Nimbarka Sampradaya

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The Nimbarka Sampradaya (IAST: Nimbārka Sampradāya, Sanskrit निम्बार्क सम्प्रदाय), also known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya and Sanakādi Sampradāya, is one of the four Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas. It was founded by Nimbarka (c.7th century CE), and teaches the Vaishnava theology of Dvaitadvaita (dvaita-advaita) or "dualistic non-dualism." Dvaitadvaita states that humans are both different and non-different from Isvara, God or Supreme Being, and is also known as Bhedābheda (bheda-abheda) philosophy.

Nimbarka Sampradaya
Shankha-Chakra-Urdhvapundra of the Nimbarka Sampradaya
Shankha-Chakra-Urdhvapundra of the Nimbarka Sampradaya
Founder
Nimbarkacharya
Regions with significant populations
India & Nepal
Languages
Sanskrit , Hindi , Brajbhasha

Guru Parampara

Srimad Hamsa Bhagavan
Śrī Haṃsa Bhagavān, the originator of the Śrī Nimbārka Sampradāya.
Sankadi Muni Bhagavan
Sri Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat Kumara - the four Kumaras.

According to tradition, the Nimbarka Sampradaya Dvait-advait philosophy was revealed by Śrī Hansa Bhagavān to Sri Sankadi bhagwan, one of the Four Kumaras; who passed it to Sri Narada Muni; and then on to Nimbarka. The Four Kumaras, Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanātana, and Sanat Kumāra, are traditionally regarded as the four mind-born sons of Lord Brahmā. They were created by Brahmā in order to advance creation, but chose to undertake lifelong vows of celibacy (brahmacarya), becoming renowned yogis, who requested from Brahma the boon of remaining perpetually five years old.[web 1] Śrī Sanat Kumāra Samhitā, a treatise on the worship of Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa, is attributed to the brothers, just like the Śrī Sanat Kumāra Tantra, which is part of the Pancarātra literature.[1]

In the creation-myth of this universe as narrated by the Paurāṇika literature, Śrī Nārada Muni is the younger brother of the Four Kumāras, who took initiation from his older brothers. Their discussions as guru and disciple are recorded in the Upaniṣads with a famous conversation in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and in the Śrī Nārada Purāṇa and the Pañcarātra literature.

Nārada Muni is recorded as main teacher in all four of the Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas. According to tradition, he initiated Śrī Nimbārkācārya into the sacred 18-syllabled Śrī Gopāla Mantra, and introduced him to the philosophy of the Yugala upāsana, the devotional worship of the divine couple Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa. According to tradition, this was the first time that Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa were worshipped together by anyone on earth other than the Gopis of Vṛndāvana. Śrī Nārada Muni then taught Nimbarka the essence of devotional service in the Śrī Nārada Bhakti Sūtras[2]. Śrī Nimbārkācārya already knew the Vedas, Upaniṣads and the rest of the scriptures, but perfection was found in the teachings of Śrī Nārada Muni.[3]

Nimbarka

Dating

According to the Bhavishya Purana, and his eponymous tradition, the Nimbārka Sampradāya, Śrī Nimbārkāchārya appeared in the year 3096 BCE, when the grandson of Arjuna was on the throne. Nimbarka is conventionally dated at the 12th or 13th century, but this dating has been questioned, suggesting that Nimbarka lived somewhat earlier than Shankara, in the 6th or 7th century CE.

According to Roma Bose, Nimbarka lived in the 13th century, on the presupposition that Śrī Nimbārkāchārya was the author of the work Madhvamukhamardana.[4][note 1] Bhandarkar has placed him after Ramanuja, suggesting 1162 AD as the date of his demise.[5] S.N.Dasgupta dated Nimbarka to around middle of 14th century,[6] while S. A. A. Rizvi assigns a date of c.1130–1200 AD.[7]

According to Satyanand, Bose's dating of the 13th century is an erroneous attribution,[8] Malkovsky notes that in Bhandarkar's own work it is clearly stated that his dating of Nimbarka was an approximation based on an extremely flimsy calculation; yet most scholars chose to honour his suggested date, even until modern times.[9] According to Malkovsky, the latest scholarship has demonstrated with a high degree of clarity that Nimbarka and his immediate disciple Shrinivasa flourished well before Ramanuja (1017–1137 CE), arguing that Shrinivasa was a contemporary, or just after Sankaracarya (early 8th century).[9] According to Ramnarace, summarising the available research, Nimbarka must be dated in the 7th century CE.[10]

Early years

According to tradition, Nimbārka was born in Vaidūryapattanam, the present-day Mungi Village, Paithan in East Maharashtra. His parents were Aruṇa Ṛṣi and Jayantī Devī. Together, they migrated to Mathurā and settled at what is now known as Nimbagrāma (Neemgaon), situated between Barsānā and Govardhan.

