Nilore, Islamabad

Nilore (Urdu: نیلور‎) is a townsite-city in the Islamabad Capital Territory of Pakistan, located and established in the district limit of Islamabad. The city is located in the vicinity of Islamabad, and controlled under the Capital Territory Police (CPT) to ensure the law and justice in the city.

Nilore was established in 1967 as a research site for nuclear technology. It became a secret city and became one of the major research site for the integrated nuclear development to develop the atom bomb in the 1970s. It was closed to the public in the 1970s by the Ministry of Defence, and starting in 1972, the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers acquired the entire city and immediately removed the local residents as they were paid heavy compensation. By 1973, the city communities had been removed, and fences and checkpoints had been established. Its relatively low population made acquisition affordable for the Ministry of Defence and the city was re-constructed by the Corps of Engineers. Facilities and institutes were expanded and new houses, homes, and facilities were built for the scientists and engineers who began their government research under extreme secrecy.

Since then, Nilore's given nicknames include "Northern atomic city", "secret valley" and the "city behind the fence". Nilore hosted an apex scientific research in the 1960s led under Abdus Salam, and the scientific research and development still plays a crucial role in the city's economy and culture in general. Nilore is known for having one of the premier educational facilities and the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) and the Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences (PIEAS) are located at Nilore where they key research takes place. Since the 1990s, the city has been opened for the public and classified facilities were immediately closed by the government and re-located at unknown locations.

Nilore
نیلور
Nilore نیلور is located in Pakistan
Nilore نیلور
Nilore
نیلور
Coordinates: 33°13′N 73°10′E / 33.22°N 73.17°ECoordinates: 33°13′N 73°10′E / 33.22°N 73.17°E
CountryPakistan
ProvinceIslamabad C.T
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam (; Punjabi, Urdu: عبد السلام‎, pronounced [əbd̪ʊs səlaːm]; 29 January 1926 – 21 November 1996), was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize (after Anwar Sadat of Egypt).Salam was science advisor to the Ministry of Science and Technology in Pakistan from 1960 to 1974, a position from which he was supposed to play a major and influential role in the development of the country's science infrastructure. Salam contributed to developments in theoretical and particle physics. He was the founding director of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) in the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). As Science Advisor, Salam played a role in Pakistan's development of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and may have contributed as well to development of atomic bomb project of Pakistan in 1972; for this, he is viewed as the "scientific father" of this programme. In 1974, Abdus Salam departed from his country, in protest, after the Parliament of Pakistan passed unanimously a parliamentary bill declaring members of the Ahmadiyya movement to which Salam belonged non-Muslims. In 1998, following the country's nuclear tests, the Government of Pakistan issued a commemorative stamp, as a part of "Scientists of Pakistan", to honour the services of Salam.Salam's notable achievements include the Pati–Salam model, magnetic photon, vector meson, Grand Unified Theory, work on supersymmetry and, most importantly, electroweak theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Salam made a major contribution in quantum field theory and in the advancement of Mathematics at Imperial College London. With his student, Riazuddin, Salam made important contributions to the modern theory on neutrinos, neutron stars and black holes, as well as the work on modernising the quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. As a teacher and science promoter, Salam is remembered as a founder and scientific father of mathematical and theoretical physics in Pakistan during his term as the chief scientific advisor to the president. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the physics community in the world. Even until shortly before his death, Salam continued to contribute to physics, and to advocate for the development of science in Third-World countries.

COMSTECH

COMSTECH is an abbreviation for the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation's (OIC) Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation for the promotion and cooperation of science and technology activities among the OIC member states.

Iqbal Hussain Qureshi

Iqbal Hussain Qureshi (Urdu:اقبال حسين قریشی; 27 September 1937 – 8 December 2012; SI, FPAS), best known as I.H. Qureshi, was a Pakistani nuclear chemist and professor of chemistry at the Institute of and Applied Sciences in Islamabad.

