tale".[15][16] A fuller account would explain what exactly Ham had done to his father, or why Noah directed a curse at Canaan for Ham's misdeed, or how Noah came to know what occurred. The narrator relates two facts: (1) Noah became drunken and "he was uncovered within his tent", and (2) Ham "saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without". Thus, these passages revolve around sexuality and the exposure of genitalia as compared with other Hebrew Bible texts, such as Habakkuk 2:15 and Lamentations 4:21.[17]

Other commentaries mention that seeing someone's nakedness could mean having sex with that person as seen in Leviticus 18:7-8 and Leviticus 20:11.[18]

Table of nations

Noahsworld map
The dispersion of the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth (map from the 1854 Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography)

Genesis 10 sets forth the descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, from whom the nations branched out over the earth after the flood. Among Japheth’s descendants were the maritime nations. (10:2–5) Ham’s son Cush had a son named Nimrod, who became the first man of might on earth, a mighty hunter, king in Babylon and the land of Shinar. (10:6–10) From there Asshur went and built Nineveh. (10:11–12) Canaan’s descendants – Sidon, Heth, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites – spread out from Sidon as far as Gerar, near Gaza, and as far as Sodom and Gomorrah. (10:15–19) Among Shem’s descendants was Eber. (10:21)

These genealogies differ structurally from those set out in Genesis 5 and 11. It has a segmented or treelike structure, going from one father to many offspring. It is strange that the table, which assumes that the population is distributed about the Earth, precedes the account of the Tower of Babel, which says that all the population is in one place before it is dispersed.[19]

Family tree

AdamEve
CainAbelSeth
EnochEnos
IradKenan
MehujaelMahalalel
MethushaelJared
AdahLamechZillahEnoch
JabalJubalTubal-CainNaamahMethuselah
Lamech
Noah
ShemHamJapheth

Narrative analysis

According to the documentary hypothesis, the first five books of the Bible (Pentateuch/Torah), including Genesis, were collated during the 5th century BC from four main sources, which themselves date from no earlier than the 10th century BC. Two of these, the Jahwist, composed in the 10th century BC, and the Priestly source, from the late 7th century BC, make up the chapters of Genesis which concern Noah. The attempt by the 5th-century editor to accommodate two independent and sometimes conflicting sources accounts for the confusion over such matters as how many of each animal Noah took, and how long the flood lasted.[20][21]

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible notes that this story echoes parts of the Garden of Eden story: Noah is the first vintner, while Adam is the first farmer; both have problems with their produce; both stories involve nakedness; and both involve a division between brothers leading to a curse. However, after the flood, the stories differ. Noah plants the vineyard and utters the curse, not God, so "God is less involved".[22]

Other accounts

Noah appears in several non-canonical books.

Pseudepigrapha

The Book of Jubilees refers to Noah and says that he was taught the arts of healing by an angel so that his children could overcome "the offspring of the Watchers".[23]

In 10:1–3 of the Book of Enoch (which is part of the Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon), Uriel was dispatched by "the Most High" to inform Noah of the approaching "deluge".[24]

Dead Sea scrolls

Genesis apocryphon
Genesis Apocryphon, a portion of the Dead Sea Scrolls that features Noah.

There are 20 or so fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls that appear to refer to Noah.[25] Lawrence Schiffman writes, "Among the Dead Sea Scrolls at least three different versions of this legend are preserved."[26] In particular, "The Genesis Apocryphon devotes considerable space to Noah." However, "The material seems to have little in common with Genesis 5 which reports the birth of Noah." Also, Noah's father is reported as worrying that his son was actually fathered by one of the Watchers.[27]

Comparative mythology

Indian and Greek flood-myths also exist, although there is little evidence that they were derived from the Mesopotamian flood-myth that underlies the biblical account.[28]

Mesopotamian

Mr. George Smith, the man who transliterated and read the so-called the Babylonian Flood Story of Tablet XI
George Smith, the man who transliterated and read the so-called "Babylonian Flood Story" of Tablet XI of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

The Noah story of the Pentateuch is almost identical to a flood story contained in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, composed about 2000 BC. In the Gilgamesh version, the Mesopotamian gods are enraged by the noise that man has raised from the earth. To quiet them they decide to send a great flood to silence mankind. Various correlations between the stories of Noah and Gilgamesh (the flood, the construction of the ark, the salvation of animals, and the release of birds following the flood) have led to this story being seen as the inspiration for the story of Noah. The few variations include the number of days of the deluge, the order of the birds, and the name of the mountain on which the ark rests. The flood story in Genesis 6–8 matches the Gilgamesh flood myth so closely that "few doubt that [it] derives from a Mesopotamian account."[29] What is particularly noticeable is the way the Genesis flood story follows the Gilgamesh flood tale "point by point and in the same order", even when the story permits other alternatives.[30]