Teachings

Dvaita-advaita

The Nimbarka Sampradaya is based on Nimbarka's Dvait-advait philosophy, duality and nonduality at the same time, or dualistic non-dualism.

According to Nimbarka, there are three categories of existence, namely Isvara (God, Divine Being); cit (jiva, the indivual soul); and acit (lifeless matter). Cit and acit are different from Isvara, in the sense that they have attributes (Guna) and capacities (Swabhaava), which are different from those of Isvara. At the same time, cit and acit are not different from Isvara, because they cannot exist independently of Him. Isvara is independent and exists by Himself, while cit and acit exist in dependence upon Him. Difference means a kind of existence which is separate but dependent, (para-tantra-satta-bhava); while non-difference means impossibility of separate existence (svatantra-satta-bhava).

According to Nimbarka, the relation between Brahman, on the one hand, and the souls (cit) and universe (acit) on the other, is a relation of natural difference-non-difference (svabhavika-bhedabheda).[note 2] Nimbarka equally emphasises both difference and non-difference, as against Ramanuja, who makes difference subordinate to non-difference, in as much as, for him cit and acit do not exist separately from Brahman, but are its body or attributes.

Nimbarka accepts parinamavada, the idea that the world is a real transformation (parinama) of Brahman, to explain the cause of animate and inanimate world, which he says exist in a subtle form in the various capacities (saktis), which belong to Brahman in its natural condition. Brahman is the material cause of the universe, in the sense that Brahman brings the subtle rudiments into the gross form, by manifesting these capacities.

For Nimbarka the highest object of worship is Krishna and His consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopi's, or cowherdesses, of the celestial Vrindavan. Devotion, according to Nimbarka, consists in prapatti, or self-surrender.[11]

Brahman

The Highest Reality, according to Nimbarka, is Brahman, Krishna or Hari, a personal God. There is nothing that is equal to Him, nothing that is superior. He is the Lord of all, and Controller of all. He is called Brahman because of the unsurpassed greatness of His nature and qualities, because He is beyond any limit of any kind of space, time or thing.

Brahman is the sole cause of creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. All beings arise from Him, nothing is superior to Him. The Lord alone is the first cause, the manifestor of all names and forms, and none else.

This Brahman is both the upadana (material cause) and the Nimitta (efficient cause). It is the material cause in the sense that it enables its natural saktis, viz. the cit and the acit in their subtle forms, to be manifested in gross forms; and it is the efficient cause in the sense that it unites the individual souls with their respective fruits of actions and means of enjoyments.

Nimbarka discusses two aspects of Brahman. On one hand, Brahman is eternal and great, the greatest of the great, the highest of the high, the creator, etc. of the Universe, high above the individual soul, of which He is the Lord and the ruler. But, on the other aspect He is the abode of infinite beauty, bliss and tenderness, and in intimate connection with the soul. He is the abode of supreme peace, supreme grace, and the ocean of all sweetness and charms.

Thus, Brahman possessed of attributes and adorable by all, has four forms or vyuhas (i.e., Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) and appears under various incarnation as Matsya, Kurma etc.

Cit (Jiva)

The cit or individual soul is of the nature of knowledge (jnana-svarupa); it is able to know without the help of the sense-organs and it is in this sense that words like prajnana-ghanah svayamjyotih jnanamayah etc. as applied to jiva are to be understood. The jiva is the knower also; and he can be both knowledge and the possessor of knowledge at the same time, just as the sun is both light and the source of light. Thus the soul, who is knowledge, and his attribute, knowledge, though they are both identical as knowledge, can be at the same time different and related as the qualified (dharmin) and the quality (dharma), just as the sun and his light, though identical as light (taijasa), are still different from each other. Thus there is both a difference and a non-difference between the dharmin and dharma; and the extreme similarity between them implies, not necessarily their absolute identity, but only a non-perception of their difference.

The jiva is also ego (ahamarthah). This ego continues to persist not only in the state of deep sleep, (because our consciousness immediately after getting up from sleep has the form slept happily or knew nothing) but also in the state of liberation. It even belongs to the Parabrahman. Hence it is that Krishna refers to Himself so frequently in the first person in the Gita, of which the chief object is thus Purusottama, who is omniscient and at the same time non-different from the ego or asmadartha.

The jiva is also essentially active (kartr). This quality belongs to it in all its conditions, even after release. But the kartrtva is not independent. The jiva is also enjoyer (bhoktr) essentially in all its conditions.

