Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. The amendment was adopted on August 18, 1920 as the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett (1875), in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give women the right to vote. Since the 1860s, an increasing number of states had given women the right to vote, but several states still denied women the right to vote at the time the amendment was ratified.

The Nineteenth Amendment was originally introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent. Forty-one years later, in 1919, Congress submitted it to the states for ratification. It was ratified by three-fourths of the states a year later, with Tennessee's ratification being the last needed to add the amendment to the Constitution. In Leser v. Garnett (1922), the Supreme Court rejected claims that the amendment was unconstitutionally adopted.

Text

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Background

Map of US Suffrage, 1920
Highest level of women's suffrage laws just before adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment:[1][2]
  Full suffrage
  Presidential suffrage
  Primary suffrage
  Municipal suffrage
  School, bond, or tax suffrage
  Municipal suffrage in some cities
  Primary suffrage in some cities
  No suffrage

The United States Constitution, adopted in 1789, left the boundaries of suffrage undefined. The only directly elected body created by the original Constitution was the House of Representatives, for which voter qualifications were explicitly delegated to the individual states.[3] At that time, all states denied voting rights to women (with the exception of New Jersey, which initially carried women's suffrage but revoked it in 1807).

While scattered movements and organizations dedicated to women's rights existed previously, the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention in New York is traditionally held as the start of the American women's rights movement. Suffrage was not a focus of the convention, however, and its advancement was minimal in the decades preceding the Civil War. While suffrage bills were introduced into most state legislatures during this period, they were generally disregarded and few came to a vote.[4]

The women's suffrage movement took hold after the Civil War, during the Reconstruction era (1865–1877). During this period, women's rights leaders advocated for inclusion of universal suffrage as a civil right in the Reconstruction Amendments (the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments). Despite their efforts, these amendments did nothing to promote women's suffrage.[5][6] Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment explicitly discriminated between men and women by penalizing states who deprived adult male citizens of the vote, but not for denying the vote to adult female citizens.[7] In Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1875), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not provide or protect a right to vote to women.

Continued settlement of the western frontier, along with the establishment of territorial constitutions, allowed the issue to be raised continually at the state level. Through the activism of suffrage organizations and independent political parties, women's suffrage was established in the newly formed constitutions of Wyoming Territory (1869), Utah (1870), and Washington Territory (1883).[6] Existing state legislatures began to consider suffrage bills, and several even held voter referenda, but they were unsuccessful.[8] Efforts at the national level persisted through a strategy of congressional testimony, petitioning, and lobbying.[9]

There were several attempts to amend the Constitution, prior to the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment, to grant universal and limited suffrage to women. One of the attempts, the "Petition for Universal Suffrage", signed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, among others, called for a Constitutional amendment to "prohibit the several states from disenfranchising any of their citizens on the ground of sex" in 1865.[10] In another attempt, an amendment proposed in the House of Representatives called for limited suffrage for women who were spinsters or widows and owned property in 1888.[11]

Two rival organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), were formed in 1869.[5] The NWSA, led by suffrage leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, attempted several unsuccessful court challenges in the mid-1870s.[8] Their legal case, known as the New Departure strategy, was that the Fourteenth Amendment (granting universal citizenship) and Fifteenth Amendment (granting the vote irrespective of race) together served to guarantee voting rights to women. Three Supreme Court decisions from 1873 to 1875 rejected this argument, so these groups shifted to advocating for a new constitutional amendment.[12]

Proposal and ratification

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (seated) and Susan B. Anthony c. 1900

The Nineteenth Amendment is identical to the Fifteenth Amendment, except that the Nineteenth prohibits the denial of suffrage because of sex and the Fifteenth because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".[13] Colloquially known as the "Anthony Amendment", it was first introduced in the Senate by Republican Senator Aaron A. Sargent of California. Sargent, who had met and befriended Anthony on a train ride in 1872, was a dedicated women's suffrage advocate. He had frequently attempted to insert women's suffrage provisions into unrelated bills, but did not formally introduce a constitutional amendment until January 1878.[14] Stanton and other women testified before the Senate in support of the amendment.[15] The proposal sat in a committee until it was considered by the full Senate and rejected in a 16 to 34 vote in 1887.[16]