Qureshi was the principle contributor of scientific understanding of various elements: rubidium, potassium, bromide, chlorine, and the Debye model. Early his career, he made notable contribution in advancing of the field of nuclear medicine in Pakistan. In addition, he also advised the government on nuclear policy issues and pushed his influential role in Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) and the peaceful applications of nuclear science. He spent many years as an educator and research scientist at the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad.

Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area

The Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area is Pakistan's third most populous metropolitan area. It consists principally of the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, along with smaller towns such as Murree, Wah Cantonment, Taxila, Gujar Khan, Golra Sharif, and several gated suburbs including Bahria Town and DHA Islamabad.Covering the Pothohar Plateau, the area consists of the ancient town of Taxila, which is a World Heritage Site; the colonial cities of Rawalpindi and Murree, and the modern planned city of Islamabad. The region received a major boom with the construction of Islamabad as the capital city of Pakistan in the 1960s.

Nuclear cross section

The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur. The concept of a nuclear cross section can be quantified physically in terms of "characteristic area" where a larger area means a larger probability of interaction. The standard unit for measuring a nuclear cross section (denoted as σ) is the barn, which is equal to 10−28 m² or 10−24 cm². Cross sections can be measured for all possible interaction processes together, in which case they are called total cross sections, or for specific processes, distinguishing elastic scattering and inelastic scattering; of the latter, amongst neutron cross sections the absorption cross sections are of particular interest.

In nuclear physics it is conventional to consider the impinging particles as point particles having negligible diameter. Cross sections can be computed for any sort of process, such as capture scattering, production of neutrons, etc. In many cases, the number of particles emitted or scattered in nuclear processes is not measured directly; one merely measures the attenuation produced in a parallel beam of incident particles by the interposition of a known thickness of a particular material. The cross section obtained in this way is called the total cross section and is usually denoted by a σ or σT.

Typical nuclear radii are of the order 10−14 m. Assuming spherical shape, we therefore expect the cross sections for nuclear reactions to be of the order of πr ² or 10−28 m² (i.e. 1 barn). Observed cross sections vary enormously - for example, slow neutrons absorbed by the (n, ) reaction show a cross section much higher than 1,000 barns in some cases (boron-10, cadmium-113, and xenon-135), while the cross sections for transmutations by gamma-ray absorption are in the region of 0.001 barn.

Nuclear power in Pakistan

As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants. Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants.

As of 2012, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~3.6% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to ~62% from fossil fuel, ~33% from hydroelectric power and ~0.3% from coal electricity. Pakistan is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Pakistan plans on constructing 32 nuclear power plants by 2050.

Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor

The Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor or (PARR) are two nuclear research reactors and two other experimental neutron sources located in the PINSTECH Laboratory, Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In addition a reprocessing facility referred to as New Labs also exists for nuclear weapons research and production.

The first nuclear reactor was supplied and financially constructed by the Government of United States of America in the mid 1960s. The other reactor and reprocessing facility are built and supplied by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively. Supervised by the United States and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the first two reactors are subject to IAEA safeguards and its inspections.

Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology

The Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (also known as PINSTECH), is a multiprogram science and technology national research institute managed for the Ministry of Science and Technology (Pakistan) by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).Located in Nilore, it maintains a broad portfolio in providing post-graduate and post-doctoral research opportunities in supercomputing, Renewable energy, physical, philosophical, materials, environmental and mathematical sciences.Researchers and scholars are invited from universities throughout Pakistan.

Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority

The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authorityپاکستان نیوکلیئر ریگولیٹری اتھارٹى; Acronym: PNRA), is mandated by Government of Pakistan to regulate use of nuclear energy, radioactive sources and use of ionizing radiations. The mission of PNRA is to protect the public, radiation workers and environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing effective regulations and building a relationship of trust with the licensees and maintain transparency in its actions and decisions.Although, the concept of nuclear regulatory existed in 1965 but it gained full government commission in 2001, with the establishment Nuclear Command Authority. Headquartered in Islamabad, this agency was established in 2001 after President Justice (retired) Rafiq Tarar signed the executive decree "Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance No.III" in 2000, and was first opened its operation in 2001.

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