Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway

Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway (NGSR) was a Railway Company in India between 1879 and 1950, and was owned by the Nizam's of Kingdom of Hyderabad. The full style of the system was His Exalted Highness, The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam, much to the dismay of the British authorities. It was owned and worked by a company under a guarantee from the Hyderabad State, capital for which was raised by the issue of redeemable mortgage debentures. In 1951 the NGSR was nationalised and merged into Indian Railways.[1]

Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway
Hyderabad-godavari valley railways
The Hyderabad State
LocaleTelangana, India
(consists of former states Hyderabad State and Madras Presidency)
Dates of operation1870 (1879 fully owned by Nizam)–1950 (nationalized by government of India under Indian Railways)
SuccessorCentral Railway(1951)
South Central Railway(1966)
Track gaugeMixed
Length351 miles (1905) 688 miles (1943)
HeadquartersSecunderabad Station (1870-1916)
Kachiguda Station(1916-1950)

History

Secbad Stn hist
A locomotive at the Secunderabad Station (circa 1928)
SC station
Secunderabad Railway Station (circa 1948)

Being one of the largest princely states of India, the Nizam of the Hyderabad State wanted to build a railway line to connect Hyderabad with the rest of the British India (now India). This Railway line was to be built from Secunderabad Railway Station, Hyderabad, India. The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line.[2]

The proposed line was to be built between Secunderabad Railway Station-Wadi initially. The earliest sections of the NGSR were commenced during the 1870s, variously financed, constructed and operated. The construction commenced in 1870. After four years of construction works, in 1874, the Secunderabad-Wadi Line was built with financing. In 1879, the Nizam of Hyderabad Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI took over this railway line and was managed by state-owned Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway under the Nizam[3]. In 1883, a management company was formed to gradually take over these lines, under the provision of a guarantee from the Government of HEH the Nizam of Hyderabad State. Later from 1874 to 1889, this line was extended to Kazipet and Vijayawada as Vijayawada-Kazipet-Secunderabad-Wadi line.

John Wallace Pringle was appointed as the superintending engineer for the survey and construction of the Hyderabad–Godavari Valley Railway in 1896.[4] The metre gauge railway runs for 391 miles (629 km) from Hyderabad city to Manmad on the north-eastern section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and was opened in October 1900.

Expenses and Revenues

The total capital expenditure on the Nizam's State Railway to the end of 1904 was 4.3 crores, and in that year the net earnings were nearly 28 lakhs, or about 6​12 per cent, on the outlay. The Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railways has cost 2.6 crores, and earned 7.7 lakhs net in the same year, or nearly 3 percent.; but in 1901 and 1902 the earnings had been about 3​12 per cent. Beginning in 1932 scheduled bus services – under the auspices of the railway administration – began over 450 km with 27 vehicles. Within a decade, at a total expense of 7½ million HRs. this was extended to nearly 500 vehicles, servicing 7200 km.[5]

The Nizam's railway was divided into various sub-rail divisions. These were directly owned by the railway. These used to function under an appointed head by the Nizam's Railway. The profits of these rail lines were enjoyed by it. These were the constituent lines within the Nizam's Railway. Bezwada Extension (34.5 miles) opened in 1889, Belharshah-Kazipet (234.5 miles) opened in 1924, Karipalli-Kothagudam (39.5 miles) opened in 1927, Vikarabad-Bidar (91 miles) opened in 1930, Purna Junction-Hingoli (miles) opened in 1912, Hyderabad Godavari Valley Rail (629.8 miles) opened in 1899, Secunderabad-British Frontier (188.2 miles) opened in 1916, Dhone Kurnool (cont. to Madras) (58.5 miles) opened in 1909. The Singareni coal fields were served by a branch line from Dornakal Junction, a distance of 30 km.

Noted historian, M.A. Nayeem says:

“The functioning of the railways, roadways and airways under a single department was unique in the world”.

