Nitella is a genus of charophyte green algae in the family Characeae.[1]

Nitella mucronata.jpeg
Nitella mucronata
Scientific classification

C.Agardh, 1824

See text.


The species in the genus include:[1]

  • Nitella abyssinica A. Braun
  • Nitella acuminata A. Braun ex Wallman
  • Nitella aemula A. Braun
  • Nitella annandalei B.P. Pal
  • Nitella australiensis (F.M. Bailey) J.C. van Raam
  • Nitella axillaris A. Braun
  • Nitella axilliformis Imahori
  • Nitella capillaris (A.J.Krocker) J.Groves & G.R.Bullock-Webster
  • Nitella comptonii J. Groves
  • Nitella cristata A. Braun
  • Nitella diffusa A. Braun
  • Nitella flexilis (Linnaeus) C. Agardh
  • Nitella furcata (Roxburgh ex Bruzelius) C. Agardh
  • Nitella gelatinifera R.D. Wood
  • Nitella gelatinosa A. Braun
  • Nitella gloeostachys A. Braun
  • Nitella gracilens Morioka
  • Nitella gracilis (J.E.Smith) C.Agardh
  • Nitella gracillima T.F. Allen
  • Nitella haagenii J.C. van Raam
  • Nitella heterophylla A. Braun
  • Nitella hookeri A. Braun
  • Nitella horikawae Imahori
  • Nitella hyalina (De Candolle) C. Agardh
  • Nitella ignescens García
  • Nitella imahorii R.D. Wood
  • Nitella imperialis (Allen) Sakayama
  • Nitella inversa Imahori
  • Nitella leonhardii R.D. Wood
  • Nitella leptoclada A. Braun
  • Nitella leptostachys A. Braun
  • Nitella megaspora (J. Groves) H. Sakayama
  • Nitella mirabilis Nordstedt ex J. Groves
  • Nitella moniliformis Zaneveld
  • Nitella monopodiata J.C. van Raam
  • Nitella moriokae R.D. Wood
  • Nitella morongii T.F. Allen
  • Nitella mucronata (A.Braun) F.Miquel
  • Nitella myriotricha A. Braun ex Kützing
  • Nitella obtusa T.F.Allen
  • Nitella oligospira A. Braun
  • Nitella opaca C. Agardh ex Bruzelius
  • Nitella ornithopoda A. Braun
  • Nitella penicillata A. Braun
  • Nitella polycephala Kützing
  • Nitella praelonga A. Braun
  • Nitella pseudoflabellata A. Braun
  • Nitella pulchella Allen
  • Nitella sonderi A. Braun
  • Nitella spanioclema J. Groves & Bullock-Webster ex Bullock-Webster
  • Nitella spiciformis Morioka
  • Nitella stuartii A. Braun
  • Nitella subtilissima A. Braun
  • Nitella syncarpa (J.L.Thuillier) Kützing
  • Nitella tasmanica Müller ex A.Braun
  • Nitella tenuissima (Desvaux) Kützing
  • Nitella terrestris M.Iyengar
  • Nitella translucens (Persoon) C. Agardh
  • Nitella tricellularis (Nordst.) Nordst. in T.F.Allen, em. R.D. Wood
  • Nitella tumida Nordstedt
  • Nitella tumulosa Zaneveld
  • Nitella ungula García
  • Nitella verticillata (N.Filarszky & G.O.Allen ex Filarszky) R.D.Wood
  • Nitella vieillardii (A.Braun) Sakayama
  • Nitella virgata Wallman
  • Nitella wahlbergiana Wallman
  • Nitella woodii Hotchkiss & Imahori
  • Nitella zamanii Naz, Diba & Schubert
  • Nitella zeyheri A.Braun ex Kützing
  • Nitella zollingeri (A.Braun) R.D.Wood


  1. ^ a b Guiry, M.D. (2008). "Nitella". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
Aedeomyia catasticta

The Aedeomyia mosquito, Aedeomyia (Aedeomyia) catasticta, is a species of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Aedeomyia. It is found in India, Sri Lanka, Hawaii, Southeast Asian countries and Australia.