The earliest written flood myth is found in the Mesopotamian Epic of Atrahasis and Epic of Gilgamesh texts. The Encyclopædia Britannica says "These mythologies are the source of such features of the biblical Flood story as the building and provisioning of the ark, its flotation, and the subsidence of the waters, as well as the part played by the human protagonist."[31] The Encyclopedia Judaica adds that there is a strong suggestion that "an intermediate agent was active. The people most likely to have fulfilled this role are the Hurrians, whose territory included the city of Haran, where the Patriarch Abraham had his roots. The Hurrians inherited the Flood story from Babylonia".[32] The encyclopedia mentions another similarity between the stories: Noah is the tenth patriarch and Berossus notes that "the hero of the great flood was Babylonia’s tenth antediluvian king." However, there is a discrepancy in the ages of the heroes. For the Mesopotamian antecedents, "the reigns of the antediluvian kings range from 18,600 to nearly 65,000 years." In the Bible, the lifespans "fall far short of the briefest reign mentioned in the related Mesopotamian texts." Also, the name of the hero differs between the traditions: "The earliest Mesopotamian flood account, written in the Sumerian language, calls the deluge hero Ziusudra."[32]

Gilgamesh’s historical reign is believed to have been approximately 2700 BC,[33] shortly before the earliest known written stories. The discovery of artifacts associated with Aga and Enmebaragesi of Kish, two other kings named in the stories, has lent credibility to the historical existence of Gilgamesh.[34]

The earliest Sumerian Gilgamesh poems date from as early as the Third dynasty of Ur (2100–2000 BC).[35] One of these poems mentions Gilgamesh’s journey to meet the flood hero, as well as a short version of the flood story.[36] The earliest Akkadian versions of the unified epic are dated to ca. 2000–1500 BC.[37] Due to the fragmentary nature of these Old Babylonian versions, it is unclear whether they included an expanded account of the flood myth; although one fragment definitely includes the story of Gilgamesh’s journey to meet Utnapishtim. The "standard" Akkadian version included a long version of the flood story and was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni sometime between 1300 and 1000 BC.[38]

Ancient Greek

Noah has often been compared to Deucalion, the son of Prometheus and Pronoia in Greek mythology. Like Noah, Deucalion is warned of the flood (by Zeus and Poseidon); he builds an ark and staffs it with creatures – and when he completes his voyage, gives thanks and takes advice from the gods on how to repopulate the Earth. Deucalion also sends a pigeon to find out about the situation of the world and the bird returns with an olive branch.[39][40] Deucalion, in some versions of the myth, also becomes the inventor of wine, like Noah.[41] Philo[42] and Justin equate Deucalion with Noah, and Josephus used the story of Deucalion as evidence that the flood actually occurred and that, therefore, Noah existed.[43][44]

Hindu

A story involving Lord Vishnu and King Manu is found in the Hindu chronicle Matsya Purana. Lord Vishnu in his 'matsya' (fish) avatar ordered the virtuous king Manu to construct a huge boat with animal and plant specimens of all forms, to escape the Great Deluge, and finally when the water receded,the great boat was found atop the Malaya Mountains.[45] Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "Manu combines the characteristics of the Hebrew Bible figures of Noah, who preserved life from extinction in a great flood, and Adam, the first man",[46] which view is reflected in several other works.[47] Indologist David Dean Shulman writes that borrowing between the myths of Manu and Noah "cannot be ruled out".[48] For Krishna Mohan Banerjee, the names "Noah" and "Manu" "had the same etymological root: 'Manu' must have been the Indo-Aryan ideal of Noah."[49] Philologist and founder of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, William Jones, "identifies Manu with Noah", along with whom, "the seven sages can be identified with the eight people aboard the Ark."[50] Furthermore, researcher Klaus Klostermaier reports a Muslim writer who "identifies Brahma with Abraham .... and Manu with Noah."[51] Others, however, would say that "the story is thoroughly Indian" and the "boat is not the equivalent of Noah's Ark, though it is still the symbol of salvation"[52] According to Purana Manu's story occur before 28 chaturyuga in the present Manvantara which is the 7th Manvantara. This amounts to 120 million years ago.[53][54][55]

Religious views

Judaism

Ararat Ms. 11639 521a
A Jewish depiction of Noah

The righteousness of Noah is the subject of much discussion among rabbis.[56] The description of Noah as "righteous in his generation" implied to some that his perfection was only relative: In his generation of wicked people, he could be considered righteous, but in the generation of a tzadik like Abraham, he would not be considered so righteous. They point out that Noah did not pray to God on behalf of those about to be destroyed, as Abraham prayed for the wicked of Sodom and Gomorrah. In fact, Noah is never seen to speak; he simply listens to God and acts on his orders. This led some commentators to offer the figure of Noah as "the man in a fur coat," who ensured his own comfort while ignoring his neighbour.[57] Others, such as the medieval commentator Rashi, held on the contrary that the building of the Ark was stretched over 120 years, deliberately in order to give sinners time to repent. Rashi interprets his father's statement of the naming of Noah (in Hebrew נֹחַ) "This one will comfort us (in Hebrew– yeNaHamainu יְנַחֲמֵנו) in our work and in the toil of our hands, which come from the ground that the Lord had cursed",[58] by saying Noah heralded a new era of prosperity, when there was easing (in Hebrew – nahah – נחה) from the curse from the time of Adam when the Earth produced thorns and thistles even where men sowed wheat and that Noah then introduced the plow.[59]

