Nimio de Anquín

Nimio de Anquín (1896 — 1979) was an Argentine Thomist writer and fascist politician. Seeking to combine European models of fascism with his own attachment to the Catholic Church he led several movements and for a time had a strong following. Subsequently, however, he lost political influence and his later life was mainly focused on his academic career.

Nimio de Anquín
Nimiodeanquin
Born
Nimio de Anquín

1896
Died1979
NationalityArgentine
Alma materNational University of Córdoba
OccupationLecturer
Known forPolitician
Political partyNational Fascist Union

Early years

A native of Córdoba, Argentina, de Anquín studied law at National University of Córdoba.[1] With his studies in Argentina completed he travelled to Germany to study philosophy under Ernst Cassirer.[2] Whilst in Europe he developed his interest in politics and became a follower of the ideas of Charles Maurras after coming into contact with his work.[1] Soon de Anquín sought to develop his own political ideas by seeking to combine Thomism with Hegelianism, leading him to call for a national syndicalist state.[3]

Fascist leader

He was a founder of the Instituto San Tomas de Aquino in Córdoba, Argentina in 1929 and this group would become linked to the Argentine Fascist Party.[4] In 1934 he joined the Fascismo Argentino de Córdoba (Blueshirts). By the following year he had taken over as leader of the group, which by then had changed its name to the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas in 1935.[3] Various groups then merged in 1936 to emerge as the Union National Fascista under de Anquin's leadership.[5] A strong admirer of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism, he argued that Argentine nacionalismo should follow the Italian model by seeking to mobilise mass support but that the domestic version of fascism should put a stronger emphasis on the centrality of Catholicism to national identity than its European counterparts.[6]

However de Anquín found it difficult to lead the fascist movement in the face of opposition. In 1934 he was suspended from his lectureship at the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat, in Córdoba, due to the violence of his movement.[3] The violence continued however until active repression began in late 1936 when he attempted to force university students to sign a letter in support of Francisco Franco.[5] By 1939 the Union National Fascista was effectively moribund.[3]

Later years

With his movement now defunct de Anquín returned to lecturing, initially in his home town then later in Santa Fe.[3] He did not abandon politics altogether however and became associated with the journals Sol y Luna and Nueva Politica and, on a more religious note, the group of intellectuals around Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo.[3] He also wrote in praise of Adolf Hitler stating in 1941 that "by the work of the great Hitler, liberalism and ugly democracy have died".[7] He continued to write on political matters until late in his life, inevitably focusing on his two favoured themes of militant nationalism and anti-democracy.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 11
  2. ^ Guttorm Fløistad, Philosophy of Latin America, 2003, p. 24
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right, p. 97
  4. ^ Sandra McGee Deutsch, Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939, p. 210
  5. ^ a b McGee Deutsch, Las Derechas, p. 216
  6. ^ F. Finchelstein, The Ideological Origins of the Dirty War: Fascism, Populism, and Dictatorship in Twentieth Century Argentina, Oxford University Press, 2014p. 43
  7. ^ Finchelstein, The Ideological Origins of the Dirty War, p. 37
Argentine Fascist Party

The Argentine Fascist Party (Partido Fascista Argentino, PFA) was a fascist political party in Argentina from 1932 until its official disbandment in 1936, when it was succeeded by the National Fascist Union (Union Nacional Fascista, UNF). Founded by Italian Argentines, the party was formed as a breakaway faction from Argentina's National Fascist Party (Partido Nacional Fascista, PNF). It was based upon Italian Fascism and was recognized by Benito Mussolini's Italian National Fascist Party in 1935. In the 1930s the party became a mass organization, particularly in Córdoba. Nicholás Vitelli led the PFA's branch in Córdoba until his death in 1934, whereafter Nimio de Anquín took the leadership of the party. The PFA's main political allies in Córdoba were the Argentine Civic Legion and the Nationalist Action of Argentina/Affirmation of a New Argentina movement.

Fascism in South America

Fascism in South America is an assortment of political parties and movements modelled on fascism. Although originating and primarily associated with Europe, the ideology crossed the Atlantic Ocean between the world wars and had an influence on South American politics. Although the ideas of Falangism probably had the deepest impact in South America, largely due to Hispanidad, more generic fascism was also an important factor in regional politics.

Julio Meinvielle

Father Julio Meinvielle (31 August 1905 – 2 August 1973) was an Argentine priest and prolific writer. A leading Roman Catholic Church thinker of his time, he was associated with the far right tendency within Argentine Catholic thinking. As a polemicist he had a strong influence on the development of nacionalismo.

National Fascist Union (Argentina)

The National Fascist Union (Unión Nacional Fascista, UNF) was a fascist political party formed in Argentina in 1936, as the successor to the Argentine Fascist Party.In August 1936, UNF leader Nimio de Anquín attempted to force students at a law school in Cordoba to pledge a statement of support for the Spanish general Francisco Franco. Police responded with a crackdown against Argentine nationalists. Support for the UNF surged after two nationalists were shot in the Colegio Montserrat in 1938. In the aftermath of the Montserrat murders, Anquin denounced the middle and upper class for complicity and cowardice and claimed that "communism, Judaism, and degenerate Radicalism" were responsible for causing the murders. Anquín called for the mourners to swear "by God, honour, and the Fatherland, to return the homicidal bullet".By 1939, the UNF was largely defunct, and Anquín returned to his hometown to resume his earlier career as a lecturer.

Neo-scholasticism

Neo-scholasticism (also known as neo-scholastic Thomism or neo-Thomism because of the great influence of the writings of Thomas Aquinas on the movement), is a revival and development of medieval scholasticism in Roman Catholic theology and philosophy which began in the second half of the 19th century.

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