A three-decade period known as "the doldrums" followed, during which the amendment was not considered by Congress and the women's suffrage movement achieved few victories.[17][18] During this period, the suffragists pressed for the right to vote in the laws of individual states and territories while retaining the goal of federal recognition.[16] A flurry of activity began in 1910 and 1911 with surprise successes in Washington and California.[17] Over the next few years, most western states passed legislation or voter referenda enacting full or partial suffrage for women.[19] These successes were linked to the 1912 election, which saw the rise of the Progressive and Socialist parties, as well as the election of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson.[17][18] Not until 1914 was the constitutional amendment again considered by the Senate, where it was again rejected.[16]

Carrie Chapman Catt was instrumental in the final push to gain ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. In 1900, she succeeded Susan B. Anthony as the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Starting in 1915, Catt revitalized NAWSA and led a successful campaign in New York to achieve state-level suffrage in 1917. When the U.S. entered World War I, Catt made the controversial decision to support the war effort, despite the widespread pacifist sentiment of many of her colleagues and supporters.[20] NAWSA women's work to aid the war effort turned them into highly visible symbols of nationalism.

The republican work of NAWSA stood in contrast to the more radical and aggressive tactics of the National Woman's Party (NWP), led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns. In 1917, the NWP staged controversial demonstrations in Washington, D.C. to draw attention away from the war and back to women's suffrage. Catt was successful in turning NAWSA into a patriotic organization, entirely separate from the NWP, and was rewarded when President Wilson spoke out in favor of women's suffrage in his 1918 State of the Union address before Congress.[21]

Speaker Gillett Signing the Suffrage Bill
Speaker Frederick H. Gillett signing the constitutional amendment bill

Another proposal was brought before the House on January 10, 1918. During the previous evening, President Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the amendment. It was passed by the required two-thirds of the House, with only one vote to spare. The vote was then carried into the Senate. Wilson again made an appeal, but on September 30, 1918, the proposal fell two votes short of passage. On February 10, 1919, it was again voted upon and failed by only one vote.

There was considerable desire among politicians of both parties to have the proposal made part of the Constitution before the 1920 general elections, so the President called a special session of the Congress so the proposal would be brought before the House again. On May 21, 1919, it passed the House, 42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate and, after a long discussion, it was passed with 56 ayes and 25 nays. Within a few days, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan ratified the amendment, their legislatures being in session. Other states followed suit at a regular pace, until the amendment had been ratified by 35 of the necessary 36 state legislatures. Much of the opposition to the amendment came from Southern Democrats, a trend which remained consistent with Tennessee as the last state to pass the amendment, during a special session right before the ratification period was to expire.[21] On August 18, 1920, Tennessee narrowly approved the Nineteenth Amendment, with 50 of 99 members of the Tennessee House of Representatives voting yes.[22] This provided the final ratification necessary to add the amendment to the Constitution.[23]

Ratification timeline

19th Amendment Pg1of1 AC
Nineteenth Amendment in the National Archives

The Congress proposed the Nineteenth Amendment on June 4, 1919, and the following states ratified the amendment.[24][25]

  1. Illinois (June 10, 1919)[26][27] Because of a miswording in the introduction of the bill, but not the amendment itself, Illinois reaffirmed passage of the amendment on June 17 and submitted a brief to confirm that the second vote was merely a legal formality. Illinois was acknowledged by the US Secretary of State as the first state to ratify the amendment.[28]
  2. Wisconsin (June 10, 1919)[26][27]
  3. Michigan (June 10, 1919)[29]
  4. Kansas (June 16, 1919)[30]
  5. Ohio (June 16, 1919)[31][32]
  6. New York (June 16, 1919)[33]
  7. Pennsylvania (June 24, 1919)
  8. Massachusetts (June 25, 1919)
  9. Texas (June 28, 1919)
  10. Iowa (July 2, 1919)[note 1]
  11. Missouri (July 3, 1919)
  12. Arkansas (July 28, 1919)
  13. Montana (August 2, 1919)[note 1]
  14. Nebraska (August 2, 1919)
  15. Minnesota (September 8, 1919)
  16. New Hampshire (September 10, 1919)[note 1]
  17. Utah (September 30, 1919)[34]
  18. California (November 1, 1919)
  19. Maine (November 5, 1919)
  20. North Dakota (December 1, 1919)
  21. South Dakota (December 4, 1919)
  22. Colorado (December 15, 1919)[note 1]
  23. Kentucky (January 6, 1920)
  24. Rhode Island (January 6, 1920)
  25. Oregon (January 13, 1920)
  26. Indiana (January 16, 1920)
  27. Wyoming (January 27, 1920)
  28. Nevada (February 7, 1920)
  29. New Jersey (February 9, 1920)
  30. Idaho (February 11, 1920)
  31. Arizona (February 12, 1920)
  32. New Mexico (February 21, 1920)
  33. Oklahoma (February 28, 1920)
  34. West Virginia (March 10, 1920, confirmed on September 21, 1920)
  35. Washington (March 22, 1920)
  36. Tennessee (August 18, 1920)

