Vice Admiral Nilakanta Krishnan, PVSM, DSC (1919 – January 1982) was an Indian Navy Admiral. He was the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Eastern Naval Command during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War. He is credited with using a very innovative strategy, while commanding the Eastern Navy which had the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant, in the Bay of Bengal. He is believed to have tricked the Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi, which was on a search and destroy mission, into entering Visakhapatnam; where it was eliminated.
|Allegiance|| British India|
|Service/|| Royal Indian Navy|
|Years of service||1938-1947, 1947-1976|
|Commands held||Eastern Naval Command|
Krishnan was the youngest son of Rao Bahadur Mahadeva Nilakanta Ayyar, an Executive Engineer. While his eldest brother, Nilakanta Mahadeva Ayyar pursued his career in the Indian Civil Service, Krishnan joined the Royal Indian Navy.Krishnan’s other brothers included Nilakanta Ganapathy Iyer and Nilakanta Anjaneya Subramanian. NA Subramanian was a Constitutional lawyer, professor at Madras Law College and author of the book Case Law on the Indian Constitution.
Krishnan was appointed a Sub-Lieutenant of the Royal Indian Navy on 1 September 1940, with promotion to lieutenant on 16 August 1941. In 1942, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for "courage, enterprise and devotion to duty in operations in the Persian Gulf". He had been serving on HMIS Investigator at that time,
After India's independence in 1947, by which time he was an acting Lieutenant Commander, Krishnan continued in the new Indian Navy. He was promoted to Lieutenant Commander on 16 August 1949, and was appointed Director of Naval Plans on 19 December with the acting rank of Commander. He was promoted to substantive Commander on 30 June 1952. On 15 July 1955, Krishnan was appointed Director of Personnel Services, with the acting rank of Captain. He was appointed a deputy military secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat on 9 January 1956, and was promoted to the substantive rank of captain on 31 December 1957. On 18 March 1958, he was promoted to Commodore 2nd Class, subsequently reverting to his permanent rank of Captain but again being promoted to Commodore on 1 January 1966.
On 12 December 1967, Krishnan was appointed Vice Chief of the Naval Staff (VCNS) with the acting rank of Rear-Admiral (paid from 18 February 1968). He was promoted to substantive Rear-Admiral on 16 June 1968. On 26 March 1969, the post of VCNS was upgraded to the rank of vice-admiral, with Krishnan being promoted to the acting rank from the same date. He was promoted to substantive vice-admiral on 1 March 1970. His command during the 1971 war led the crew of Vikrant to earn two Mahavir Chakras and 12 Vir Chakras. Under his leadership in 1971, the aircraft carrier's Sea Hawks struck shipping in the Chittagong and Cox's Bazar harbours, sinking or incapacitating most ships in harbor. Admiral Krishnan retired from the Indian Navy on 29 February 1976.
The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The uprising consisted of a series of mass demonstrations and sporadic conflicts between government armed forces and the demonstrators. Although the unrest began in 1966 with the Six point movement of Awami League, it got momentum at the beginning of 1969 and culminated in the resignation of Field Marshal Ayub Khan, the first military ruler of Pakistan. The uprising also led to the withdrawal of Agartala Conspiracy Case and acquittal of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his colleagues from the case.Abul Hasnat Muhammad Qamaruzzaman
Abul Hasnat Muhammad Kamaruzzaman (1926 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi politician, government minister and a leading member of the Awami League. A member of the Mujibnagar Government, Kamaruzzaman was murdered along with Syed Nazrul Islam, Muhammad Mansur Ali and Tajuddin Ahmed in the jail killings in Dhaka Central Jail on 3 November 1975.Armed Forces Day (Bangladesh)
Armed Forces Day (Bengali: সশস্ত্র বাহিনী দিবস) is observed in Bangladesh on 21 November. This signifies the day in 1971, when the members of Army, Navy and Air force of the Bangladesh liberation war forces were fully operational and launched a coordinated offensive against the Pakistani Army. On 16 December 1971, the Pakistani Army of 93,000 surrendered to the allied forces of Bangladesh and India (The Joint Command), ending the Liberation War of Bangladesh.Baten Bahini
Baten Bahini was an armed guerrilla force formed in Tangail district in support of independence during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. It was named after its leader, Khandaker Abdul Baten. Throughout the war, it conducted a number of successful guerrilla campaigns in Tangail, Manikganj, Pabna, Gazipur, Sirajganj and some parts of Dhaka district. They were operated under 21 companies, 63 platoons and 100 sections. Abdul Baten led a number of guerrilla attacks.Battle of Dhalai
The Battle of Dhalai was a battle in the Bangladesh Liberation War. It was an Indian attack from Tripura into East Pakistan to stop Pakistani cross-border shelling.Battle of Kushtia
The Battle of Kushtia can refer to two incidents during the Bangladesh Liberation War, both of which happened in what is now Bangladesh:
A battle on 19 April 1971 between East Bengali rebels and Pakistani forces.