Nizam State Rail and Road Transport Department

This department which oversaw rail and road transport, also connected distant corners of Hyderabad State through a massive fleet of buses. As a result, post-1948, Hyderabad State (later which became Andhra Pradesh) had a significantly superior bus network compared to the rest of India. Other Indian states such as Madhya Pradesh even bought used buses of Andhra Pradesh without hesitation. A four-lane highway which has now replaced the Nizam-era road from Hyderabad to North India.[6]

Conversion to broad gauge

The railway lines were converted to 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge from 1992 to 2004.[7] In 1899, the broad gauge connection between Bezwada (Vijayawada) and Madras (Chennai Central) opened making rail travel between Hyderabad and Chennai possible. The State thus contained 467 miles on the broad gauge, all built before 1891, and 391 miles on the metre gauge, opened between 1899 and 1901. In 1916, another railway terminus, Kachiguda Railway Station was built to serve as the railway's headquarters. In 1950, the NGSR was nationalised and in 1951 became part of Central Railway, a zone of Indian Railways.

The cotton industry and the railways

In the early twentieth century, cotton being the largest export of Hyderabad State, the cotton industry held an important place in the eyes of Nizam's Hyderabad Government. In 1889 a cotton spinning and weaving mill was erected in Aurangabad city, which employed 700 people. With the opening of the Hyderabad–Godavari Valley Railways in the year 1900 several ginning factories were started. In the Jalna alone there were 9 cotton ginning factories and five cotton presses, besides two ginning factories at Aurangabad and Kannad, and one oil press at Aurangabad. The total number of people employed in the cotton presses and ginning factories in the year 1901 was 1,016.

The area of cultivated land under cotton in 1914 was three million acres (12,000 km²), and most of the cotton was grown in the Marathwara districts, where the soil was peculiarly well suited to it. The opening of the Hyderabad–Godavari Railway, in October 1900, gave a great impetus to the growth of cotton in the Nizamabad, Nander, Parbhani and Aurangabad Districts, where many ginning and pressing factories came into existence as soon as heavy machinery could be brought there by rail. Bombay buyers then began to arrive in considerable numbers during the cotton season, which lasted from October to December, and as they paid cash for the cotton and would even send coolies to cut it and bring it to the cotton marts, more and more land began to be put down in cotton by the farmers. Hand gins gave place to ginning machines, and the farmers ceased to weed their fields carefully, and to cultivate only the best cotton. Grain and pulses then became more expensive, so much of the best land being laid down in cotton, and Marathwada entered upon a critical period of its existence.

Says the census report of the period: " The evolution from the agricultural to the manufacturing stage has already begun in Marathwara When a country begins to produce the raw materials of manufacture in place of food crops, it has started on the road to industrialisation." There were three large spinning and weaving mills and about 90 small ginning and pressing factories in the State. The population supported by cotton spinning, sizing, and weaving in 1914 was 69,943 persons and by cotton ginning, cleaning, and pressing was 517,750 persons. The wages paid to the employees in these places were good, but the cost of living in Marathwara was very high, owing to the many holdings that are put down in cotton, and the uncertainty of the rainfall and availability of credit form money lenders.

See also

References

  1. ^ "A look back at the history of transportation in the city".
  2. ^ Law, Modern Hyderabad (Deccan), pp. 26-28.
  3. ^ Lynton, Days of the Beloved 1987, pp. 56-57.
  4. ^ "Inspecting Officers (Railways) – Pringle, (Sir) John Wallace". SteamIndex. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
  5. ^ Nayeem, M. A.; The Splendour of Hyderabad; Hyderabad ²2002 [Orig.: Bombay ¹1987]; ISBN 81-85492-20-4; S. 221
  6. ^ "The Secret History of Hyderabad State of the Nizam (South India; 1724 – 1948)".
  7. ^ "Last MG train pulls out of Nizamabad station".

Notes

  • IRFCA
  • "Hyderabad" by Mirza Mehdy Khan, Imperial Gazetteer of India, Government Printing Press, Calcutta, 1909.
  • MODERN HYDERABAD (DECCAN) BY JOHN LAW CALCUTTA THACKER, SPINK & CO 1914.
Aurangabad railway station

Aurangabad railway station is a railway station located on the Secunderabad-Manmad section which mainly services Aurangabad City. This railway station comes under the Nanded division of the South Central Railway zone and has rail connectivity with major cities such as Hyderabad, Delhi, Nizamabad, Nagpur, Nasik, Pune, Nanded and Latur Road.

