Nizami Aruzi

Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Persian: نظامی عروضی‎) and also Arudi ("The Prosodist"), was a Persian poet and prose writer[1] who flourished between 1110 and 1161 AD. He is particularly famous for his Chahar Maghaleh ("Four Discourses"), his only work to fully survive. While living in Samarqand, Abu’l-Rajaʾ Ahmad b. ʿAbd-Al-Ṣamad, a dehqan in Transoxiana, told Nezami of how the poet Rudaki was given compensation for his poem extolling the virtues of Samanid Amir Nasr b. Ahmad.[2]

Born in Samarqand, Aruzi spent most of his time in Khorasan and Transoxiana.[3] He served as a court-poet to the Ghaznavids for many years. All that is known of his personal life is gleaned from the Chahar Maqala itself.[4] Nizámí-i'Arúdí’s The Chahár Maqála, or Four Discourses, is a book consisting of four discourses on four different professionals that Nizami believed a king needs to have in his palace; in the preface of the book, Nizami discusses the philosophical or religious ideology of the creation of the world and the order of things. While he was primarily a courtier, he noted in his book that he was an astronomer and physician as well.[5] He reports in the work that he spent time not only in his native Samarqand, but also in Herat, Tus (where he visited Ferdowsi's tomb and gathered material on the great poet), Balkh, and Nishapur, where he lived for perhaps five years.[6] He also claimed to have studied under the astronomer-poet Omar Khayyám, a native of Nishapour.[7]

In the introduction to the Chahar Maqala, Aruzi elaborates on issues of natural science, epistemology and politics. An identifying feature of Nizámí-i'Arúdí’s writing is the preface, "On Cosmography", is the extensive use of double balance sentences that gives the impression of belief in binary oppositions, or juxtaposition of two opposite things in everything. Also Nizámí-i'Arúdí’s scholastic Islamic ideology holds that a langue or a kind of metanarrative keeps things in order and is surrounded by smaller objects. This langue is God, who is ever-existent. He is a champion of the ancient Persian concept of kingship which, for the sake of legitimation, is expressed in Muslim vocabulary. His elaboration on the classes of society is influenced by Persian as well as Greek conceptions, especially those of Plato.[8]

The Chahar Maqala has been rendered into English, French, Italian, Japanese[9] and Swedish.

See also


  1. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam "According to Browne, Niẓāmī is one of the most interesting and remarkable Persian writers of prose: “one of those who throw most light on the intimate life of Persian and Central Asian Courts in the twelfth century of our era."
  2. ^ ʿĀBEDĪ, C.E. Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia Iranica
  3. ^ Nizami Aruzi, A Revised Translation of the Chahár maqála ("Four discourses") of Nizámí-i'Arúdí of Samarqand, followed by an abridged translation of Mírzá Muhammad's notes to the Persian text"pdf here" (PDF)., Edward Browne, ed. (London: for Cambridge University Press, 1921), x.
  4. ^ Edward Granville Browne, A Literary History of Persia, 4 vols. (New York: Charles, Scribner and Sons, 1902-1906), vol. 2, p. 337.
  5. ^ Nizami Aruzi, A Revised Translation of the Chahár maqála ("Four discourses"), xi, 74, 96.
  6. ^ See the entry for ČAHĀR MAQĀLA in Encyclopaedia Iranica, available online at
  7. ^ Browne, Literary History of Persia, Vol. 2, p. 337.
  8. ^ Ashk Dahlén, Kingship and Religion in a Mediaeval Fürstenspiegel: The Case of the Chahār Maqāla of Nizāmi ʽAruzi, Orientalia Suecana, vol. 58, Uppsala, 2009.
  9. ^ Perushia Itsuwashū (ペルシア逸話集, lit. Persian tales). Tōyō bunko (東洋文庫, lit. The Eastern Library). Translated by Tsuneo Kuroyanagi (黒柳恒男). Heibonsha (平凡社). March 1969. ISBN 978-4-582-80134-7.