For his knowledge and activity, however, the jiva depends on Hari; thus, though resembling Him in being intelligent and knower, he is at the same time distinguished from him by his dependence. This quality of dependence or of being controlled (niyamyatva) is the very nature of jiva even in the state of release, just as niyamyatva or the quality of being the controller, forms the eternal nature of Isvara.

The jiva is atomic in size; at the same time his attribute, knowledge, is omnipresent, which makes it possible that he can experience pleasure and pain in any part of the body, just as, for instance, the light of a lamp can spread far and wide and illumine objects away from the lamp. The Jivas are different and in different bodies, and so are infinite in number.

Acit (the jagat)

The acit is of three different kinds: viz. prakrta, aprakrta, and kala. Prakrta, or what is derived from Prakrti, the primal matter, aprakrta is defined negatively as that which is not the product of prakrti, but its real nature is not clearly brought out. These three categories in their subtle forms are as eternal as the cit or the individual souls.

[Nimbarka does not explain what exactly the aprakrta is, nor does he define kala more precisely, beyond noticing, as pointed out above,that the aprakrta and the kala are species of the acit. But, Purusottamacarya of the Nimbarka school has, in his Vedantaratna-manjusa, described acit aprakrta as the material cause of the dhama(celestial abode) of Brahman and the bodies and ornaments etc.of Brahman and his associates.]

Prakrti, or the primal matter-the stuff of the entire universe is real and eternal like the individual souls, and like them, though eternal and unborn, has yet Brahman for its cause. It consists of the three qualities of sattva, rajas and tamas, such as prakrit, mahat, ahankara etc. (just similar to 24 principles of the Sankhyas).

Bondage and mukti (liberation)

The jiva has his true form distorted and obscured owing to his contact with karma resulting from ignorance, which is beginningless, but which can come to an end, by the grace of God, when its true nature is fully manifested. Ignorance is a part of God and is the basis of cosmic manifestation i.e. the arising of God with attributes.

To attain deliverance, the jiva has to commence with a complete submission to the Paramatman, or prapatti, whose six constituents are:

  1. a resolution to yield (anukulasya samkalpah)
  2. the avoidance of opposition (pratikulasya varjanam)
  3. faith that God will protect (raksisyati ity visvasah)
  4. acceptance of him as saviour (goptrtva-varanam)
  5. throwing one’s whole soul upon him (atmaniksepah), and
  6. a sense of helplessness (karpanya).

God’s grace extends itself to those who are possessed of these 6 constituents of prapatti, i.e., who are prapanna; and by that grace is generated bhakti consisting of special love for him, which ultimately ends in the realisation (saksatkara) of the Paramatman. For a devotee knowledge of the following 5 things is quite necessary:

  1. the nature of the supreme soul,
  2. the nature of the individual soul,
  3. the fruit of God's grace or moksa, (which is an uninterrupted realisation of the nature and attributes of Brahman, following from the absolute destruction of all action and the consequent extinction of all sentience),
  4. the feeling of enjoyment consequent on bhakti, and
  5. the nature of the obstacles in the way of the attainment of God, such as regarding the body and the mind as the soul, depending on someone who is neither God nor the preceptor, neglecting their commands, and considering God as nothing more than an ordinary being.

Practices - the five sadhanas

The basic practice consists of the worship of Sri Radha Madhav, with Sri Radha being personified as the inseparable part of Sri Krishna. Nimbarka refers to five methods to salvation, namely karma (ritual action); vidya (knowledge); upasana or dhyana (meditation); prapatti (surrender to the Lord/devotion); Gurupasatti (devotion and self-surrender to God as Shri Radha Krsna).

Karma (ritual action)

Performed conscientiously in a proper spirit, with one’s varna (caste) and asrama (phase of life) thereby giving rise to knowledge which is a means to salvation).

Vidya (knowledge)

Not as a subordinate factor of karma but also not as an independent means for everyone; only for those inclined to spending vast lengths of time in scriptural study and reflection on deeper meanings.

Upasana or dhyana (meditation)

It is of three types. First is meditation on the Lord as one's self, i.e. meditation on the Lord as the Inner Controller of the sentient. Second is meditation on the Lord as the Inner Controller of the non-sentient. Final one is meditation on Lord Himself, as different from the sentient and non-sentient. This is again not an independent means to Salvation for all, as only those qualified to perform the upasana (with Yajnopavitam) can perform this Sadhana.

