The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty.
The Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, and Asaf Jah became virtually independent of them; Hyderabad would then become a tributary of the Maratha Empire, losing a series of battles for independence through the 18th century.
When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams continued to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union. The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 unstable years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were never officially recognised as rulers. The last Nizam being Mir Osman Ali Khan.
|Nizam of Hyderabad|
Coat of Arms of Hyderabad State
|Style||His Exalted Highness|
|First monarch||Qamar-ud-din Khan|
|Last monarch||Osman Ali Khan|
|Formation||31 July 1724|
|Abolition||17 September 1948|
By the time of its annexation by India, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, Hyderabadi rupee and radio broadcasting service. Hindus were under-represented in government, police and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. Of the upper level government officials, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state. However some Hindus did serve in high government posts such as Prime Minister of Hyderabad - Maharaja Chandu Lal, Maharaja Sir Kishen Pershad and Kotwal of Hyderabad Raja Bahadur Venkatarama Reddy.
The name Nizam also spelled as Nezam, comes from Urdu (نظام) /nɪˈzɑːm/, which itself is derived from the ancient Arabic language niẓām which means "order" or "arrangement". Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the whole Empire. The word is derived from the Arabic language, as in Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (11 April 1018 – 14 October 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk (Arabic: نظام الملک, "Order of the Realm").
According to Sir Roper Lethbridge in "The Golden Book of India"—(1893), the Nizams are lineally descended from the First Caliph Abu Bakr, the successor of the Prophet Muhammed. The family of Nizams in India is descended from Abid Khan, a Turkoman from Samarkand, whose lineage is traced to Sufi Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi (1154–91) of Central Asia. In the early 1650s, on his way to hajj, Abid Khan stopped in Deccan, where the young prince Aurangzeb, then Governor of Deccan, cultivated him. Abid Khan returned to the service of Aurangzeb to fight in the succession wars of 1657–58. After Aurangzeb's enthronement, Abid Khan was richly rewarded and became Aurangzeb's favourite nobleman. His son Ghazi Uddin Khan received in marriage, Safiya Khanum, the daughter of the former imperial prime minister Sa‘dullah Khan. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, the founder of the line of Nizams, was born of the couple, thus descending from two prominent families of the Mughal court.
Ghazi Uddin Khan rose to become a General of the Emperor Aurangzeb and played a vital role in conquering Bijapur and Golconda Sultanates of Southern India in 1686. He also played a key role in thwarting the rebellion by Prince Akbar and alleged rebellion by Prince Mu`azzam.. Both father and son remained loyal to Emperor Aurangzeb until his death in 1707.
After Aurangzeb's death and during the war of succession, Qamaruddin and his father remained neutral by which they escaped the risk of being on the losing side, they remained marginal players in the Mughal court during the reigns of Bahadur Shah I (1707–12) and Jahandar Shah (1712–13). Their successor Farrukhsiyar (1713–19) appointed Qamaruddin the governor of Deccan in 1713, awarding him the title Nizam-ul-Mulk. However, the governorship was taken away two years later and Qamaruddin withdrew to his estate in Moradabad. Under the next emperor, Muhammad Shah (1719–48), Qamaruddin accepted the governorship of Deccan for the second time in 1721. The next year, following the death of his uncle Muhammad Amin Khan who had been a power-broker in the Mughal Court, Qamaruddin returned to the Delhi and was made the wazir (prime minister). According to historian Faruqui, his tenure as prime minister was undermined by his opponents and a rebellion in Deccan was engineered against him. In 1724, the Nizam returned to Deccan to reclaim his base, in the process making a transition to a semi-independent ruler.
