Nkore (also called Nkole, Nyankore, Nyankole, Orunyankore, Orunyankole, Runyankore and Runyankole) is a Bantu language spoken by the Nkore ("Banyankore") and Hima peoples of south-western Uganda in the former province of Ankole.
There are approximately 2,330,000 native speakers, mainly found in the Mbarara, Bushenyi, Ntungamo, Kiruhura, Ibanda, Isingiro, and Rukungiri districts. Runyankole is part of an east and central African language variously spoken by the Nkore, Kiga, Nyoro, and Tooro people in Uganda; the Nyambo, Ha, and Haya people in Tanzania; and some ethnic groups in the Congo region, Burundi, and Rwanda. They were part of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom of the 14-16th centuries.
There is a brief description and teaching guide for this language, written by Charles V. Taylor in the 1950s, and an adequate dictionary in print. Whilst this language is spoken by almost all the Ugandans in the region, most also speak English, especially in the towns. (English is one of Uganda's two official languages, and the language taught in schools.)
|2.3 million (2002)|
Runyankore has a five-vowel system: /a, e, i, o, u/.
The greeting Agandi, implying, "How are you?" but literally meaning "other news!", can be replied with Ni marungi, which literally means "good news!".
The proper greetings are Oraire ota? or Osiibire ota?, literally translated "How was your night?" and "How was your day?". "Good night" is Oraare gye and "Good day" is Osiibe gye.
Here are a few names one might use in a greeting:
Oraire ota (orei-rota) Replies: I'm fine Ndeire gye (ndei-re-jeh) or Ndyaho (indi-aho)
Oraire gye? (orei-reh-jeh) Reply: Yes, fine, okay Kare (Kar-eh)
Osiibire ota (o-see-bee-rota) Replies: Nsiibire gye (insi-bi-reje)
Osiibire gye (Osi birejge) Replies: Yes- Eego (egg-oh) or nsiibire gye
Waasiiba ota (wasib-wota) Reply: Fine, good, I've spent it well – Naasiiba gye (nasi-baje)
Kiga (also called Rukiga, Ruchiga, or Chiga) is a Great Lakes Bantu language of the Kiga people (Bakiga). Kiga is a similar and partially mutually intelligible with Nkore language. It was first written in the second half of the 19th century.
Kiga is so similar to Nkore (84%–94% lexical similarity) that some argue they are dialects of the same language, called Nkore-Kiga by Charles Taylor.In common with other Bantu languages, Kiga has a noun class system in which prefixes on nouns mark membership of one of the noun genders. Pronouns, adjectives, and verbs reflect the noun gender of the nominal they refer to. Some examples of noun classes:
mu – person (singular), e.g. omukiga = inhabitant of Kigezi land
ru – language, e.g. Rukiga = language of the Kiga
ba – people, e.g. Bakiga = The Kiga people
ki – customs or traditions, e.g. kikiga, (sometimes spelled Kichiga), describes religious tradition common to the Kiga people. Sometimes the people are called 'Chiga' by people misunderstanding the linguistic rules in relation to the prefixes.The sound [l] is not distinctive in Rukiga. The letter "r" is used instead.
Note: The Guthrie classification is geographic and its groupings do not imply a relationship between the languages within them.