Prapatti (surrender to the Lord/devotion)

Devotion and self-surrender to God as Shri Radha Krsna. This method of attaining Salvation, known as Prapatti Sadhana, contains elements of all the other means, and is most importantly, available to all. Men, women, foreigners, all classes and castes (or non-castes) are permitted to seek liberation through this, the most important Sadhana. It is referred to as Sadhana (or Apara) Bhakti – devotion through regulations. This in turn leads to Para Bhakti – the highest devotion characterised by Madhurya Rasa – the sweet emotions of devotion experienced by those perfected in Sadhana Bhakti.

Gurupasatti

Devotion and self-surrender to guru. Best realised as a part in Prapatti, and not as an independent means, although it can be so.

Sri Nimbarka made the "Bhasya" (commentary in which alle the words of the verses are used, in contradistinction to a tika, which is a more free commentary) of the Brahmasutra on his Dvaitadvaita Vedanta (Principle of Dualism-Nondualism) in his famous book "Vedanta Parijata Sourabha".

Literature

Sri Nimbarkacharya wrote the following books:

  • Vedanta Parijat Saurabh– Commentary on the Brahma Sutras
  • Sadachar Prakasha– Commentary on the Bhagavad-Gita
  • Rahasya Shodasi- Sri Gopala Mantra explained
  • Prapanna Kalpa Valli-Sri Mukunda Mantra explained
  • Prapatti Chintamani– On Supreme surrender
  • Pratah Smarana Stotram
  • Dasa Shloki or Kama Dhenu– Ten Verses
  • Savisesh Nirvisesh
  • Sri Krishna Stavam

Nimbarka Sampradaya Devacāryas

Svāmī Harivyāsa Devacārya (c.1470-1540 CE)

Svāmī Harivyāsa Devacārya (c.1470-1540 CE), the 35th leader, reformed the tradition. He was given the śālagrāma deity known as Śrī Sarveśvara that was handed down through time it is believed from Nimbārka himself. He anointed twelve of his senior disciples to lead missions throughout the land. The most famous are Svāmī Paraśurāma Devācārya (c.1525-1610 CE) and Svāmī Svabhūrāma Devācārya (fl. 16th century).[13]

Svāmī Svabhūrāma Devācārya (fl.16th century CE)

Svāmī Svabhūrāma Devācārya (fl.16th century CE) was born in Budhiya Village, outside Jagadhri and Yamunanagar near Kurukshetra in modern Haryana, India. He established over 52 temples in Punjab, Haryana and Vraja during his lifetime; his current followers are found mostly in Vṛndāvana, Haryana, Punjab, Bengal, Rajasthan, Orissa, Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, other regions in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra, also in significant numbers in Nepal.

In his sub-lineage, there are many branches. Notable saints of this sub-branch include:

  • Saint Swami Chatur Chintamani Nagaji Maharaj, who started the Vraja Parikrama. This tradition has been continuously maintained over 528 years by the Acharyas of the Svabhurāma-Dwara (sub-lineage).
  • Swami Sri Ramdas Kathiababa came to Vrindavan and made his first monastery there. He was succeeded by Swami Santadas Kathiababa and Swami Dhananjaya Das Kathia Babaji Maharaj. Swami Dhananjaya Das Kathia Babaji built several ashrams. This branch is currently led by Swami Ras Bihari Das Kathia Baba at Sri Kathia Baba Ka Sthan, Sridham Vrindavan, India. This ashram is known as the Gurugadi, or seat of the Guru, of this sub-branch. The present Acharya Swami Ras Bihari Dasji Kathia Baba has constructed 20 new temples and monasteries in India and abroad.
  • Swami Brindaban Bihari Das Mahanta Maharaj at Kathia Baba ka Ashram, Shivala, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh and Sukhchar, 24-Parganas (North), West Bengal, who has undertaken projects for orphans and aged persons, building schools and elderly care homes. He travels relentlessly to spread Nimbarka Philosophy through world religion conferences held in US, UK, Sweden, Africa, Bangladesh and other different countries across the globe.
  • The Sukhchar Kathiababar Ashram was originally established by Swami Dhananjaydas Kathiababa and is presently headed by Swami Brindabanbiharidas Mahanta Maharaj.

Svāmī Haripriyā Śaraṇa Devācārya (19th century)

The famous teacher and leader Svāmī Haripriyā Śaraṇa Devācārya, founded the temple and monastery at Bihari Ji Ka Bageecha, Vṛndāvana, sponsored by his disciple, the philanthropic Shri Hargulal Beriwala and the Beriwala Trust in the 19th century.