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, "The Book of Genesis contains two accounts of Noah." In the first, Noah is the hero of the flood, and in the second, he is the father of mankind and a husbandman who planted the first vineyard. "The disparity of character between these two narratives has caused some critics to insist that the subject of the latter account was not the same as the subject of the former." Perhaps the original name of the hero of the flood was actually Enoch.[60]

The Encyclopedia Judaica notes that Noah's drunkenness is not presented as reprehensible behavior. Rather, "It is clear that ... Noah’s venture into viticulture provides the setting for the castigation of Israel’s Canaanite neighbors." It was Ham who committed an offense when he viewed his father’s nakedness. Yet, "Noah’s curse, ...is strangely aimed at Canaan rather than the disrespectful Ham." (p. 288)[32]

Christianity

Noah catacombe
An early Christian depiction showing Noah giving the gesture of orant as the dove returns

2 Peter 2:5 refers to Noah as a "preacher of righteousness". In the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke, Jesus compares Noah's flood with the coming Day of Judgement: "Just as it was in the days of Noah, so too it will be in the days of the coming of the Son of Man. For in the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day Noah entered the ark; and they knew nothing about what would happen until the flood came and took them all away. That is how it will be at the coming of the Son of Man."[61][62]

The First Epistle of Peter compares the power of baptism with the Ark saving those who were in it. In later Christian thought, the Ark came to be compared to the Church: salvation was to be found only within Christ and his Lordship, as in Noah's time it had been found only within the Ark. St Augustine of Hippo (354–430), demonstrated in The City of God that the dimensions of the Ark corresponded to the dimensions of the human body, which corresponds to the body of Christ; the equation of Ark and Church is still found in the Anglican rite of baptism, which asks God, "who of thy great mercy didst save Noah," to receive into the Church the infant about to be baptised.[63]

In medieval Christianity, Noah's three sons were generally considered as the founders of the populations of the three known continents, Japheth/Europe, Shem/Asia, and Ham/Africa, although a rarer variation held that they represented the three classes of medieval society – the priests (Shem), the warriors (Japheth), and the peasants (Ham). In medieval Christian thought, Ham was considered to be the ancestor of the people of black Africa. So, in racialist arguments, the curse of Ham became a justification for the slavery of the black races.[64]

Isaac Newton, in his religious works on the development of religion, wrote about Noah and his offspring. In Newton's view, while Noah was a monotheist, the gods of pagan antiquity are identified with Noah and his descendants.[65]

Mormon theology

In Mormon theology, Noah plays an important role, prior to his birth, as the angel Gabriel, and then lived in his mortal life as the patriarch-prophet Noah. Gabriel and Noah are regarded as the same individual under different names.[66][67] Mormons also believe that Noah returned to earth as Gabriel after his earthly life[68] and appeared to Daniel to teach him about the Second Coming; to Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist; and to Mary, the mother of Jesus.[69]

Noah is considered the head of a dispensation along with Adam, Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Joseph Smith. A dispensation is a period of time in which the Lord has at least one authorized servant on earth who bears the keys of the holy priesthood.[70] Noah became the means by which the gospel of Jesus Christ— the plan of salvation —is revealed anew, the means by which divine transforming powers, including saving covenants and ordinances, are extended to people during an age of time called a dispensation.[71]

Islam

Noah's Ark by Miskin
An Islamic depiction of Noah in a 16th-century Mughal miniature.

Noah is a highly important figure in Islam and he is seen as one of the most significant of all prophets. The Quran contains 43 references to Noah, or Nuḥ, in 28 chapters, and the seventy-first chapter, Sūrat Nūḥ (Arabic: سورة نوح‎), is named after him. His life is also spoken of in the commentaries and in Islamic legends.

Noah's narratives largely cover his preaching as well the story of the Deluge. Noah's narrative sets the prototype for many of the subsequent prophetic stories, which begin with the prophet warning his people and then the community rejecting the message and facing a punishment.

Noah has several titles in Islam, based primarily on praise for him in the Qur'an, including "True Messenger of God" (XXVI: 107) and "Grateful Servant of God" (XVII: 3).[32][72]

The Qur'an focuses on several instances from Noah's life more than others, and one of the most significant events is the Flood. God makes a covenant with Noah just as he did with Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad later on (33:7). Noah is later reviled by his people and reproached by them for being a mere human messenger and not an angel (10:72–74). Moreover, the people mock Noah's words and call him a liar (7:62), and they even suggest that Noah is possessed by a devil when the prophet ceases to preach (54:9). Only the lowest in the community join Noah in believing in God's message (11:29), and Noah's narrative further describes him preaching both in private and public. Noah prays to God, "Lord, leave not one single family of Infidels from the land: / For if thou leave them they will beguile thy servants and will beget only sinners, infidels."[73] The Qur'an narrates that Noah received a revelation to build an Ark, after his people refused to believe in his message and hear the warning. The narrative goes on to describe that waters poured forth from the Heavens, destroying all the sinners. Even one of his sons disbelieved him, stayed behind, and was drowned. After the Flood ended, the Ark rested atop Mount Judi (Quran 11:44).