Ratification was completed on August 18, 1920, and the following states subsequently ratified the amendment:

Leser v. Garnett

Brandeisl
Justice Louis Brandeis, author of the Supreme Court's opinion in Leser v. Garnett[36]

The amendment's validity was unanimously upheld in Leser v. Garnett, 258 U.S. 130 (1922).[37]

Oscar Leser sued to stop two women registered to vote in Baltimore, Maryland, because he believed that the Maryland Constitution limited the suffrage to men and the Maryland legislature had refused to vote to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. Two months before, the federal government had proclaimed the amendment incorporated into the Constitution on August 26, 1920.[37]

First, Leser said the amendment "destroyed State autonomy" because it increased Maryland's electorate without the state's consent. The Court answered that the Nineteenth Amendment was worded like the Fifteenth Amendment, which had expanded state electorates without regard to race for over 50 years by that time despite being rejected by six states, including Maryland.[36][37]

Second, Leser claimed that the state constitutions in some ratifying states did not allow their legislatures to ratify. The Court replied that state ratification was a federal function which came from Article V of the Constitution and so is not subject to limitations by a state constitution.[37]

Third, those bringing suit asserted the Nineteenth Amendment was not adopted, because Tennessee and West Virginia violated their own rules of procedure. The Court ruled that the point was moot, because since then Connecticut and Vermont had ratified the amendment and so there was a sufficient number of ratifications for the Nineteenth Amendment to be considered adopted even without Tennessee and West Virginia. Also, the Court ruled that Tennessee and West Virginia's certifying of their ratifications was binding and had been duly authenticated by the Secretary of State.[37]

Thus, the two women were permitted to be registered to vote in Baltimore.[37]

Effects

Following the Nineteenth Amendment's adoption, many legislators feared that a powerful women's bloc would emerge in American politics. This fear led to the passage of such laws as the Sheppard–Towner Act of 1921, which expanded maternity care during the 1920s.[38] However, a women's bloc did not emerge in American politics until the 1950s.[39]

According to political scientists J. Kevin Corder and Christina Wolbrecht, few women turned out to vote in the first elections after they got the right to do so. In 1920, just 36% of eligible women turned out to vote (compared with 68% of men).[40][41] The low turnout was partly due to other barriers to voting, such as literacy tests, long residency requirements and poll taxes. Inexperience with voting and persistent beliefs that voting was inappropriate for women may also have kept turnout low.[40][41] The gap was lowest between men and women in states that were swing states at the time, such as Missouri and Kentucky, and where barriers to voting were lower.[40][41]

Legacy

The 1976 song "Sufferin' Till Suffrage" from Schoolhouse Rock!, performed by Essra Mohawk and written by Bob Dorough and Tom Yohe, states in part, "Not a woman here could vote, no matter what age, Then the 19th Amendment struck down that restrictive rule ... Yes the 19th Amendment Struck down that restrictive rule."[42][43]

On August 26, 2016, a monument commemorating Tennessee's role in providing the required 36th state ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment was unveiled in Centennial Park (Nashville).[44] The memorial, erected by the Tennessee Suffrage Monument, Inc.[45] and created by Alan LeQuire, features likenesses of suffragists who were particularly involved in securing Tennessee's ratification: Carrie Chapman Catt; Anne Dallas Dudley; Abby Crawford Milton; Juno Frankie Pierce; and Sue Shelton White.