In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region Hyderabad Deccan, and started what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Nizam I never formally declared independence from the Mughals; he still flew the Mughal flag, and was never crowned. In Friday prayers, the sermon would be conducted in the name of Aurangzeb, and this tradition would continue until the end of Hyderabad State in 1948. The death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty of Machilipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of the Maratha Empire. The titullar Nizams themselves fought during the Mughal-Maratha Wars since the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax (Chauth) to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed, Bhopal, Rakshasbhuvan, and Kharda, in all of which the Nizam lost. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, the Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes.
The last Nizam of Hyderabad state, Mir Osman Ali Khan, had been the richest man in the world in his time. The Nizams developed the railway, introduced electricity, and developed roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public buildings in Hyderabad City were built during his reign under the British Raj. He pushed education, science, and establishment of Osmania University.
After the Independence of India in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad initially chose to join neither India nor Pakistan. He later declared Hyderabad an independent state, but the Government of India refused to accept this. After attempts by India to persuade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government finally launched a military operation named Operation Polo to annex Hyderabad. When the Indian Army invaded on 13 September 1948, his overwhelmingly untrained forces were unable to withstand the Indian army and were defeated. The Nizam capitulated on 17 September 1948; that same afternoon he broadcast the news over the State radio network. The Nizam was forced to accept accession to the new Republic of India. His abdication on 17 September 1948 marked the end of the dynasty's ambitions.
Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam, died on Friday 24 February 1967. All the Nizams are buried in royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near Charminar in Hyderabad excepting the last, Mir Osman Ali Khan, who wished to be buried beside his mother, in the graveyard of Judi Mosque facing King Kothi Palace.
During the period of the Nizams' rule, Kingdom of Hyderabad became extremely wealthy. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and his family including Salar Jung I were taught by Nawab Sarwar Ul Mulk and Agha Mirza Baig Bahadur, who was his political advisor, and the senior-most salute state among the Indian princely states. It was spread over 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi) in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizams were conferred with the title of His Exalted Highness, and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the imperial-colonial British government for their collaborating role in the wars against Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the First War of Indian Independence of 1857–1858, becoming the only Indian prince to be given both these titles.
The rule of the Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for Hyderabad city. One example of the wealth of Nizam's is the Jewels of the Nizams, which is an international tourist attraction once displayed in Salar Jung Museum, but now locked in an RBI vault in Delhi. In 1948 Hyderabad state had an estimated population of 17 million (1.7 crore), and it generated an estimated annual revenue of £90,029,000.
The state had its own currency known as the Hyderabadi rupee, until 1951. The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in 1937, also known for his miserliness. He was estimated to be worth ₹660 crores (roughly US$2 billion by the then exchange rates). According to the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man in recorded history per the figures, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion adjusted by Forbes as per the growth of the US GDP since that period and the present exchange rate of the US dollar against the Indian rupee.
The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including hospitals, schools, colleges, and universities that imparted education in Urdu. Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, the Nizams established their own local Hyderabad Civil Service.
The Nizams commissioned engineering projects such as large reservoirs like Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was also initiated during this time, although the actual work was actually completed under the aegis of the Government of India in 1969.
Other landmarks include the Telangana High Court, City College, Public Gardens, (formerly Bagh-e-Aaam) Jubilee Hall, Asafia Library, The Assembly building, Niloufer Hospital, the Osmania Arts College and the Osmania Medical College.
The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Their palaces are listed below:
The 7th Nizam donated Rs.82,825 to the popular Yadagirigutta temple at Bhongir, Rs.29,999 to Ramachandraswamy temple (Bhadrachalam) and Rs.8,000 to Tirupati Balaji Temple. which were huge amounts per currency value during those days.