Noah's ark and the deluge
Noah's ark and the deluge from Zubdat-al Tawarikh

Also, Islamic beliefs deny the idea of Noah being the first person to drink wine and experience the aftereffects of doing so.[32][72]

Quran 29:14 states that Noah had been living among the people who he was sent to for 950 years when the flood started.

And, indeed, [in times long past] We sent forth Noah unto his people, and he dwelt among them a thousand years bar fifty; and then the floods overwhelmed them while they were still lost in evildoing.

According to the Ahmadiyya understanding of the Quran, the period described in the Quran is the age of his dispensation, which extended until the time of Ibrahim (Abraham, 950 years). The first 50 years were the years of spiritual progress, which were followed by 900 years of spiritual deterioration of the people of Noah.[74]

Gnostic

An important Gnostic text, the Apocryphon of John, reports that the chief archon caused the flood because he desired to destroy the world he had made, but the First Thought informed Noah of the chief archon's plans, and Noah informed the remainder of humanity. Unlike the account of Genesis, not only are Noah's family saved, but many others also heed Noah's call. There is no ark in this account. According to Elaine Pagels, "Rather, they hid in a particular place, not only Noah, but also many other people from the unshakable race. They entered that place and hid in a bright cloud."[75]

Bahá'í

The Bahá'í Faith regards the Ark and the Flood as symbolic.[76] In Bahá'í belief, only Noah's followers were spiritually alive, preserved in the ark of his teachings, as others were spiritually dead.[77][78] The Bahá'í scripture Kitáb-i-Íqán endorses the Islamic belief that Noah had a large number of companions, either 40 or 72, besides his family on the Ark, and that he taught for 950 (symbolic) years before the flood.[79]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hebrew: נֹחַ, Modern: Nōaẖ, Tiberian: Nōaḥ; Syriac: ܢܘܚNukh; Amharic: ኖህ, Noḥ; Arabic: نُوحNūḥ; Ancient Greek: Νῶε Nôe