In 2018 an album was released by various artists called 27: The Most Perfect Album, featuring songs inspired by the 27 amendments to the U.S. Constitution; the song inspired by the 19th amendment is called "A Woman's Right" and is by Dolly Parton.[46][47]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Date on which approved by governor

References

Citations

  1. ^ Shuler, Marjorie (September 4, 1920). "Out of Subjection Into Freedom". The Woman Citizen: 360.
  2. ^ Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote. ISBN 0-465-02969-8.
  3. ^ "the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature" (US Constitution, Article I, Section 2)
  4. ^ Banaszak 1996, pp. 5–6.
  5. ^ a b Banaszak 1996, pp. 6–7.
  6. ^ a b Mead 2004, p. 2.
  7. ^ "But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State." (US Constitution, Amendment XIV, Section 2, emphasis added).
  8. ^ a b Banaszak 1996, p. 8.
  9. ^ Banaszak 1996, pp. 133–134.
  10. ^ United States Senate. "Petition for Universal Suffrage which Asks for an Amendment to the Constitution that Shall Prohibit the Several States from Disenfranchising Any of Their Citizens on the Ground of Sex". National Archives Catalog. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  11. ^ United States House of Representatives. "House Joint Resolution (H.J. Res.) 159, Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution to Extend the Right to Vote to Widows and Spinsters who are Property Holders". National Archives Catalog. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  12. ^ Mead 2004, pp. 35–38.
  13. ^ Flexner 1959, p. 165.
  14. ^ Mead 2004, p. 38.
  15. ^ Amar 2005, pp. 421.
  16. ^ a b c Kobach, Kris (May 1994). "Woman suffrage and the Nineteenth Amendment". University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law.
    Excerpt from Kobach, Kris (May 1994). "Rethinking Article V: term limits and the Seventeenth and Nineteenth Amendments". Yale Law Journal. Yale Law School. 103 (7): 1971–2007. doi:10.2307/797019. JSTOR 797019.
  17. ^ a b c Mead 2004, pp. 94–95.
  18. ^ a b Baker 2002, pp. 98–101.
  19. ^ Baker 2002, p. 90.
  20. ^ Sara M. Evans. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: The Free Press, 1989, pp. 164-172.
  21. ^ a b Christine Stansell. The Feminist Promise. New York: The Modern Library, 2011, pp. 171–174.
  22. ^ Van West 1998.
  23. ^ Hakim 1995, pp. 29–33.
  24. ^ Mount, Steve (January 2007). "Ratification of Constitutional Amendments". Retrieved February 24, 2007.
  25. ^ "Claim Wisconsin First to O.K. Suffrage". Milwaukee Journal. November 2, 1919. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  26. ^ a b "Two States Ratify Votes for Women". The Ottawa Herald. Ottawa, Kansas. June 10, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  27. ^ a b "Wisconsin O.K.'s Suffrage; Illinois First". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. June 10, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  28. ^ Harper, Ida Husted, ed. (1922). History of Woman Suffrage. 6: 1900-1920. Rochester, New York: J. J. Little & Ives Company for the National Woman Suffrage Association. p. 164. OCLC 963795738.
  29. ^ "Michigan Third to Put O.K. on Suffrage Act". The Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan. June 10, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  30. ^ "Suffrage is Ratified". The Independence Daily Reporter. Independence, Kansas. June 16, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  31. ^ "Assembly to O. K. Suffrage with Dispatch". The Dayton Daily News. Dayton, Ohio. June 16, 1919. p. 9. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  32. ^ "Ohio Legislature Favors Suffrage". The Fremont Daily Messenger. Fremont, Ohio. June 17, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  33. ^ "Women Suffrage Amendment Wins in Legislature (pt. 1)". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 17, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access and "Women Suffrage Amendment Wins in Legislature (pt. 2)". The New York Times. New York, New York. June 17, 1919. p. 9. Retrieved December 17, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  34. ^ "Utah Ratifies the Suffrage Amendment". The Ogden Standard. Ogden, Utah. September 30, 1919. p. 6. Retrieved December 18, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  35. ^ "Ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment by the Florida Legislature, 1969". Institute of Museum and Library Services. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
  36. ^ a b "258 U.S. 130 - Leser v. Garnett". OpenJurist. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Anzalone 2002, p. 17.
  38. ^ Dumenil 1995, pp. 23–30.
  39. ^ Moses & Hartmann 1995, pp. xx-xxi.
  40. ^ a b c "Was women's suffrage a failure? What new evidence tells us about the first women voters". Washington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
  41. ^ a b c "Counting Women's Ballots". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
  42. ^ Litman, Kevin (2018-04-25). "Bob Dorough: 9 Best 'Schoolhouse Rock!' Songs from the Composer". Inverse. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  43. ^ "Schoolhouse Rock - Sufferin' 'til Suffrage". Schoolhouserock.tv. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  44. ^ Bliss, Jessica (August 26, 2016). "Alan LeQuire's Women Suffrage Monument unveiled in Nashville's Centennial Park". Nashville Tennessean. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  45. ^ "Too Few Statues of Women". Tennessee Suffrage Monument, Inc.
  46. ^ "27: The Most Perfect Album | Radiolab". WNYC Studios. 2018-09-19. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  47. ^ 10:01 AM (2018-09-18). "Dolly Parton Hopes to "Uplift Women" in New Song That Highlights 19th Amendment: Women's Right to Vote [Listen". Nash Country Daily. Retrieved 2018-11-12.