Svāmī Lalitā Śaraṇa Devācārya (20th century)

The predecessor of the current successor was Svāmī Lalitā Śaraṇa Devācārya, who died in July 2005 at the age of 103. One of his other disciples is the world-renowned Svāmī Gopāla Śaraṇa Devācārya, who has founded the Monastery and temple known as the Shri Golok Dham Ashram in New Delhi and Vṛndāvana. He has also helped ordinary Hindus who are not Vaiṣṇava to establish temples overseas. Of note are the Glasgow Hindu Mandir, Scotland, UK: the Lakshmi Narayan Hindu Mandir, Bradford, UK; and the Valley Hindu Temple, Northridge, CA. He has also facilitated major festivals at the Hindu Sabha Mandir in Brampton, Canada.

Svāmī Rādhā Śarveshavara Śaraṇa Devācārya (21th century)

The 48th leader of the Nimbārka Sampradāya is H.D.H. Jagadguru Nimbārkācārya Svāmī Śrī Rādhā Śarveshavara Śaraṇa Devācārya, known in reverence as Śrī Śrījī Māhārāja by his followers. His followers are mainly in Rajasthan and Vṛndāvana, Mathura. He established the Mandir at the birth site of Śrī Nimbārkācārya in Mungi Village, Paithan, Maharashtra in 2005. In addition, he oversees the maintenance of thousands of temples, hundreds of monasteries, schools, hospitals, orphanages, cow-shelters, environmental projects, memorial shrines, etc., and arranges various scholarly conventions, religious conferences, medical camps & outreach, etc.

Śrī Śrījī Māhārāja (present)

The 49th and current leader of the entire Nimbārka Sampradāya is H.D.H. Jagadguru Nimbārkācārya Svāmī Śrī Shyām Śaraṇa Devācārya, known in reverence as Śrī Śrījī Māhārāja by his followers. He is based in Nimbārka Tīrtha Rajasthan, India. He is the current leader of the Sampradāya, who worships the śālagrāma deity known as Śrī Sarveśvara. His followers are mainly in Rajasthan and Vṛndāvana, Mathura.

Notes

  1. ^ Bose: "There is a manuscript called " Madhva -mukha-mardana", a criticism of Madhva's religion, attributed to Nimbarka. This places Nimbarka after Madhva, provided the work is really by Nimbarka. The fact that the manuscript is not lent to anybody by the followers of Madhva, perhaps prevented us as well from having it, no reply even being given to our enquiries. It seems Nimbarka undertook the work because it was Madhva's immediate influence upon the people which he had to fight against for making his own campaign successful. Thus, from internal evidences from well-known works by Nimbarka, we can definitely assert that Nimbarka oould not have flourished before Samkara, whereas we are led to think, on the evidence of the manuscript mentioned above, that he did not flourish also before Madhva; i.e. not before the 13th century A.D.[4]
  2. ^ Just like between snake and coil, or between sun and its rays. Just as the coil is nothing but the snake, yet different from it; just as the different kinds of stones, though nothing but earth, are yet different from it; so the souls and the universe, though nothing but Brahman (brahmatmaka), are different from Him because of their own peculiar natures and attributes.

References

  1. ^ Sri Sarvesvara 1972.
  2. ^ Nārada-bhakti-sūtra: The secrets of transcendental love. Bhaktivednta Book Trust Publictions. 1991. p. 7. ISBN 9789383095124.
  3. ^ Beck 2005.
  4. ^ a b Bose 1940.
  5. ^ R.G.Bhandarkar, Vaisnavism, Saivaism and minor Religious system (Indological Book House, Varanasi, India) page 62-63
  6. ^ A History of Indian Philosophy (Vol. 3) by Surendranath Dasgupta, (Cambridge: 1921) page 420
  7. ^ Saiyed A A Rizvi- A history of Sufism in India, Vol.1 (Munshi Ram Manoharlal Publishing Private Limited: 1978), page 355
  8. ^ Satyanand, J. Nimbārka: A Pre-Śaṅkara Vedāntin and his philosophy, Varanasi, 1997
  9. ^ a b Malkovsky, B. The Role of Divine Grace in the Soteriology of Śaṁkarācārya, Leiden: Brill, p.118
  10. ^ Ramnarace 2014, p. 180.
  11. ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 312. ISBN 0-8160-5458-4.
  12. ^ Literature, Nimbark. "Nimbark Philosophy". shri jagat guru nimbarkacharya peeth. AKHIL BHARATIYA NIMBARKACHARYA PEETH SALEMABAD, RAJASTHAN. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  13. ^ Ramnarace, V. Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa's Vedāntic Debut: Chronology and Rationalisation in the Nimbārka Sampradāya, doctoral thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2015, chapters 5-6

Sources

Printed sources
Web-sources
  1. ^ "Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Srimad Bhagavatam 3.12". Vedabase.net. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2012.