External links

Abu Nasr Farsi

Abu Nasr Farsi (Persian: ابو نصر فارسی‎), also known as Abu Nasr-i Parsi (ابو نصر من پارسی), was a Persian statesman, warrior and poet, who served the Ghaznavid sultan Ibrahim (r. 1059–1099) and the latter's son Mas'ud III (r. 1099–1115). There is lack of information about his early life, however, it is known that his family had moved to Lahore and had a long history of service to the Ghaznavids. Abu Nasr spent most of his time in Punjab during the reign of Ibrahim. During the reign of Mas'ud III, he fell out of favor and was deprived of his posts. He died in 1116/1117 during the reign of Arslan-Shah of Ghazna. Abu Nasr was not only a prominent statesman and warrior, but also a great poet. His verses are highly admired by Aufi and Nizami Aruzi.

Ahmad Maymandi

Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Ḥasan Maymandī (Persian: ابوالحسن القاسم احمد بن حسن میمندی‎; died 31 December 1032), better known as Ahmad Maymandi (احمد میمندی; also spelled Maimandi), and also known by his honorific title of Shams al-Kufat (شمس الکفاة; "sun of the capable ones"), was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and the latter's son Mas'ud I of Ghazni.The son of the governor of Bust, Maymandi was raised as the foster brother of the Ghaznavid prince Mahmud, and would first start his administrative career as the head of the department of correspondence of Khorasan. He would thereafter rapidly rise to higher offices, finally becoming the vizier of the Ghaznavid dynasty in 1013, which would last until 1024, when he was arrested due to the great amount of wealth that he had gained, which the suspicious Mahmud disliked.

However, after a brief civil war, which ended in 1030, Maymandi was freed by Mahmud's son Mas'ud I, who offered him the chance of becoming vizier again. He first rejected the offer, but alter accepted in 1031. Maymandi's second vizeriate would only last one year, when he died at Herat. He was succeeded by Ahmad Shirazi.

Ahmad Sanjar

Ahmad Sanjar (Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik-Shah) (b. 1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118 when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157.

Ahmad ibn Muhammad Sajawandi

Abū Badīl Ahmad ibn Muhammad Sajāwandī (Persian: ابوبدیل احمد بن محمد سجاوندی) (died 1176 CE or 571 AH) was a 12th-century chronicler, commentator on the Quran, poet and orator. He was the son of the scholar Muhammad ibn Tayfour Sajawandi. He is mentioned in the Lubab ul-Albab ("Heart of hearts") of Aufi and the Chahar Maqalah ("Four Discourses") of Nizami Aruzi as a great poet and orator at the court of Tughan-Shah Ibn Alp Arslan (reigning Herat in the mid-11th century), under the name Malik al-Kalām Majd ad-Dīn Aḥmad Badi'hī Sajāwandī. However, as this event must have preceeded Abu Badils lifetime by close to a century, it is likely that these individuals have been confused from an early date, with Malik al-Kalām Aḥmad Badi'hī ("the king of speech") being known for his poetry, and Imâm-e Kabīr Ahmad ibn Muhammad Sajāwandī ("the great Imam") for his religious scholarship.

Ashk Dahlén

Ashk Peter Dahlén (born 3 June 1972 in Tafresh, Iran) is a Swedish Iranologist, scholar, linguist, and translator of classical Persian literature.

Hasan Nizami

Hasan Nizami was a Persian language poet and historian, who lived in the 12th and 13th centuries. He migrated from Nishapur to Delhi in India, where he wrote Tajul-Ma'asir, the first official history of the Delhi Sultanate.

Literary criticism in Iran

Literary criticism (Persian: نقد ادبی‎) is a relatively young discipline in Iran since there had been no comparable tradition of literary criticism before the nineteenth century, when European influence first began to penetrate the country.

Mausoleum of Omar Khayyám

The Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam (Persian: آرامگاه عمر خیام ) is a modern monument of white marble erected over Omar Khayyam's tomb located in Omar Khayyam Square, Nishapur.