Bibliography

External links

1922 United States Senate election in Minnesota

The 1922 United States Senate election in Minnesota took place on November 7, 1922. Farmer-Labor challenger Henrik Shipstead defeated incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Frank B. Kellogg and Democratic challenger Anna Dickie Olesen.

The 1922 U.S. Senate election in Minnesota was significant for a number of reasons. Olesen was the first woman nominated by a major political party in an election to the United States Senate. She was furthermore the first woman nominated by the Minnesota Democratic Party in any statewide election, and, together with the 1922 Farmer-Labor nominees for Secretary of State and State Auditor, Susie Stageberg and Eliza Evans Deming, tied for the record for second woman nominated by a major political party in a statewide election in Minnesota (the first being the 1920 Farmer-Labor nominee for Secretary of State, Lily J. Anderson). In addition to being the first United States Senate election to feature a woman as the nominee of a major party, the 1922 United States Senate election in Minnesota was the first United States Senate election held in Minnesota after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The victorious Henrik Shipstead also earned some footnotes in history. Shipstead was the first Farmer-Labor nominee to ever win a statewide election in Minnesota. He was also just the fourth non-Republican to represent Minnesota in the United States Senate, the third non-Republican to be elected to the United States Senate from Minnesota, the first non-Republican to be elected to the United States Senate from Minnesota since the American Civil War, and the first non-Republican to be elected to the United States Senate from Minnesota by popular vote.

Additionally, in the 1922 United States Senate election in Minnesota, Kellogg became the first Republican incumbent representing Minnesota in the United States Senate to ever be defeated, in a bid for re-election, by a non-Republican.

Clara Elizabeth Chan Lee

Clara Elizabeth Chan Lee (October 21, 1886 – October 5, 1993) was the first Chinese American woman to register to vote in the United States. She registered to vote on November 8, 1911 in California following the passage of Proposition 4 in California, nine years before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Congressional Digest

The Congressional Digest, published by Congressional Digest Corporation, is a scholarly independent monthly publication with offices in Washington, DC. Congressional Digest was founded in 1921 by suffragette Alice Gram Robinson with the goal of presenting, in her words, “an impartial view of controversial issues.” Each issue focuses on one specific topic before Congress and includes primary source research material without editorial bias in a PRO & CON format.

A major source of inspiration for the publication’s format was the 1920 ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote. Robinson believed that the best way to prevent newly franchised voters from being unduly swayed or intimidated by the actions or rhetoric of Congress was to provide them with side-by-side arguments on pending legislation. Since 1921, Congressional Digest has been an independent publication featuring controversies facing Congress and the Supreme Court. Not an official organ, nor is it controlled by any party, interest, class or sect.