In 1932, there was a need for money for the publication of the Holy Hindu epic Mahabharata in the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute located in Pune. A formal request was made to the 7th Nizam(Mir Osman Ali Khan) who granted Rs.1000 per year for a period of 11 years. He also offered Rs 50,000 for construction of the guest house known as the "Nizam Guest House" located in the premises of B.O.R.I.
|Image||Titular Name||Personal Name||Date of birth||Nizam From||Nizam Until||Date of death|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I
نظامالملک آصف جاہ
|Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan||20 August 1671||31 July 1724||1 June 1748|
|Mir Ahmed Ali Khan||26 February 1712||1 June 1748||16 December 1750|
|Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan||?||16 December 1750||13 February 1751|
|Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan||24 November 1718||13 February 1751||8 July 1762
|16 September 1763|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II
نظامالملک آصف جاہ دوم
|Mir Nizam Ali Khan||7 March 1734||8 July 1762||6 August 1803|
|Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم
|Mir Akbar Ali Khan||11 November 1768||6 August 1803||21 May 1829|
|Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم
|Mir Farqunda Ali Khan||25 April 1794||21 May 1829||16 May 1857|
|Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
|Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan||11 October 1827||16 May 1857||26 February 1869|
|Asaf Jah VI
آصف جاہ شیشم
|Mir Mahbub Ali Khan||17 August 1866||26 February 1869||29 August 1911|
|Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
|Mir Osman Ali Khan||6 April 1886||29 August 1911||17 September 1948
|24 February 1967|
The Asaf Jahi dynasty followed the Order of Precedence of male primogeniture regardless of the mother's marital status or rank. His eldest son was Azam Jah (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970), Prince of Berar.
Azam Jah married Durru Shehvar, daughter of Abdul Mejid II (the last Ottoman Caliph and cousin and heir to the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire). They had two children, Mukarram Jah and Muffakham Jah. Mukarram Jah being the present titular Nizam.
Mir Najaf Ali Khan is another grandson of the last Nizam who is a known figure as he manages several trusts of the last Nizam, including the H.E.H. the Nizam's Charitable Trust and the Nizam Family Welfare Association.
The Nizams' daughters had been married traditionally to young men of the Paigah family. This family belonged to the Sunni sect.
italics – Considered pretenders by most historians; refrained from exercising traditional authority during their reigns.
Places and things named after the Nizam include Nizamabad, a city and district in the state of Telangana; Jamia Nizamia, a university; the Nizam College; the Nizam's Museum; the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway; the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences; the Jewels of the Nizams; the Nizam Diamond; the Nizam Sagar, HMAS Nizam, Nizamia observatory; the Nizam Club; the Nizam of Hyderabad necklace; the Nizam's Contingent; the Nizam Gate; the Nizam Palace; Government Nizamia General Hospital; and H.E.H. the Nizam's Charitable Trust.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other. Hyder Ali and his successor Tipu Sultan fought a war on four fronts with the British attacking from the west, south and east, while the Marathas and the Nizam's forces attacked from the north. The fourth war resulted in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu (who was killed in the final war, in 1799), and the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of the East India Company, which won and took control of much of India.Battle of Delhi (1737)
The First Battle of Delhi or The Raid of Delhi took place on 28 March 1737 between Maratha Empire and the Mughals.The Mughals were devastated by the fierce attack, and lost half of their army which compelled them to ask for all regional rulers to help against the army of Marathas. Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Bhopal left Hyderabad to protect the Mughal Empire from the invasion of Marathas but were defeated decisively in the Battle of Bhopal. The Marathas extracted large tributaries from Mughals and signed a treaty which ceded Malwa to the Marathas.The Maratha plunder of Delhi weakened the Mughal Empire, which got further weakened after successive invasions of Nadir Shah in 1739 and Ahmad Shah Abdali in the 1750s. The continuous attacks led to another Battle of Delhi, in 1757, which largely effaced the remaining central authority of Mughal Empire.Battle of Rakshasbhuvan
The Battle of Rakshasbhuvan was fought on 10 August 1763. After the defeat of the Marathas at the Battle of Panipat, their rivals started seizing the opportunity to recover their losses in the past at the hands of Marathas. Particularly, the Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to recover territory he had lost at the battle of Udgir where all of his dukes and earls were killed. He decided to launch a war on the Marathas.Elizabeth II's jewels
The monarch of the Commonwealth realms, Queen Elizabeth II, owns a historic collection of jewels – some as monarch and others as a private individual. They are separate from the Gems and Jewels and the coronation and state regalia that make up the Crown Jewels.