References

  1. ^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 2012-02-25), IPA-ified from «nō´a»
  2. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 9781405881180.
  3. ^ Fullom, S.W. (1855). The History of Woman, and Her Connexion with Religion, Civilization, & Domestic Manners, from the Earliest Period. p.10
  4. ^ Silverman, Jason (2013). Opening Heaven's Floodgates: The Genesis Flood Narrative, Its Context, and Reception. Gorgias Press.
  5. ^ Barry L. Bandstra (2008). Reading the Old Testament: Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Cengage Learning. p. 61. ISBN 0-495-39105-0.
  6. ^ Cotter 2003, pp. 49, 50.
  7. ^ Genesis 9:28–29
  8. ^ Genesis 6:3; Deuteronomy 31:22; 34:37
  9. ^ Genesis 9:20–27
  10. ^ Ellens & Rollins. Psychology and the Bible: From Freud to Kohut, 2004, (ISBN 027598348X, 9780275983482), p.52
  11. ^ Hamilton, 1990, pp. 202–203
  12. ^ Philo, 1971, p. 160
  13. ^ Gen. Rabbah 36:3
  14. ^ "NOAH - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com.
  15. ^ Speiser, 1964, 62
  16. ^ T. A. Bergren. Biblical Figures Outside the Bible, 2002, (ISBN 1563384116, ISBN 978-1-56338-411-0), p. 136
  17. ^ Ellens & Rollins, 2004, p.53
  18. ^ Levenson, 2004, 26
  19. ^ Bandstra, B. (2008), Reading the Old Testament: Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Cengage Learning, pp. 67–68
  20. ^ Collins, John J. (2004). Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-8006-2991-4.
  21. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliotty (1989). Who Wrote the Bible?. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 59. ISBN 0-06-063035-3.
  22. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 318.
  23. ^ Lewis, Jack Pearl, A Study of the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 14.
  24. ^ "Chapter X" . The Book of Enoch. translated by Robert H. Charles. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1917.CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. ^ Peters, DM., Noah Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, pp. 15–17.
  26. ^ Schiffman, LH., [1] Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Volume 2'], Granite Hill Publishers, 2000, pp. 613–614.
  27. ^ Lewis, Jack Pearl, A Study of the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 11. "the offspring of the Watchers"
  28. ^ Frazer, JG., in Dundes, A (ed.), The Flood Myth, University of California Press, 1988, pp. 121–122.
  29. ^ George, =A. R. (2003). The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic: Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-19-927841-1. Retrieved 8 November 2012 – via Google Books.
  30. ^ Rendsburg, Gary. "The Biblical flood story in the light of the Gilgamesh flood account," in Gilgamesh and the world of Assyria, eds Azize, J & Weeks, N. Peters, 2007, p. 117
  31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Noah.
  32. ^ a b c d e Skolnik, Fred; Berenbaum, Michael (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 287–291. ISBN 978-0-02-865943-5.
  33. ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, pages 123, 502
  34. ^ Dalley, Stephanie, Myths from Mesopotamia, Oxford University Press (1989), p. 40–41
  35. ^ Andrew George, page xix
  36. ^ "The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature". etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  37. ^ Andrew George, page 101, "Early Second Millennium BC" in Old Babylonian
  38. ^ Andrew George, pages xxiv–xxv
  39. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Deucalion.
  40. ^ Wajdenbaum, P., Argonauts of the Desert: Structural Analysis of the Hebrew Bible, Routledge, 2014, pp. 104–108.
  41. ^ Anderson, G., Greek and Roman Folklore: A Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. pp. 129–130.
  42. ^ Lewis, JP.; Lewis, JP., A Study of the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature, BRILL, 1968, p. 47.
  43. ^ Peters, DM., Noah Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, p. 4.
  44. ^ Feldman, LH., Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible, University of California Press, 1998, p. 133.
  45. ^ Frazer. RW., A Literary History of India, Mittal Publications, 1898, pp. 83–84.
  46. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Manu
  47. ^ Ananda, SG., Brahma: The God of Abraham, Art of Unity, 2014, pp. 177 – 180.
  48. ^ Shulman, DD, in Dundes, A. (ed), The Flood Myth, University of California Press, 1988, p. 296.
  49. ^ Sugirtharajah, R. S. (2001). The Bible and the Third World: Precolonial, Colonial and Postcolonial Encounters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-00524-1.
  50. ^ Trautmann. TR., Aryans and British India, Yoda Press, 2006 p. 58.
  51. ^ Klostermaier, K., A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, SUNY Press, 2010, p. 406.
  52. ^ Bonnefoy, Y., Asian Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1993, p. 80.
  53. ^ "G. P. Bhatt (ed.), The vayu purana, part-II, 1st ed., 784—789, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.38 of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  54. ^ "J. L. Shastri (ed.), The kurma-purana, part-I, 1st ed., 47—52, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.20 of A.I.T.&M., Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  55. ^ "J. L. Shastri (ed.), The Narada purana, part-II, 1st ed., p. 699, tr. G. V. Tagare. In vol.16 of A.I.T.&M., Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981". Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  56. ^ "NOAH - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com.
  57. ^ Mamet, D., Kushner, L., Five Cities of Refuge: Weekly Reflections on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, Schocken Books, 2003, p. 1.
  58. ^ Genesis 5:29
  59. ^ Frishman, J., Rompay, L. von, The Book of Genesis in Jewish and Oriental Christian Interpretation: A Collection of Essays, Peeters Publishers, 1997, pp. 62–65.
  60. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Noah. Critical View
  61. ^ Matthew 24:38
  62. ^ Luke 17:26
  63. ^ Peters, DM., Noah Traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Conversations and Controversies of Antiquity, Society of Biblical Lit, 2008, pp. 15–17.
  64. ^ Jackson, JP., Weidman, NM., Race, Racism, and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 4.
  65. ^ Force, J E (1999), "Essay 12: Newton, the "Ancients" and the "Moderns"", in Popkin, RH; Force, JE (eds.), Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence, International Archive of the History of Ideas (No 161), Kluwer, pp. 253–254 – via Google Books
  66. ^ "Noah", Bible Dictionary, KJV (LDS), LDS Church
  67. ^ "Noah, Bible Patriarch", Study Helps: The Guide to the Scriptures, Standard works, LDS Church
  68. ^ "Chapter 8: The Everlasting Priesthood", Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph Smith, LDS Church, 2001, pp. 101–113
  69. ^ "Old Testament Prophets: Noah", Ensign, February 2014
  70. ^ "Dispensation", Study Helps: The Guide to the Scriptures, Standard works, LDS Church
  71. ^ Millet, Robert L. (June 1994), "Joseph Smith among the Prophets", Ensign
  72. ^ a b Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM. Brill. pp. 108–109.
  73. ^ 71:26–27 Rodwell 1876 version
  74. ^ Rashid Ahmad Chaudhry. Hadhrat Nuh (PDF). Islam International Publications. ISBN 1-85372-758-X.
  75. ^ Pagels, Elaine (2013). The Gnostic Gospels. Orion. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-78022-670-5.
  76. ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, October 28, 1949: Bahá'í News, No. 228, February 1950, p. 4. Republished in Compilation 1983, p. 508
  77. ^ Poirier, Brent. "The Kitab-i-Iqan: The key to unsealing the mysteries of the Holy Bible". Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  78. ^ Shoghi Effendi (1971). Messages to the Bahá'í World, 1950–1957. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 0-87743-036-5.
  79. ^ From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, November 25, 1950. Published in Compilation 1983, p. 494

Bibliography

External links

Enoch (ancestor of Noah)

Enoch ( (listen)) is of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible. Enoch was son of Jared and fathered Methuselah.