Congressional Digest has continued for three generations and is now led by Robinson’s granddaughter, Page Robinson. The publication has stayed true to its original concept, presenting excerpted verbatim statements from current congressional debates in a pro-and-con format, along with digested government material to put the controversy in historical and legislative context.Congressional Digest Corporation publishes two additional publications: Supreme Court Debates, started in 1997, and International Debates, published from 2003–2013. All three are available online; Congressional Digest is also available in print.

The publications’ subscribers include high school and university libraries, debate organizations, and other groups and individuals interested in current events.

Ellen Clark Sargent

Ellen Clark Sargent (Massachusetts, 1826 - 1911) was an active American women's suffragette. She was influential in advocacy for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which sought to give women the right to vote.

Fanny M. Irvin

Fanny Marie Irvin (January 15, 1854 - September 26, 1929) was librarian of the Idaho State Law Library, and assisted in drafting several important legislative acts. She drafted a resolution to Congress from the state of Idaho endorsing women's suffrage, and campaigned for the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting the right to vote to women.

Gertrude Foster Brown

Gertrude Foster Brown (Mrs. Arthur Raymond Brown, July 29, 1867 – March 1, 1956) was a concert pianist, teacher, and suffragette. Following the passage of women suffrage in New York State in 1917, and pending passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Brown wrote Your Vote and How to Use It, published in 1918. She was Director-General of the Women's Overseas Hospitals in France, founded by suffragists, in 1918. In addition to her work in the New York suffrage movement, she helped to found the National League of Women Voters. She was the Managing Director of the Woman's Journal from 1921-1931.

Hebbronville, Texas

Hebbronville ( HEB-rən-vil) is a census-designated place (CDP) in and the county seat of Jim Hogg County, Texas, United States. The population was 4,558 at the 2010 census. In 1918, Helen Sewel Harbison became the first woman in Texas to cast a ballot, two years before the implementation of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The Colegio Altamirano, founded by settlers of Spanish ancestry who wanted their children to learn Spanish culture, was an institution in Hebbronville from 1897 until its closing in 1958.

The community calls itself the "Vaquero Capitol of Texas and the USA."

League of Women Voters

The League of Women Voters (LWV) is an American civic organization that was formed to help women take a larger role in public affairs after they won the right to vote. It was founded in 1920 to support the new women suffrage rights and was a merger of National Council of Women Voters, founded by Emma Smith DeVoe, and National American Woman Suffrage Association, led by Carrie Chapman Catt, approximately six months before the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution gave women the right to vote. The League of Women Voters began as a "mighty political experiment" aimed to help newly enfranchised women exercise their responsibilities as voters. Originally, only women could join the league; but in 1973 the charter was modified to include men. LWV operates at the local, state, and national level, with over 1,000 local and 50 state leagues, and one territory league in the U.S. Virgin Islands.The League of Women Voters is officially nonpartisan—it neither supports nor opposes candidates or parties. It does, however, support a variety of progressive public policy positions, including campaign finance reform, universal health care, abortion rights, climate change action and environmental regulation, and gun control.

Leser v. Garnett

Leser v. Garnett, 258 U.S. 130 (1922), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had been constitutionally established.

List of monuments and memorials to women's suffrage

Women's suffrage refers to the right of a woman to vote in an election. This right was often not included in the original suffrage legislation of a state or country, resulting in both men and women campaigning to introduce legislation to enable women to vote. Actions included writing letters to newspapers and legislators, compiling petitions, holding marches and rallies and carrying out acts of violence. Women were on occasion arrested for these actions and held in jail, during which time some went on hunger strikes, refusing to eat for the duration of their incarceration.

Monuments and memorials to women's suffrage have been constructed around the world in recognition of the bravery and strength of the women who campaigned for voting rights, and the achievement of having the legislation passed.

Lucy Somerville Howorth

Lucy Somerville Howorth (July 1, 1895 – August 24, 1997) was an American lawyer, feminist and politician. On August 18, 1917, in the State Capitol gallery in Nashville, Tennessee, she witnessed the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution being ratified, giving women the right to vote. This inspired her lifelong fight for the civil rights of minorities and women. She is also known for her New Deal legislative efforts.