The origin of a distinct royal jewel collection is vague, though it is believed the jewels have their origin somewhere in the 16th century. Many of the pieces are from overseas and were brought to the United Kingdom as a result of civil war, coups and revolutions, or acquired as gifts to the monarch. Most of the jewellery dates from the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Crown Jewels are only worn at coronations (St Edward's Crown being used to crown the monarch) and the annual State Opening of Parliament (the Imperial State Crown). At other formal occasions, such as banquets, the Queen wears the jewellery in her collection. Elizabeth owns more than 300 items of jewellery, including 98 brooches, 46 necklaces, 37 bracelets, 34 pairs of earrings, 15 rings, 14 watches and 5 pendants, the most notable of which are detailed in this article.Falaknuma Palace
Falaknuma is a palace in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. It originally belonged to the Paigah family, and was later owned by the Nizam of Hyderabad. It is on a hillock and covers a 32-acre (13 ha) area in Falaknuma, 5 kilometers from Charminar.
It was built by Nawab Sir Viqar-ul-Umra - Prime Minister of Hyderabad and the uncle & brother-in-law of the sixth Nizam. Falak-numa means "Like the Sky" or "Mirror of Sky" in Urdu.Goshamahal
Goshamahal is a suburb in Hyderabad City, Telangana, India.
The Goshamahal Baradari is probably the only well preserved palace built by the Qutb Shahi rulers, as almost all their palaces were destroyed during the long siege of the kingdom by Aurangazeb. It was built by the last Qutb Shahi ruler, Sultan Abul Hassan Tana Shah, in 1684. Apparently, during Aurangazeb's conquest of the Deccan, he installed his son Shah Alam in this palace, which served as the Mughal headquarters in the south. It has Underground Guffa route to Charminar and some other places.
Later, in the early 20th century, the Nizam of Hyderabad handed this palace over to the Freemasons of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and it has been in their care ever since.Govindbhai Shroff
Govindbhai Shroff, also known as the freedom fighter, led a movement to fight against the Nizam of Hyderabad during the Hyderabad Campaign of 1948. As a result, the Marathwada region was liberated from the Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948. In 1966, people responded to the call of Shroff by taking part in hunger strikes, morchas, rail rokos, bandhs and other form of protests to press for a broad track gauge.Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI
Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (18 August 1866 – 29 August 1911) was the 6th Nizam of Hyderabad. He ruled Hyderabad state, one of the Princely states in India between 1869 and 1911.Mahbubnagar district
Mahabubnagar district is a district in the Indian state of Telangana. Mahabubnagar is the district headquarters which is popularly known as palamoor..The district shares boundaries with Vikarabad, Rangareddy, Nagarkurnool, Wanaparthy and Jogulamba Gadwal districts and with Karnataka state.This district was formed during the period of the 6th Nizam of Hyderabad State - Nawab Mir Mahbub Ali Khan and hence named after him.Mir Osman Ali Khan
His Exalted Highness (H.E.H.) Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII (born Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur) (6 April 1886 – 24 February 1967), was the last Nizam (or ruler) of the Princely State of Hyderabad and Berar. He ruled Hyderabad between 1911 and 1948, until it was annexed by India. He was styled as His Exalted Highness The Nizam of Hyderabad. Later he was made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950 and continued until 31 October 1956, after which the state was partitioned on linguistic basis and became part of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.He is credited with building numerous public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital and Hyderabad High Court. He also built the Hyderabad House in Delhi, now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India. Two lakes, named Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built during his reign.