An Indian attack from West Bengal into East Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War.Chuknagar massacre
Chuknagar massacre (Bengali: চুকনগর হত্যাকান্ড) was a massacre committed by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The massacre took place on 20 May 1971 at Dumuria in Khulna and it was one of the largest massacres during the war. The exact number of persons killed in the massacre is not known. Academic Sarmila Bose dismisses claims that 10,000 were killed as "unhelpful", and argues that the reported number of attackers could have shot no more than several hundred people before running out of ammunition. The majority of people killed in the massacre were men, although an unknown number of women and children were murdered as well.Gonobahini (Mukti Bahini)
Gono Bahini (Bengali: গণবাহিনী" People's Army") were a component of the Mukti Bahini, the guerilla force which fought against the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The Gono Bahini was composed exclusively of civilians.K Force (Bangladesh)
K Force was a military brigade of Bangladesh Forces in 1971 headed by Major Khaled Mosharraf as per the direction of the Provisional Government of Bangladesh in exile. The brigade was a part of regular army under the Bangladesh Armed Forces formed with the 4th, 9th and 10th Battalion of East Bengal Regiment.Liberation War Museum
The Liberation War Museum (Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ যাদুঘর Muktijuddho Jadughôr) is a museum in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, which commemorates the Bangladesh Liberation War that led to the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan.M. A. Hannan
M. A. Hannan (February 10, 1930 – June 12, 1974) was a politician of Bangladesh.National Martyrs’ Memorial
National Martyrs’ Memorial (Bengali: জাতীয় স্মৃতি সৌধ Jatiya Smriti Saudha) is the national monument of Bangladesh, set up in the memory of those who died in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought independence and separated Bangladesh from Pakistan. The monument is located in Savar, about 35 km north-west of the capital, Dhaka. It was designed by Syed Mainul Hossain and built by Concord Group.Nilakanta Mahadeva Ayyar
Nilakanta Mahadeva Ayyar CIE (18 May 1899 to 29 March 1971) was a member of the erstwhile Indian Civil Service.S Force (Bangladesh)
S Force was a military brigade of Bangladesh Armed Forces that was formed under the leadership of Major K M Shafiullah on October 1, 1971. The brigade was composed of the 2nd and 11th East Bengal Regiment.Simla Agreement
The Simla Agreement, or Shimla Agreement, was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Shimla, the capital city of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It followed from the Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 that led to the independence of Bangladesh, which was earlier known as East Pakistan and was part of the territory of Pakistan. India entered the war as an ally of Bangladesh which transformed the war into an Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The agreement was ratified by the Parliaments of both the nations in same year.The agreement was the result of resolve of both the countries to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations". It conceived the steps to be taken for further normalisation of mutual relations and it also laid down the principles that should govern their future relations.Syed Nazrul Islam
Syed Nazrul Islam (Bengali: সৈয়দ নজরুল ইসলাম Soiod Nozrul Islam) (1925 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi politician and a senior leader of the Awami League. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, he was declared as the Vice President of Bangladesh by the Provisional Government. He served as the Acting President in the absence of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.War Crimes Fact Finding Committee
The War Crimes Fact Finding Committee were set up in Bangladesh to investigate the Human rights abuses carried out during the Bangladesh Liberation War. It is a civil society organisation. The organisation investigates war crimes committed during the Bangladesh Liberation war and pressures the government of Bangladesh to prosecute war criminals.
Padma Bhushan award recipients (1970–1979)