See also

External links

Australian philosophy

Australian philosophy refers to the philosophical tradition of the people of Australia and of its citizens abroad.

Bairagi Caste

Bairagi (Vaishnava) is a caste of Brahmins whose members follow one of four orders: the Visishtadvaita belief system of Ramanuja (popularized by Ramananda in North India); the Dvaitadvaita philosophy propagated by Nimbarkacharya; the Shuddhadvaita philosophy propagated by Vishnuswami (mostly popularized by Vallabhacharya in North India); or the Dvaita philosophy propagated by Madhvacharya. According to these philosophies, people are divided into four main sampradaya (English: religious systems):

Shri Sampradaya

Nimbarka Sampradaya (Kumar Sampradaya)

Rudra Sampradaya

Brahma Sampradaya.Bairagi community people are mostly involved in agricultural practice,and are Landlords.They are called by many names like Patel, Maalgujaar, Pardhan, Nambardar, etc.

Most members of the Bairagi community perform priesthood practices in temples. These people are known by various names:

Vaishnava Brahmin

Swami

Mahant

Pujari

Gossain or Goswami (mostly used Vaishnav of Bengal and Vallabhacharya Vaishnav Sampradaya)

Cosmology (philosophy)

Philosophical cosmology, philosophy of cosmology or philosophy of cosmos is a discipline directed to the philosophical contemplation of the universe as a totality, and to its conceptual foundations. It draws on several branches of philosophy—metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of physics, philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, and on the fundamental theories of physics. The term cosmology was used at least as early as 1730, by German philosopher Christian Wolff, in Cosmologia Generalis.

Danish philosophy

Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy.

Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism, which inspired the philosophical movement of Existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who later in his life moved on to join the movement of positivism. Among Kierkegaard's other followers include Jean-Paul Sartre who was impressed with Kierkegaard's views on the individual, and Rollo May, who helped create humanistic psychology.

Early modern philosophy

Early modern philosophy (also classical modern philosophy) is a period in the history of philosophy at the beginning or overlapping with the period known as modern philosophy.

Four Kumaras

The Kumaras are four sages (rishis) who roam the universe as children from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, generally named Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana,

and Sanatkumara. They are described as the first mind-born creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma. Born from Brahma's mind, the four Kumaras undertook lifelong vows of celibacy (brahmacharya) against the wishes of their father. They are said to wander throughout the materialistic and spiritualistic universe without any desire but with purpose to teach. All four brothers studied Vedas from their childhood, and always travelled together.The Bhagavata Purana lists the Kumaras among the twelve Mahajanas (great devotees or bhaktas) who although being eternally liberated souls from birth, still became attracted to the devotional service of Vishnu from their already enlightened state. It also mentions them as being an avatar of Vishnu. They play a significant role in a number of Hindu spiritual traditions, especially those associated with the worship of Vishnu and his avatar Krishna, sometimes even in traditions related to the god Shiva.

List of Slovene philosophers

Slovene philosophy includes philosophers who were either Slovenes or came from what is now Slovenia.

Paithan

Paithan (Paiṭhaṇ) pronunciation , formerly Pratiṣṭhāna, is a town with municipal council in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India. It was the capital of the Satavahana dynasty, which ruled from the second century BCE to the second century CE. It is one of the few inland towns mentioned in the famous first-century Greek book, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Paithan is located 56 kilometres (35 mi) south of present-day Aurangabad on the Godavari River. Mungi Village, Paithan was the birthplace of Nimbarka, the founder of the Nimbarka Sampradaya tradition of Vaishnavism. Paithan was also the home of the great Marathi saint Eknath; people flock yearly to his shirne during the time of the Paithan yatra, also known as the Nath Shashti. Paithan is also a famous Digambar Jain atishay kshetra. A beautiful Black coloured Sand Idol of 20th Jain Tirthankar, Bhagwan Munisuvratnath is installed in temple here.

Paithan is mostly famous today for its saris — the Paithani beautiful silk saris that sport intricately embroidered gold or silver borders. The city is home to many noted personalities like Shankarrao Chavan, Yogiraj maharaj Gosavi, Balasaheb Patil. Dnyaneshwar Udyanat Paithan is developed on the lines of Brindavan Gardens, Mysore.

Para-Vasudeva

Para-Vasudeva is a term found in the Vaisnavism tradition that refers to the Absolute Reality called the Supreme Brahman in Hinduism. In the Gaudiya, the Vallabha Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, it refers to Svayam bhagavan Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In Sri sampradaya it refers to Vishnu. In later centuries, it was the composite of Narayana and Vasudeva. Para-Vasudeva Vishnu resides in Vaikuntha. The Lord is four armed and dwells with Goddess Lakshmi and her expansions.