Madeline McDowell Breckinridge

Madeline (Madge) McDowell Breckinridge (1872 – 1920) was a leader of the women's suffrage movement and one of Kentucky's leading progressive reformers. She lobbied for women's right to vote in board elections and for state and federal election voting rights. Kentucky ratified the constitution amendment for women's right to vote on January 6, 1920 and the federal Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed that year, which allowed women to vote in the presidential election in November 1920.

She was instrumental in the adoption of legislation to establish the juvenile justice system, which was enacted in 1906. She also lobbied for child labor laws and compulsory school attendance legislation. Breckenridge was the founder of many civic organizations, including the Lexington Civic League, Associated Charities and Kentucky Association for the Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis. She led efforts to create these organizations, implement model schools for children and adults, parks and recreations, manual training programs, and health care facilities for tuberculosis treatment. McDowell had suffered from tuberculosis since she was a young woman, and the amputation of part of one of her legs necessitated the use of a wooden leg.

In their book, A New History of Kentucky, Lowell H. Harrison and James C. Klotter, state that Breckinridge was the most influential woman in the state. She was named one of the Kentucky Women Remembered in 1996 and her portrait is permanently displayed at the state capitol. She was a descendant of 19th-century statesman Henry Clay and married editor and publisher Desha Breckinridge.

Natural person

In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization. Historically, a human being was not necessarily a natural person in some jurisdictions where slavery existed (subject of a property right) rather than a person.

In many cases, fundamental human rights are implicitly granted only to natural persons. For example, the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which states a person cannot be denied the right to vote based on their biological sex, or Section Fifteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees equality rights, apply to natural persons only. Another example of the distinction between natural and legal persons is that a natural person can hold public office, but a corporation cannot.

A corporation or non-governmental organization can, however, file a lawsuit or own property as a legal person.

Susan B. Anthony House

Susan B. Anthony House, in Rochester, New York, was the home of Susan B. Anthony for forty years, while she was a national figure in the women's rights movement.

She was arrested in the front parlor after attempting to vote in the 1872 Presidential Election. She resided here until her death.The house was purchased for use as a memorial in 1945, and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965. It has been documented in the Historic American Buildings Survey.The Susan B. Anthony House is located at 17 Madison Street in Rochester. Access to the house is through the Susan B. Anthony Museum entrance at 19 Madison Street.

Today the Susan B. Anthony House is a learning center and museum open to the public for tours and programs from 11-5 Tuesday through Sunday, except major holidays. Its full name is the National Susan B. Anthony Museum & House. The Visitor Center and Museum Shop are located in the historic house next door, 19 Madison Street, which was owned by Hannah Anthony Mosher, sister of Susan and Mary Anthony. The mission of the Susan B. Anthony House is to keep Susan B. Anthony's vision alive and relevant.

The house hosts an annual celebration of Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave women the right to vote. In 2011, the New York Times reported that the museum at the house had sold a large quantity of "a $250 handbag made of fake alligator that was inspired by one of Anthony’s own club bags, similar to a doctor’s bag," noting that for Anthony, "a bag was not a fashion statement but a symbol of independence at a time when women were not allowed to enter into a contract or even open a bank account."Papers and memorabilia about the suffrage movement were donated to the house at the request of Carrie Chapman Catt, Susan B. Anthony's successor as President of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. They are held by the River Campus Libraries of the University of Rochester.

Tennessee Woman Suffrage Memorial

The Tennessee Woman Suffrage Memorial is located at Market Square in downtown Knoxville, Tennessee, United States. It honors the women who campaigned for the state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution to give women the right to vote. Tennessee was the final state to ratify the amendment and have it added to the Constitution, and thus was the focus of considerable effort both from local women and women who travelled from other states to assist them. The ratification vote was passed on August 18, 1920.

The sculpture was commissioned by the Suffrage Coalition and designed and created by Alan LeQuire. It was unveiled on 26 August, 2006 as part of a day of commemorations, which included a re-enactment of a suffrage march, with women in vintage clothes and replica sashes, and carrying replica banners. Martha Craig Daughtrey was the speaker at the unveiling; she was the first female judge on a Tennessee court of appeals and the first woman on the Tennessee Supreme Court.The bronze sculpture depicts three women who were leading campaigners for women's suffrage: Elizabeth Avery Meriwether of Memphis, Lizzie Crozier French of Knoxville, and Anne Dallas Dudley of Nashville. The base of the sculpture features text on the campaign and a number of quotations from the campaigners, including the following by Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch:

"All honor to women, the first disenfranchised class in history who unaided by any political party, won enfranchisement by its own effort alone, and achieved the victory without the shedding of a drop of human blood."