In 1937, he was on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the richest man in the world.Nasir Jung
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi, Nasir Jung, was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk by his wife Saeed-un-nisa Begum. He was born 26 February 1712. He succeeded his father as the Nizam of Hyderabad State in 1748. He had taken up a very pompous title of Humayun Jah, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Ahmad Ali Khan Siddiqi Bahadur, Nasir Jung, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan. However, he is most famously known as Nasir Jung.
The Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed him with the title Nasir Jung and later the next Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur appointed him as the Subedar of the Deccan and bestowed him with the title Nasir-ud-Daula.Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II
Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur Asaf Jah II (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803) was the Nizam of Hyderabad State in South India between 1762 and 1803. He was born on 7 March 1734 as fourth son to Asaf Jah I and Umda Begum. His official name is Asaf Jah II, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Nizam 'Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, Nawab Subedar of the Deccan.Osmania Medical College
Osmania Medical College formerly known as The Hyderabad Medical School is a medical college in Telangana, Hyderabad, India. It is one of the top Medical Schools in the sub continent, and was founded in 1846 by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar Mir Osman Ali Khan. The college was originally affiliated to Osmania University system, It is now affiliated to the Kaloji Narayana Rao University of Health Sciences, and the Osmania General Hospital.Public Gardens, Hyderabad
Public Gardens also known as Bagh-e-Aam (Urdu: باغ عام) is a historic park located in the heart of the city of Hyderabad, India. It was built in 1846 by the Nizam of Hyderabad and is the oldest park in Hyderabad.Siege of Adoni
The Siege of Adoni occurred between the forces of Tipu Sultan of the Kingdom of Mysore and the Maratha Empire allied with the Nizam of Hyderabad. Tipu Sultan surprised Haripant when he decided to advance for Adoni. A group of Maratha and Nizam forces moved towards Adoni to provide relief. On 20 May, Tipu Sultan had annihilated the peth of Adoni and had devastated and inflicted immense losses on Adoni's cavalry. On 29 June, Tipu took the fort by surprise and "without firing a shot."Siege of Badami
The Siege of Badami (1-20 May 1786) was conducted by forces of the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad against a Mysorean garrison at Badami, a fortified town in present-day northern Karnataka in India, during the Maratha-Mysore War. The allied army, numbering as many as 50,000 and led by the Maratha leader Hari Pant, stormed the city on 20 May; the Mysorean fortress surrendered immediately thereafter.Siege of Koppal
The Siege of Koppal (28 October 1790 – 7 April 1791) was conducted during the Third Anglo-Mysore War by forces of the Nizam of Hyderabad under the command of Mahabat Jung, assisted by a contingent of British East India Company forces. The siege was poorly conducted, and the garrison surrendered principally because Bangalore had fallen in February 1791. The Siege of Koppal (28 October 1790 – 7 April 1791) was conducted during the Third Anglo-Mysore War by forces of the Nizam of Hyderabad under the command of Mahabat Jung, assisted by a contingent of British East India Company forces. The siege was poorly conducted, and the garrison surrendered principally because Bangalore had fallen in February 1791.Siege of Trichinopoly (1743)
The Siege of Trichinopoly took place in 1743 during an extended series of conflicts between the Nizam and the Maratha Empire for control over some parts of southern India. An army led by Asaf Jah I, the Nizam of Hyderabad, besieged the town of Trichinopoly, which was governed by Murarao Ghorpade. After about four months of siege, the Nizam successfully bribed Murrarao to surrender, which he did on 29 August 1743.Vanasthalipuram
Vanasthalipuram is a very busy commercial and residential locality in L. B. Nagar zone of Hyderabad. It is located towards (Vijayawada) and Nagarjuna Sagar highway roads. During the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad, the area was a dense forest with wild animals and famous as a hunting ground, hence the name Vanasthalipuram (Vana="forest"+sthali="place"+puram-a locality or site). Vanasthalipuram derived its name from Harini Vanasthali, an Deer Park located beside national highway. It was originally known as Shikharghar.