Chara (alga)

Chara is a genus of charophyte green algae in the family Characeae. They are multicellular and superficially resemble land plants because of stem-like and leaf-like structures. They are found in fresh water, particularly in limestone areas throughout the northern temperate zone, where they grow submerged, attached to the muddy bottom. They prefer less oxygenated and hard water and are not found in waters where mosquito larvae are present. They are covered with calcium carbonate deposits and are commonly known as stoneworts. Cyanobacteria have been found growing as epiphytes on the surfaces of Chara, where they may be involved in fixing nitrogen, which is important to plant nutrition.


Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class Charophyceae, commonly known as stoneworts. Linnaeus established the genus Chara in 1753.

County Antrim

County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim, from Irish: Aontroim, meaning "lone ridge", [ˈeːnˠt̪ˠɾˠɪmʲ]) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometres (1,176 sq mi) and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster.

The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down.

According to the 2001 census, it is currently one of only two counties of Ireland in which a majority of the population are from a Protestant background. The other is County Down to the south.

Cytoplasmic streaming

Cytoplasmic streaming, also called protoplasmic streaming and cyclosis, is where there is flow inside the cytoplasm. It is typically observed in large plant and animal cells. Here flow means that the cytoplasm is moving inside the cell, it is not stationary. The flow is driven by forces from the cytoskeleton, and it is likely that the function of flow is at least partly to speed up transport of molecules and organelles around the cell. Cytoplasmic streaming is usually found in unusually large cells, greater than approximately 0.1 mm. In smaller cells, diffusion of molecules will be rapid but diffusion slows rapidly as the size increases, and so larger cells may need flow to move nutrients etc inside them rapidly enough for efficient function.The green alga genus Chara possesses some very large cells, up to 10 cm in length, and cytoplasmic streaming has been studied in these large cells.Cytoplasmic streaming is strongly dependent upon intracellular pH and temperature. It has been observed that the effect of temperature on cytoplasmic streaming created linear variance and dependence at different high temperatures in comparison to low temperatures. This process is complicated, with temperature alterations in the system increasing its efficiency, with other factors such as the transport of ions across the membrane being simultaneously affected. This is due to cells homeostasis depending upon active transport which may be affected at some critical temperatures.

In plant cells, chloroplasts may be moved around with the stream, possibly to a position of optimum light absorption for photosynthesis. The rate of motion is usually affected by light exposure, temperature, and pH levels.

The optimal pH at which cytoplasmic streaming is highest, is achieved at neutral pH and decreases at both low and high pH.

The flow of cytoplasm may be stopped by:

Adding Lugol's iodine solution

Adding Cytochalasin D (dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide)

Dupontia (gastropod)

Dupontia is a genus of small air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Euconulidae, the hive snails.

Dupontia nitella

Dupontia nitella is a species of small air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Euconulidae, the hive snails. This species is found in Mauritius and Réunion.

Helical growth

Helical growth is the expansion of fungal, algal or higher plant cells or organs leading to a twisted (i.e. helical) cell or organ shape. Helical growth typically results in the breaking of (usually radial) symmetry (biology). Resulting shapes may be left-handed or right-handed. Helical growth can arise naturally (e.g. as seen in tendrils or in twining plants) or artificially by mutation (Arabidopsis thaliana). In many cases, a phenomenon known as tendril perversion is seen, in which a tendril curves in opposite directions at each end, with a transition in-between.Helical growth of twining plants is based on a nutational movement of stems (circumnutation). When such stems find support this nutational movement may become fixed into a helical winding. Most twining plants show right-handed helices regardless of the hemisphere the plant is growing in.A missense mutation in the conserved grip1 motif, called spiral3, caused a left-handed helical organization of cortical microtubule arrays, and severe right-handed helical growth. The spiral3 mutation compromises interaction between GCP2 and GCP3, another subunit of the complex, in yeast. In the spiral3 mutant, microtubule dynamics and nucleation efficiency were not markedly affected, but nucleating angles were wider and more divergently distributed. A spiral3 katanin double mutant had swollen and twisted epidermal cells, and showed that the microtubule minus ends were not released from the nucleation sites, although the nucleating angles distributed in a similar manner to those in spiral3. These results show that Arabidopsis GCP2 has an important role in precisely positioning the gamma-tubulin-containing complex on pre-existing microtubules and in the proper organization of cortical arrays.Helical growth of single cells, as seen in Phycomyces (Fungi) and Nitella (Characeae), is believed to be caused by a helical arrangement of microfibrils in the cell wall. This was suggested by birefringence analyses of cell walls. In Arabidopsis thaliana mutants helical growth is exhibited at the organ level. Mutant analysis strongly supports the idea that cortical microtubules have an important role in controlling the direction of organ expansion in plants. It is not clear how helical growth mutants affect cell wall assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Helical growth is the expansion of fungal, algal or higher plant cells or organs that leads to twisted growth of plants

