Prince Nikoloz "Tato" Baratashvili (Georgian: ნიკოლოზ "ტატო" ბარათაშვილი; 4 December 1817 – 21 October 1845) was a Georgian poet. He was one of the first Georgians to marry modern nationalism with European Romanticism and to introduce "Europeanism" into Georgian literature. Due to his early death, Baratashvili left a relatively small literary heritage of fewer than forty short lyrics, one extended poem, and a few private letters, but he is nevertheless considered to be the high point of Georgian Romanticism. He was referred to as the "Georgian Byron".
|Born||4 December 1817|
|Died||21 October 1845 (aged 27)|
Nikoloz Baratashvili, affectionately known as Tato (ტატო), was born in Tiflis (Tbilisi), Georgia's capital, which was then a principal city of Russian Transcaucasia. His father, Prince Meliton Baratashvili (1795–1860), was an impoverished nobleman working for the Russian administration. His mother, Ephemia Orbeliani (1801–1849), was a sister of the Georgian poet and general Prince Grigol Orbeliani and a scion of the penultimate Georgian king Erekle II. Baratashvili graduated, in 1835, from a Tiflis gymnasium for nobility, where he was tutored by Solomon Dodashvili, a Georgian patriot and liberal philosopher. The tragic quality of Baratashvili's poetry was determined by his traumatic personal life as well as the contemporary political situation in his homeland. The failure of the 1832 anti-Russian conspiracy of Georgian nobles, with which Baratashvili was a schoolboy sympathizer, forced many conspirators to see the independent past as irremediably lost and to reconcile themselves with the Russian autocracy, transforming their laments for the lost past and the fall of the native dynasty into Romanticist poetry. Shortage of money prevented Baratashvili from continuing his studies in Russian universities, while an early physical injury – his lameness – did not allow him to enter military service as he wished. Eventually, Baratashvili had to enter the Russian bureaucratic service and serve as an ordinary clerk in the disease-ridden Azerbaijani town of Ganja. The love of his life, Princess Ekaterine Chavchavadze, rejected him and married David Dadiani, Prince of Mingrelia.
Baratashvili died of malaria in Ganja, unmourned and unpublished, at the age of 27. Baratashvili's influence was long delayed, but as the next generation of Georgian literati rediscovered his lyrics, he was posthumously published, between 1861 and 1876, and idolized. Baratashvili's reinterment from Ganja to Tbilisi in 1893 turned into a national celebration. Since 1938, his remains have lain in the Mtatsminda Pantheon in Tbilisi.
A key insight into the Weltanschauung of Baratashvili can be found in his historical poem Fate of Georgia (ბედი ქართლისა, bedi k'art'lisa; 1839), an inspiring and articulate lament for Georgia's latest misfortunates. This poem, written by Baratashvili at the age of 22, is based on a real historical event: the 1795 ruining of Tbilisi by the Persian ruler Mohammad Khan Qajar, which forced the disappointed Georgian king Erekle II to relegate his country's security onto the Russian Empire. However, national problems considered in this work are viewed with a modern approach; the poem considers not only Georgia's past, but also its future in the aftermath of the failed revolt of 1832. In this poem, Baratashvili reproduces the debate of Erekle II with his chancellor, Solomon Lionidze who opposes the union with Russia and thinks that this will result in the loss of Georgia's national identity. Lionidze's wife asks her husband, in a lament that became familiar to all literate Georgians: "What pleasure does the tender nightingale receive from honor if it is in a cage?" The sympathies of the poet and reader both fall on Solomon's side, but the objectively rational decision of the king prevails.