This Enoch is not to be confused with Cain's son Enoch (Genesis 4:17).

The text of the Book of Genesis says Enoch lived 365 years before he was taken by God. The text reads that Enoch "walked with God: and he was no more; for God took him" (Gen 5:21–24), which some Christians interpret as Enoch's entering Heaven alive.

Enoch is the subject of many Jewish and Christian traditions. He was considered the author of the Book of Enoch and also called Enoch the scribe of judgment.

The New Testament has three references to Enoch from the lineage of Seth (Luke 3:37, Hebrews 11:5, Jude 1:14–15).

Generations of Noah

The Generations of Noah or Table of Nations (Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible) is a genealogy of the sons of Noah and their dispersion into many lands after the Flood, focusing on the major known societies. The term nations to describe the descendants is a standard English translation of the Hebrew word "goy", following the c. 400 CE Latin Vulgate's "nationes", and does not have the same political connotations that the word entails today.The list of 70 names introduces for the first time a number of well known ethnonyms and toponyms important to biblical geography such as Noah's three sons Shem, Ham and Japheth, from which were derived Semites, Hamites and Japhetites, certain of Noah's grandsons including Elam, Ashur, Aram, Cush, and Canaan, from which the Elamites, Assyrians, Arameans, Cushites and Canaanites, as well as further descendants including Eber (from which "Hebrews"), the hunter-king Nimrod, the Philistines and the sons of Canaan including Heth, Jebus and Amorus, from which Hittites, Jebusites and Amorites.

As Christianity took over the Roman world, it adopted the idea that all the world's peoples were descended from Noah. But the tradition of Hellenistic Jewish identifications of the ancestry of various peoples, which concentrates very much on the East Mediterranean and the Near East and is described below, became stretched and its historicity questioned. Not all Near Eastern people were covered, and northern peoples important to the Late Roman and medieval world, such as the Celtic, Slavic, Germanic and Nordic peoples were not covered, nor were others of the world's peoples, such as sub-Saharan Africans, Native Americans and peoples of Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Far East and Australasia. A variety of arrangements were devised by scholars in order to make the table fit, with for example the Scythians, who do feature in the tradition, being claimed as the ancestors of much of northern Europe.According to Joseph Blenkinsopp, the 70 names in the list express symbolically the unity of humanity, corresponding to the 70 descendants of Israel who go down into Egypt with Jacob at Genesis 46:27 and the 70 elders of Israel who visit God with Moses at the covenant ceremony in Exodus 24:1–9.

Genesis flood narrative

The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Tanakh (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis). The story tells of God's decision to return the Earth to its pre-creation state of watery chaos and then remake it in a reversal of creation. The narrative has very strong similarities to parts of the Epic of Gilgamesh which predates the Book of Genesis.

A global flood as described in this myth is inconsistent with the physical findings of geology and paleontology. A branch of creationism known as flood geology is a pseudoscientific attempt to argue that such a global flood actually occurred.

Joakim Noah

Joakim Simon Noah ( JOH-ə-kim; born February 25, 1985) is a professional basketball player for the Memphis Grizzlies of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Born in New York City to a Swedish mother and a French father, he holds American, Swedish and French citizenship. He played college basketball for the Florida Gators, winning back-to-back NCAA championships in 2006 and 2007. The Chicago Bulls selected Noah with the ninth overall pick in the 2007 NBA draft. Noah is a two-time NBA All-Star and was named to the All-NBA First Team in 2014 when he also was named the NBA Defensive Player of the Year.

Megan Fox

Megan Denise Fox (born May 16, 1986) is an American actress and model. She began her acting career in 2001, with several minor television and film roles, and played a regular role on the Hope & Faith television sitcom. In 2004, she made her film debut with a role in the teen comedy Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen. In 2007, she co-starred as Mikaela Banes, the love interest of Shia LaBeouf's character, in the blockbuster action film Transformers, which became her breakout role. Fox reprised her role in the 2009 sequel, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. Later in 2009, she starred in the black comedy horror film Jennifer's Body. In 2014, Fox starred as April O'Neil in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and reprised the role in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows (2016).

Fox is considered a sex symbol and has appeared in magazines such as Maxim, Rolling Stone, and FHM.

Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark (Hebrew: תיבת נח‎; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) through which God spares Noah, his family, and examples of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood. The story in Genesis is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nūḥ (Arabic: سفينة نوح‎ "Noah's boat").

Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius (c. 275–339 CE), and believers in the Ark continue to search for it in modern times. Many searches have been mounted for the ark, but no confirmable physical proof of the ark has ever been found. There is no scientific evidence that Noah's Ark existed as it is described in the Bible, nor is there evidence in the geologic record for the biblical global flood.