Muhammad Bal'ami

Abu Ali Muhammad Bal'ami (Persian: ابو علی محمد‎), also called Amirak Bal'ami (امیرک بلعمی) and Bal'ami-i Kuchak (بلعمی کوچک, "Bal'ami the Younger"), was a Persian historian, writer, and vizier to the Samanids. He was from the influential Bal'ami family.

Nizami (name)

Nizami is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include:


Farhan Nizami (born before 1977), Islamic scholar at the University of Oxford

Hameed Nizami (1915–1962), Pakistani journalist

Majid Nizami (born 1928), Pakistani editor and publisher

Motiur Rahman Nizami (born 1943), Bangladeshi politicianGiven name:

Nizami Aruzi (fl. 1110–1161), writer of Persian prose and poetry in the 12th century, famous for the Chahar Maqala

Nizami Bahmanov (1948−2008), Azerbaijani politician

Nizami Ganjavi (1141−1209), considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian history

Nizami Hajiyev (born 1988), Azerbaijani football midfielder

Nizami Pashayev (born 1981), Azerbaijani weightlifter

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam (; Persian: عمر خیّام‎ [ˈoːmɒːɾ xæjˈjɒːm]; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.

As a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics. Khayyam also contributed to the understanding of the parallel axiom. As an astronomer, he designed the Jalali calendar, a solar calendar with a very precise 33-year intercalation cycle.There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات‎). This poetry became widely known to the English-reading world in a translation by Edward FitzGerald (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, 1859), which enjoyed great success in the Orientalism of the fin de siècle.

Persian literature

Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات فارسی‎, Adabiyât-i fârsi) comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures. It spans over two-and-a-half millennia. Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, the Caucasus, and Turkey, regions of Central Asia (such as Tajikistan) and South Asia where the Persian language has historically been either the native or official language. For instance, Rumi, one of best-loved Persian poets born in Balkh (in what is now the modern-day Afghanistan) or Vakhsh (in what is now the modern-day Tajikistan), wrote in Persian and lived in Konya, then the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from Iran, Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan, the wider Caucasus, Turkey, western parts of Pakistan, India, Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures.

Described as one of the great literatures of humanity, including Goethe's assessment of it as one of the four main bodies of world literature, Persian literature has its roots in surviving works of Middle Persian and Old Persian, the latter of which date back as far as 522 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscription, the Behistun Inscription. The bulk of surviving Persian literature, however, comes from the times following the Arab conquest of Persia c. 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power (750 CE), the Iranians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Arab empire and, increasingly, also its writers and poets. The New Persian language literature arose and flourished in Khorasan and Transoxiana because of political reasons, early Iranian dynasties such as the Tahirids and Samanids being based in Khorasan.Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Sa'di, Hafiz, Attar, Nezami, Rumi and Omar Khayyam are also known in the West and have influenced the literature of many countries.


Samarkand (; Uzbek language: Samarqand; Persian: سمرقند‎; Russian: Самарканд), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan, and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; some theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean, at times Samarkand was one of the greatest cities of Central Asia.By the time of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, it was the capital of the Sogdian satrapy. The city was taken by Alexander the Great in 329 BC, when it was known by its Greek name of Marakanda. The city was ruled by a succession of Iranian and Turkic rulers until the Mongols under Genghis Khan conquered Samarkand in 1220. Today, Samarkand is the capital of Samarqand Region and Uzbekistan's second largest city.The city is noted for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque, rebuilt during the Soviet era, remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. Samarkand’s Registan square was the ancient centre of the city, and is bound by three monumental religious buildings. The city has carefully preserved the traditions of ancient crafts: embroidery, gold embroidery, silk weaving, engraving on copper, ceramics, carving and painting on wood. In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures.

Modern-day Samarkand is divided into two parts: the old city, and the new city developed during the days of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. The old city includes historical monuments, shops and old private houses, while the new city includes administrative buildings along with cultural centres and educational institutions.

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