During his short creative life (1833–45) Baratashvili developed difficult concepts of art and ideas. In the words of the British scholar Donald Rayfield, Baratashvili "evolved a language all his own, obscure but sonorous, laconically modern, sometimes splendidly medieval, with pseudo-archaisms." In his earlier poem Dusk on Mtatsminda (შემოღამება მთაწმინდაზე, shemoghameba mt'ats'mindaze; 1833–36) the reader can feel a romantic aspiration to be freed of earthly burdens and joined with secret natural forces. Baratashvili's love-poetry reached its acme with his unhappy obsessive love for Princess Chavchavadze and is impregnated with an idea of the orphaned soul as in The Orphaned Soul (სული ობოლი, suli oboli; 1839). Despaired of human happiness, Baratashvili admires the superhuman historical figures, such as Erekle II and Napoleon, whom he deems to be beyond joy and misery. Among his most significant works are the poems The Evil Spirit (სული ბოროტი, suli boroti; 1843), Thought on the Riverside of Mtkvari (ფიქრი მტკვრის პირას, p'ik'ri mtkvris piras; 1837), and Pegasus (მერანი, Merani; 1842). This latter poem fascinated later Georgian poets as a mystic, apocalyptic vision of the future. In it the omnipotent mind, inspired by faith, calls for the poem's lyrical hero to knowingly sacrifice himself in the name of his brethren. The tragic optimism of Merani is a striking manifestation of the romantic spirit: active, life-asserting, and full of revolutionary aspirations. Merani is a prominent work of Georgian Romanticism both from an ethical-philosophical view, and from an artistic-aesthetic point of view.
Baratashvili (Georgian: ბარათაშვილი) is a Georgian noble family, appearing at the end of the 15th century as a continuation of the Kachibadze (ქაჩიბაძე), which were possibly related to the Liparitids-Orbeli.
The surname "Baratashvili", literally “children/descendants of Barata”, derives from the 15th-century nobleman Barata “the Great” Kachibadze. The Kachibadze are first attested in the early 14th century inscription from the Pitareti monastery and, according to the Georgian scholar Simon Janashia, originated in Abkhazia.
Early in the 16th century, the Baratashvili estates, known as Sabaratiano, included hundreds of villages with 2,500-3,000 peasant households and some 250-300 noble vassals in Lower Kartli in the south of Georgia. They had castles at Samshvilde, Dmanisi, Darbaschala, Tbisi and Enageti; and familial abbeys at Pitareti, Gudarekhi, Dmanisi and Kedi. They were listed among the top five great nobles, tavadi, of the Kingdom of Kartli and played a prominent role in the political and cultural life of Georgia; they were High Constables of Somkhiti-Sabaratiano, and also majordomos and Lords Chief Justice at the royal court. In the 16th and 17th centuries, several noble houses sprung off the Baratashvili. These were:
Iotamishvili.The main Baratashvili line gradually declined and lost their privileges to their own offshoot Qaplanishvili. A branch of the Baratashvili, Barataev (Баратаевы), was also established in Russia by an expatriate prince Melkisedek (Mikhail), who followed King Vakhtang VI in his Russian emigration in 1724. Melkisedek Baratashvili, now known as Mikhail Barataev, entered Russian service. Of his four sons, two – Pyotr and Semyon – became generals in the Russian army and governors of Siberia and Kazan, respectively. His daughters married into Russian nobility. Pyotr Barataev’s son, Prince Mikhail Barataev, was a Privy Counsellor better known as an archeologist and numismatist of Georgia.After Russian annexation of Georgia, the Georgian Baratashvili were confirmed among the princely nobility (knyaz Baratov, Баратовы) in the decrees of 1826, 1827, 1829, and 1850.Baratashvili Bridge
Baratashvili Bridge (Georgian: ბარათაშვილის ხიდი, baratashvilis khidi) is a traffic and pedestrian bridge over the Kura River in Tbilisi, capital of Georgia. It was built in 1966 in place of the previously dismantled Mukhrani Bridge honoring Princess Mukhrani.Bedi Kartlisa
Bedi Kartlisa. Revue de Kartvélologie was an international academic journal specializing in the language, literature, history and art of Georgia (Kartvelology) published from 1948 to 1984. It derived its name from the poem Bedi kartlisa (ბედი ქართლისა; "The Destiny of Georgia") by the 19th-century Georgian Romanticist poet Nikoloz Baratashvili.