Noah (2014 film)

Noah is a 2014 American epic Biblical drama film directed by Darren Aronofsky and inspired by the Biblical story of Noah's Ark from the Book of Genesis. Noah, which was co-written by Aronofsky and Ari Handel, stars Russell Crowe as Noah, along with Jennifer Connelly, Emma Watson, Ray Winstone, Logan Lerman, Douglas Booth, and Anthony Hopkins. The film was released in North American theaters on March 28, 2014, in 2D and IMAX, while a version converted to 3D and IMAX 3D was released in several other countries.Noah received generally positive reviews from critics and grossed over $362 million worldwide, making it Aronofsky's highest-grossing film to date. It was praised for its direction and acting, but generated controversy, primarily due to its lack of racial diversity, its perceived left-leaning political messages and its extensive use of non-biblical sources for inspiration such as the Book of Enoch. It was banned in China for "religion-related reason". Also, it was banned in several Muslim countries because it was seen as contradicting the teachings of Islam.

Noah Baumbach

Noah Baumbach (born September 3, 1969) is an American filmmaker. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for The Squid and the Whale (2005) and is known for making dramatic comedies. He has also written and directed the films Frances Ha (2012), While We're Young (2014), Mistress America (2015), and The Meyerowitz Stories (2017).

Noah Cyrus

Noah Lindsey Cyrus (born January 8, 2000) is an American actress and singer. She voiced the title character in the English dub of the 2009 anime film Ponyo. In 2016, she released her debut single "Make Me (Cry)", featuring vocals from Labrinth.

Noah is the fifth child of Billy Ray and Tish Cyrus and the youngest sibling of Trace and Miley Cyrus. She was named one of Time's 30 Most Influential Teens in 2017.

Noah Wyle

Noah Strausser Speer Wyle (; born June 4, 1971) is an American film, television, and theatre actor. He is known for his roles as Dr. John Carter in ER and as Tom Mason in Falling Skies. He has also played Steve Jobs in the docudrama Pirates of Silicon Valley (1999), Dr. Kenneth Monnitoff in Donnie Darko (2001), and Flynn Carsen in The Librarian franchise.

Noah in Islam

Nûh ibn Lumik ibn Mutushalkh (Arabic: نوح‎, romanized: Nūḥ), known as Noah in the Old Testament, is recognized in Islam as a prophet and apostle of God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh). He is an important figure in Islamic tradition, as he is one of the earliest prophets sent by God to mankind. According to Islam, Noah's mission was to warn his people, who were plunged in depravity and sin. God charged Noah with the duty of preaching to his people, advising them to abandon idolatry and to worship only God and to live good and pure lives. Although he preached the Message of God with zeal, his people refused to mend their ways, leading to building the Ark and the Deluge, the Great Flood. In Islamic tradition, it is disputed whether the Great Flood was a global or a local one. Noah's preaching and prophet-hood spanned 950 years according to Quran.

Noah's mission had a double character: he had to warn his people, asking them to call for repentance and, at the same time, he had to preach about God's mercy and forgiveness, promising them the glad tidings God would provide if they led righteous lives. References to Noah are scattered throughout the Qur'an, and there is even an entire sura carrying his name, Noah.

Noahidism

Noahidism () or Noachidism () is a monotheistic branch of Judaism based on the Seven Laws of Noah, and their traditional interpretations within Rabbinic Judaism. According to the Jewish law, non-Jews (Gentiles) are not obligated to convert to Judaism, but they are required to observe the Seven Laws of Noah to be assured of a place in the World to Come (Olam Ha-Ba), the final reward of the righteous. The divinely ordained penalty for violating any of these Noahide Laws is discussed in the Talmud, but in practical terms it is subject to the working legal system which is established by the society at large. Those who subscribe to the observance of the Noahic Covenant are referred to as B'nei Noach (Hebrew: בני נח, "Children of Noah") or Noahides (). Supporting organizations have been established around the world over the past decades by either Noahides or Orthodox Jews.

Historically, the Hebrew term B'nei Noach has applied to all non-Jews as descendants of Noah. However, nowadays it's primarily used to refer specifically to those non-Jews who observe the Seven Laws of Noah.According to a Noahide source in 2018, there are over 20,000 Noahides, and the country with the greatest number is the Philippines.

Pro Wrestling Noah

Pro Wrestling Noah (プロレスリングノア, Puroresuringu Noa) (stylised as Pro Wrestling NOAH is a Japanese professional wrestling promotion, founded in 2000 by former All Japan Pro Wrestling (AJPW) ace Mitsuharu Misawa after he had led a mass exodus in which 24 of AJPW's 26 contracted wrestlers left the promotion to form Noah.

Noah held its first shows in August 2000, and established the Global Honored Crown as the fictional governing body for its collection of championships. Throughout its 19 year history, Noah has had working relationships with New Japan Pro Wrestling (NJPW), All Japan Pro Wrestling (AJPW), Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) and Big Japan Pro Wrestling (BJW). It is currently owned by Lidet Entertainment.