Philosophy of film

The philosophy of film is a branch of aesthetics within the discipline of philosophy that seeks to understand the most basic questions regarding film. Philosophy of film has significant overlap with film theory, a branch of film studies.

Radha

Radha (Sanskrit: राधा, IAST: Rādhā), also called Radhika, Radharani, and Radhe, is a Hindu goddess popular in Hinduism, especially in the Vaishnavism tradition. She is said to be the head of the milkmaids as Pradhan Gopika (chief amongst all gopis) (also called the gopis or Braj Gopikas) who resided in Braj Dham. She is the power potency of the supreme personality of Godhead Para Brahman, who is Shri Krishna according to Vaishnavite, Shrimad Bhagwatam, Bhagwat Geeta and other ancient texts. She is the personification of pure devotional service unto sri krishna (bhakti devi). She is thought of as the supreme Goddess in her own right and celebrated on the festive day of Radhastami.

She is also called Vrindavaneshwari (Queen of the Sri Vrindavan Dham). She appeared as queen of milkmaids and queen of Vrindavan-Barsana. She taught selfless love and surrender to the Godhead Shri Krishna. She is considered the supreme goddess in Vaishnavism. Rasik sants have mentioned her as a descension of the Supreme Goddess, Source of the Infinite Lakshmi and the original form of Yogmaya and Allhadini Shakti (Power of Divine Love) which is main Power of the Godhead Shree Krishna. She and her consort Krishna are collectively known as Radha Krishna, the combined form of feminine as well as the masculine realities of God. Lord Krishna often underwent various kinds of "leelas" with Her.

Radha is worshipped in some regions of India, particularly by Gaudiya Vaishnavas, Vaishnavas in West Bengal, Bangladesh Manipur, and Odisha. Elsewhere, she is revered in the Nimbarka Sampradaya and movements linked to Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.Shreemati Radharani ji is considered a metaphor for the human spirit (aatma), her love and longing for Prabhu Shree Krishna ji is theologically viewed as symbolic of the human quest for spiritual growth and union with the divine. She has inspired numerous literary works, and her Rasa lila dance with Krishna has inspired many types of performance arts till this day. She is said to be incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi and Krishna is her husband Lord Vishnu's incarnation.

Radha Krishna

Radha-Krishna (IAST rādhā-kṛṣṇa, Sanskrit: राधा कृष्ण) are collectively known within Hinduism as the combined forms of feminine as well as the masculine realities of God. Radha and Krishna are the primeval forms of God and His pleasure potency respectively in the Gaudiya Vaishnava school of thought. In some schools of Vaishnavism, Krishna is referred to as Svayam Bhagavan, and Radha is illustrated as the primeval potency of the three main potencies of God, Hladini (immense spiritual bliss), Sandhini (eternality) and Samvit (existential consciousness) of which Radha is an embodiment of the feeling of love towards the almighty Lord, Krishna (Hladini).

With Krishna, Radha is acknowledged as the Supreme Goddess, for it is said that Krishna or God is only satiated by devotional service in loving servitude and Radha is the personification of devotional service to the supreme. She is also considered in Vaishnavism as the total feminine energy and also as the Supreme Lakshmi (Adi-Lakshmi). Various devotees worship her with the understanding of her merciful nature as the only way to attain Krishna. Radha is also depicted to be Krishna himself, split into two, for the purpose of His enjoyment.It is believed that Krishna enchants the world, but Radha "enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all. RadhaKrishn".While there are much earlier references to the worship of this form of God, it is since Jayadeva Goswami wrote a famous poem Gita Govinda in the twelfth century of the Common Era, that the topic of the spiritual love between the divine Krishna and his devotee Radha, became a theme celebrated throughout India. It is also believed that Radha is not just one cowherd maiden, but is the origin of all the gopis, or divine personalities that participate in the rasa dance.

Radhastami

Radhashtami' is a Hindu holy day commemorating the birth anniversary of Radha the life energy of Vishnu. On this day she emerged from a lotus flower as the lover-consort of the lord Krishna the eighth avatar of lord Vishnu. It is celebrated mainly by devotees of Krishna, especially with great fervor in her birthplace of Barsana, on the Shukla Paksha Ashtami of the Bhadra (Hindu calendar) month. In the Viṣṇu Khaṇḍa of the Skanda Purana, it is mentioned that God Krishna had 16,000 friends called Gopi and gopikas, out of which Radha was the most prominent one of the revered 108. Traditionally, followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism will follow a half-day fast on this day. Like Ekadashi, some devotees observe this fast for full day & some even without water. The holiday is an important holiday for followers of the Nimbarka sampradaya. On this day, devotees of Krishna ask Radha for her favour, in turn acquire Krishna's grace.