Chennai Central–Bangalore City line

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Deccan Queen (bus)

Deccan Queen is a 1932 model Albion vehicle run by the road transport division of Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway. Two of these buses still exist in India, one at Pandit Nehru bus station in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh and the other at Hyderabad, Telangana.The bus, manufactured 85 years ago, is a heritage asset of Nizam State Rail and Road Transport Department (NSR-RTD). Till the early 1970s, the department used to run the 'Deccan Queen'. Along with 26 other Albion buses, it formed part of the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway (NGSR). All of them had a seating capacity of 19 and were imported from London to cover the 400-km road network in the areas falling under the Hyderabad ruler's jurisdiction.

Duvvada–Vijayawada section

The Duvvada–Vijayawada section (also known as Visakhapatnam-Vijayawada line) is a railway line of approximately 350 km connecting Duvvada of Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada both in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The main line is part of the Howrah-Chennai main line. The track from Duvvada to Thadi is under the administrative jurisdiction of East Coast Railway, and the rest of the line from Anakapalle to Vijayawada is under the administrative jurisdiction of South Coast Railway zone headquartered in Visakhapatnam.

Golconda Express

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Guntakal–Renigunta section

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Howrah–Chennai main line

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Kazipet Junction railway station

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Kazipet–Vijayawada section

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Krishna Express

Krishna Express (numbered: 17405/17406) is an intercity express train running between Tirupati Main of Andhra Pradesh and Adilabad of Telangana. It belongs to South Central Railway of Indian Railways and it takes 24 hours and 50 minutes to cover 1,148 km (713 mi) between its nodal stations.

Malkajgiri railway station

Malkajgiri Junction Railway Station (station code:MJF) is a railway station in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. It is a hub of commuter rail in Secunderabad Urban railway. Localities like Malkajgiri and Anandbagh are accessible from this station. The station is situated near the Sai Baba temple of Malkajgiri.

Nagpur–Hyderabad line

The Nagpur–Hyderabad line is a railway line connecting Nagpur and Hyderabad. A major portion of this 581-kilometre long (361 mi) track, from Nagpur to Kazipet, is part of the Delhi-Chennai line. It is also part of the Delhi-Hyderabad line. The line is under the jurisdiction of Central Railway and South-Central Railway.

New Delhi–Chennai main line

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Nizam State Railways - Road Transport Division

Nizam State Rail & Road Transport Department (N.S.R-R.T.D) is a wing of Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway in the former Hyderabad State. It is the first Road Transport Department to nationalize passenger Road Transport Services in the year of 1932.

Secunderabad Junction railway station

The Secunderabad Junction railway station (station code SC), is a major intercity railway station and a commuter rail hub in the Hyderabad urban area. In the city centre, the station is in the South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. Built in 1874 by the Nizam of Hyderabad during the British era, it was the main station of Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway until the Kachiguda railway station opened in 1916. The station was taken over by Indian Railways in 1951, when NGSR was nationalized. Its main portico and concourse are influenced by Nizamesque architecture. The station, which resembles a fort, is a tourist attraction in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad.It is connected by rail to all regions of India. About 170,000 passengers arrive at (or depart from) the station daily on 229 trains. On the Vijayawada–Wadi (the SCR's main line) and Secunderabad-Manmad railway lines, it is the zone headquarters of the South Central Railway and the headquarters of the SCR's Secunderabad Division. The station has received ISO-9001 certification for quality management in ticket booking, parcel and luggage booking and platform management. Indian Railways has proposed an upgrade to a world-class station, emphasising vertical expansion. It is connected to nearly all the parts of the twin cities by the Hyderabad MMTS, Telangana State Road Transport Corporation buses and the Hyderabad Metro.

Secunderabad railway division

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Shahabad railway station

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Shahabad, Gulbarga. It is a station where the Wadi-Secunderabad line meets the Mumbai-Chennai line. Shahabad has 3 platforms.

TR NZ class

The TR NZ class, later known as the EAR 22 class, was a class of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge 4-8-0 steam locomotives built in 1915 by Nasmyth, Wilson and Company in Patricroft, Salford, England. The class had been ordered by the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway (NGSR) for operation on its network in the Dominion of Nizam, better known as the Hyderabad State, in India. However, the locomotives in the class were never delivered to the NGSR, and, in the end, served their entire working lives in Tanganyika, East Africa.

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