The Famous Five (Canada)

The Famous Five, or The Valiant Five, (French: Célèbres cinq) were five Alberta women who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?" in the case Edwards v Canada. The five women, Emily Murphy, Irene Marryat Parlby, Nellie Mooney McClung, Louise Crummy McKinney and Henrietta Muir Edwards, created a petition to ask this question. They fought to have women legally considered persons so that women could be appointed to the Senate. The petition was filed on August 27, 1927, and on April 24, 1928, Canada's Supreme Court summarized its unanimous decision that women are not such "persons".The last line of the judgement reads, "Understood to mean 'Are women eligible for appointment to the Senate of Canada,' the question is answered in the negative." This judgement was overturned by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on October 18, 1929. This case came to be known as the "Persons Case". Although Canadian women (those who were British/Canadian citizens) had the vote in many provinces and in federal elections by 1929, the case was part of a continent-wide drive for political equality, coming seven years after discrimination against women's voting rights was prohibited in the United States through the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and thus had important ramifications.

Some saw this as "radical change"; others saw it as a restoration of the original framing of the English constitutional documents, including the 1689 Bill of Rights, which uses only the term "person", not the term "man" (or "woman" for that matter).

Some others have interpreted the Privy Council rule as causing a change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine".

The Suffragist

The Suffragist was a weekly newspaper published by the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in 1913 to advance the cause of women's suffrage. The publication was first envisioned as a small pamphlet by the Congressional Union (CU), a new affiliate of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) which in 1917 became the NWP. It evolved into an eight-page weekly tabloid newspaper by the time the first issue appeared on 15 November 1913.Started by Alice Paul with Rheta Childe Dorr as its first editor, its goal was to spread women’s political news and to advance movements toward a suffrage amendment. The newspaper gave its publishers an avenue to communicate directly with each other and supporters without going through the mainstream media. In its six years, the publication played an important role in the eventual success of the suffragists.To go along with its rich informative content, Nina Allender drew political cartoons to attract readers visually. The Suffragist recorded protests and arrests in news accounts and editorials. Along with political cartoons, illustrations, photographs, essays, and poems all served as advocacy devices within the paper.In 1917, when the National Woman’s Party (NWP) began picketing the White House and were arrested; the newspaper served as a light to the public on the treatment of these political people. In 1914, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns were its its editors and later in 1917 Edith Houghton Hooker became its official editor.

The newspaper ceased publication after the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution allowing Women to vote was passed. After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919, it regained publication as the official National Woman’s Party magazine in from 1923 until its last publication in 1954. The magazine served a similar role but its focus was specifically on Equal Rights Amendment and other bills affecting women including protective labor legislation, nationality issues, and jury service.

Wilhelmina Kekelaokalaninui Widemann Dowsett

Wilhelmine or Wilhelmina Kekelaokalaninui Widemann Dowsett (March 28, 1861 – December 10, 1929) was a Native Hawaiian suffragist who helped organize the National Women's Equal Suffrage Association of Hawaii, the first women's suffrage club in the Territory of Hawaii in 1912. She actively campaigned for the rights of the women of Hawaii to vote prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920.

Woman's Journal

Woman's Journal was an American women's rights periodical published from 1870-1931. It was founded in 1870 in Boston, Massachusetts, by Lucy Stone and her husband Henry Browne Blackwell as a weekly newspaper. In 1917 it was purchased by Carrie Chapman Catt's Leslie Woman Suffrage Commission and merged with The Woman Voter and National Suffrage News to become known as The Woman Citizen. It served as the official organ of the National American Woman Suffrage Association until 1920, when the organization was reformed as the League of Women Voters, and the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed granting women the right to vote. Publication of Woman Citizen slowed from weekly, to bi-weekly, to monthly. In 1927, it was renamed The Woman's Journal. It ceased publication in June 1931.

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