Radhashtami is ceremoniously celebrated in the Brij area. On Radhastami, Radha Krishna icons are traditionally dressed entirely in flowers. Additionally, Radhashtami is the only day on which devotees may receive darshan of Radha's feet. On all other days, they remain covered.

Devotees will fast until noon and sing devotional songs in praise of the divine couple and their pastimes. Then a feast is served, most often including the Radha Red — a spicy, plum chutney.

The mantras which are chanted on Radhashtami are; Aum Vrashbahnujaye Vidmahe, Krishnapriyaye Dheemahi Tanno Radha Prachodyat and Jai Jai Shree Radhe.

The 2019 date is 6 September (Friday).

Ramdas Kathiababa

Ramdas Kathiababa (early 19th century – 1909) was a Hindu saint of the Hindu Dwaitadwaitavaadi Nimbarka Sampradaya.

Svayam Bhagavan

This article is about a Hindu theological concept: the original or absolute manifestation of God. For other meanings, see Krishna (disambiguation) and Bhagavan (disambiguation).

Svayam Bhagavān ("The Lord Himself") is a Sanskrit theological term for the concept of absolute representation of God as Bhagavan - The Supreme Personality who possesses all riches, all strength, all fame, all beauty, all knowledge and all renunciation.

According to the Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna is termed Svayam Bhagavan which means God Himself. As stated in Bhagavata MahaPurana, Hindu Vedic Supreme God ParaBrahman[VISHNU] appeared before Vasudeva and Devaki in his divine original four armed form before taking birth as Krishna. Vasudeva and Devaki after praising Vishnu, requested him to hide his divine form, which Vishnu agreed to do, transforming himself into a small baby Krishna. According to this account, Krishna never took birth from the womb of His mother like a common baby.Svayam Bhagavan It is most often used in Gaudiya Vaishnava Krishna-centered theology referencing Krishna and that title is used there exclusively to designate Him, there being conflicting semantics or other usages in the Bhagavata Purana. Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Vallabha consider Him to be the source of all Avatars, and the source of Vishnu and Narayana. As such, He is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan.Though Krishna is recognized as Svayam Bhagavan by many, He is also perceived and understood from an eclectic assortment of perspectives and viewpoints. When Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, the Vallabha Sampradaya, and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other Avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself. This belief is drawn primarily from the "famous statement" of the Bhagavatam (1.3.28).A different viewpoint differing from this theological concept is the concept of Krishna as an avatar of Narayana or Vishnu. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the Avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva (and) Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed Supremacy in Vaishnavism.

Turkish philosophy

Turkish philosophy has long been affected by Islam and the country's proximity to Greece and ancient Greek philosophy.

Ukhra Mahanta Asthal

Ukhra Nimbarka Peeth Mahanta Asthal is a 250-year-old Mutt (Hindu monastic establishment) of the Nimbarka Vaishnava Sampradaya. It is situated at Ukhra in the district of Purba Bardhaman in the state of West Bengal in India near the city of Durgapur. This Mutt has been closely associated with the Zamindars of Ukhra, the Handa family, and has served as the spiritual beacon of the area. Since its foundation this Mutt has propagated Vaishnavism of the Nimbarka Sampradaya far and wide in the area and gained many important personalities as adherents of its philosophy.

Urdhva Pundra

The Urdhva Pundra is a tilak worn by Vaishnavites to show that they are devotees of Vishnu. It is generally worn on the forehead, but may also be worn on other parts of the body. The markings are made either as a daily ritual, or on special occasions, and denote which particular lineage, or sampradaya the devotee belongs to. The different Vaishnava sampradayas each have their own distinctive style of tilak based on the siddhanta of their particular lineage. The general tilak pattern is of two or more vertical lines resembling the letter U, which commonly represents the foot of Vishnu.

Vraja Parikrama

Vraja Mandal Parikrama is the circumambulation of 84 Kosh Vraja Region - taking 1-2 months depending on the route and speed.The origin of the Vraj Mandal Parikrama is variously ascribed to Sri Nagaji of the Nimbarka Sampradaya and Sri Narayana Bhatta of Unchagaon, Varsana of the 16th century - who wrote complete guidebooks of the Yatras.

The Largest groups(5,000-20,000 people) at present which conduct the Braj Mandal Parikrama Yatra include - the Radharani Braj Yatra of Ramesh Baba, Varsana, Kathia Baba Ashram Yatra, Vallabh Sampradaya Yatra and others.

Traditions
Vedanta Philosophies

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