Lake Bästeträsk

Lake Bästeträsk is a freshwater lake located in the northern part of the Swedish island of Gotland. It is the largest lake on the island.

Lake Whangape

Lake Whangape (also written as Wangape, or Whangapae) is shallow, supertrophic, lateral and the second largest lake (after Lake Waikare) in the lower Waikato River basin. One source said the name translated to 'a large sheet of water', another that it was a chief's name.

From the 1860s the catchment has lost most of its forest cover and the lake has changed from clear and rich in aquatic vegetation to a murky, algal lake.

List of extinct and endangered species of Lithuania

This is a list of extinct, endangered and threatened animals of Lithuania. Collection of this list started in 1959 and the current version (2003) contains 815 species: 23 mammals, 75 birds, 128 insects, 224 flowering plants, 199 fungi and lichen.

List of freshwater aquarium plant species

Aquatic plants are used to give the freshwater aquarium a natural appearance, oxygenate the water, absorb ammonia, and provide habitat for fish, especially fry (babies) and for invertebrates. Some aquarium fish and invertebrates also eat live plants. Hobbyists use aquatic plants for aquascaping, of several aesthetic styles.

Most of these plant species are found either partially or fully submerged in their natural habitat. Although there are a handful of obligate aquatic plants that must be grown entirely underwater, most can grow fully emersed if the soil is moist. Though some are just living at the water margins, still, they can live in the completely submerged habitat.

Marian Irwin Osterhout

Marian Irwin Osterhout (June 16, 1888 – May 10, 1973), was an American plant physiologist born in Japan. She was the first woman to receive a National Research Council fellowship.

Nitella flexilis

Nitella flexilis, the smooth stonewort, is a freshwater species of characean algae that is used as a model organism for its large cell size and relative ease of cultivation in the laboratory.

Nitella opaca

Nitella opaca is a species of algae in the family Characeae.


Peleteria is a widespread genus of flies in the family Tachinidae.

Potamogeton berchtoldii

Potamogeton berchtoldii, common name small pondweed is an aquatic plant.

Stalk borer

The stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found from southern Canada, through the Eastern United States (East of the Rocky Mountains) to the Gulf of Mexico, although it is absent from Florida.

This wingspan is 25–44 mm. The moth flies from June to September depending on the location.

The larvae are considered a pest of corn but also feed on various other large-stemmed plants, such as Ambrosia trifida.

Terrestrial plant

A terrestrial plant is a plant that grows on, in, or from land. Other types of plants are aquatic (living in water), epiphytic (living on trees) and lithophytic (living in or on rocks).

The distinction between aquatic and terrestrial plants is often blurred because many terrestrial plants are able to tolerate periodic submersion and many aquatic species have both submersed and emersed forms. There are relatively few obligate submersed aquatic plants (species that cannot tolerate emersion for even relatively short periods), but some examples include members of Hydrocharitaceae and Cabombaceae, Ceratophyllum, and Aldrovanda, and most macroalgae (e.g. Chara and Nitella). Most aquatic plants can, or prefer to, grow in the emersed form, and most only flower in that form. Many terrestrial plants can tolerate extended periods of inundation, and this is often part of the natural habitat of the plant where flooding is common. These plants (termed helophytes) tolerate extended periods of waterlogging around the roots and even complete submersion under flood waters. Growth rates of helophytes decrease significantly during these periods of complete submersion and if water levels do not recede the plant will ultimately decline and perish.

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