Seven Laws of Noah

The Seven Laws of Noah (Hebrew: שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noach), also referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws (from the Hebrew pronunciation of "Noah"), are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity.According to Jewish tradition, non-Jews who adhere to these laws because they were given by Moses are said to be followers of Noahidism and regarded as righteous gentiles, who are assured of a place in Olam Haba (עולם הבא, the world to come), the final reward of the righteous.The Seven Laws of Noah include prohibitions against worshipping idols, cursing God, murder, adultery and sexual immorality, theft, eating flesh torn from a living animal, as well as the obligation to establish courts of justice.

Shem

Shem (; Hebrew: שֵׁם Shem;) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.

The children of Shem were Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud and Aram, in addition to daughters. Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad.

Islamic literature describes Shem as one of the believing sons of Noah. Some sources even identify Shem as a

prophet in his own right and that he was the next prophet after his father.Shem is mentioned several times in Genesis 5-11 as well as 1 Chronicles 1:4.

The Daily Show

The Daily Show is an American late-night talk and news satire television program. It airs each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. Describing itself as a fake news program, The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, and often uses self-referential humor as well.The half-hour-long show premiered on July 21, 1996, and was first hosted by Craig Kilborn until December 17, 1998. Jon Stewart then took over as the host from January 11, 1999, until August 6, 2015, making the show more strongly focused on political satire and news satire, in contrast with the pop culture focus during Kilborn's tenure. Stewart was succeeded by Trevor Noah, whose tenure premiered on September 28, 2015. Under different hosts, the show has been formally known as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart from 1999 until 2015, and The Daily Show with Trevor Noah since 2015. The Daily Show is the longest-running program on Comedy Central (counting all three tenures), and has won 24 Primetime Emmy Awards.The program is popular among young audiences. The Pew Research Center suggested in 2010 that 74% of regular viewers were between 18 and 49, and that 10% of the audience watched the show for its news headlines, 2% for in-depth reporting, and 43% for entertainment, compared with 64% who watched CNN for the news headlines.Critics chastised Stewart for not conducting sufficiently hard-hitting interviews with his political guests, some of whom he may have lampooned in previous segments. Stewart and other Daily Show writers responded to such criticism by saying that they do not have any journalistic responsibility and that as comedians their only duty is to provide entertainment. Stewart's appearance on the CNN show Crossfire picked up this debate, where he chastised the CNN production and hosts for not conducting informative and current interviews on a news network.

The Notebook

The Notebook is a 2004 romantic drama film directed by Nick Cassavetes and written by Jeremy Leven from Jan Sardi's adaptation of the 1996 novel by Nicholas Sparks. The film stars Ryan Gosling and Rachel McAdams as a young couple who fall in love in the 1940s. Their story is narrated from the present day by an elderly man, (portrayed by James Garner), telling the tale to a fellow nursing home resident (played by Gena Rowlands, who is Cassavetes's mother).

The Notebook received generally mixed reviews, but performed well at the box office and received a number of award nominations, winning eight Teen Choice Awards, a Satellite Award, and an MTV Movie Award. The film became a sleeper hit and has gained a cult following. On November 11, 2012, ABC Family premiered an extended version with deleted scenes added back into the original storyline.

Trevor Noah

Trevor Noah (born 20 February 1984) is a South African comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. He is known for hosting The Daily Show, an American satirical news program on Comedy Central.

Born in Johannesburg, Noah began his career as a comedian, presenter, and actor in his native South Africa in 2002. He held several television hosting roles with the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), and was the runner-up in their fourth season of Strictly Come Dancing in 2008. From 2010 to 2011, Noah was the creator and host of Tonight with Trevor Noah on M-Net and DStv. His stand-up comedy career attained international success, leading to appearances on American late-night talk shows and British panel shows. In 2014, Noah became the Senior International Correspondent for The Daily Show, and the following year, he succeeded long-time host Jon Stewart and is set to remain in this position up until 2022.Noah's autobiographical comedy book Born a Crime was published in 2016 and garnered critical acclaim. Noah was named one of "The 35 Most Powerful People in New York Media" by The Hollywood Reporter in 2017 and 2018. In 2018, Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world.

Yannick Noah

Yannick Noah (born 18 May 1960) is a former professional tennis player and singer from France. He won the French Open in 1983, and is currently the captain of both France's Davis Cup and Fed Cup team. During his career, which spanned almost two decades, Noah captured a total of 23 singles titles and 16 doubles titles, reaching a career-high singles ranking of World No. 3 (in July 1986) and attaining the World No. 1 doubles ranking the following month. Since his retirement from the game, Noah has remained in the public eye as a popular music performer and as the co-founder, with his mother, of a charity organization for underprivileged children. Noah is also the father of Joakim Noah of the NBA Memphis Grizzlies.

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible
Pre-Patriarchal
Patriarchs / Matriarchs
Israelite prophets
in the Torah
Mentioned in the
Former Prophets
Major
Minor
Noahide
Other
Adam to David according to the Bible
Creation to Flood
Cain line
Patriarchs after Flood
Tribe of Judah to Kingdom
Theology
Media
Other cultures
Science
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