Established by Kalistrate Salia and Nino Salia, Georgian émigrés from the Soviet Union, the journal was published exclusively in Georgian until 1957 when it became multilingual in French, English, and German. Sponsored by the French Academy of Sciences and edited by Salia, the journal played a crucial role in the development of Georgian studies in Europe. It was succeeded by the annual Revue des études géorgiennes et caucasiennes (ISSN 0373-1537) established in 1985 by Georges Dumézil and Georges Charachidzé.The annual journal Georgica (ISSN 0232-4490) covers a similar range of subjects.Bidzina Kvernadze
Bidzina Kvernadze (Georgian: ბიძინა კვერნაძე), (29 July 1928, Sighnaghi, Georgia, – 8 July 2010, Tbilisi), was a famous Georgian composer.Bidzina was born in Sighnaghi, the Kakheti region of former Soviet Georgia to Alexander Kvernadze, a pharmacist, and Nino Nadirashvili, a music teacher.
In 1948, Bidzina presented his musical works to Examination Commission, and he was accepted to the Tbilisi State Conservatoire with the highest score. He finished the composition class in 1958, taught by Andria Balanchivadze. In the same year he was accepted as a member of the Union of Soviet Composers.
Among his honors are the title of "People's Artist of the USSR" (1979), the "Z. Paliashvili Prize" (1981, for My Entreaty, Old Georgian Inscriptions and Vocal-Symphonic Poem) and the "Shota Rustaveli State Prize" (1985, Opera "And it was in the eighth year"). He was also named an Honorary Citizen of Tbilisi (1995).Culture of Georgia (country)
The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and alphabet. This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated periods of foreign occupation.December 4
December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 27 days remain until the end of the year.Gori State Teaching University
Gori State Teaching University is a center for education and science in Shida Kartli in the Gori Municipality of Georgia, it was established as a result of merging of two high education institutions: Gori State University and Tskhinvali State University.Grigol Orbeliani
Prince Grigol Orbeliani or Jambakur-Orbeliani (Georgian: გრიგოლ ორბელიანი; ჯამბაკურ-ორბელიანი) (October 2, 1804 – March 21, 1883) was a Georgian Romanticist poet and general in Imperial Russian service. One of the most colorful figures in the 19th-century Georgian culture, Orbeliani is noted for his patriotic poetry, lamenting Georgia's lost past and independent monarchy. At the same time, he spent decades in the Russian military service, rising through ranks to highest positions in the imperial administration in the Caucasus.List of Georgian writers
An alphabetic list of prose writers and poets from the nation of Georgia.List of Georgians
This is a list of notable Georgians.List of Romantic poets
The six best-known English authors are, in order of birth and with an example of their work:
William Blake – The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
William Wordsworth – The Prelude
Samuel Taylor Coleridge – The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
George Gordon, Lord Byron – Don Juan, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
Percy Bysshe Shelley – Prometheus Unbound, "Adonaïs", "Ode to the West Wind", "Ozymandias"
John Keats – Great Odes, "Hyperion", "Endymion"
Notable female poets include Felicia Dorothea Hemans, Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Turner Smith, Mary Robinson, Hannah More, and Joanna Baillie.List of museums in Georgia (country)
Museums in Georgia listed by the principal subdivisions of the country.List of museums in Tbilisi
The list of the museums in Tbilisi, capital and the largest city of Georgia.List of people from Tbilisi
This is a list of famous people who have lived in Tbilisi, including both natives and residents. Some figures in the list may be included in several of the categories simultaneously, but are only included in the sections which pertain to their achievements or occupations the most.Mtatsminda Pantheon
The Mtatsminda Pantheon of Writers and Public Figures (Georgian: მთაწმინდის მწერალთა და საზოგადო მოღვაწეთა პანთეონი, mtats'mindis mts'eralta da sazogado moghvats'eta p'anteoni) is a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia, where some of the most prominent writers, artists, scholars, and national heroes of Georgia are buried. It is located in the churchyard around St David’s Church "Mamadaviti" on the slope of Mount Mtatsminda (Geo. მთაწმინდა, meaning the Holy Mountain) and was officially established in 1929. Atop the mountain is Mtatsminda Park, an amusement park owned by the municipality of Tbilisi.
The first celebrities to be buried at this place were the Russian writer Alexander Griboyedov (1795–1829) and his Georgian wife Nino Chavchavadze (1812–1857). The Pantheon was officially opened in 1929 to celebrate the centenary of Griboyedov’s death in Iran. Since then, several illustrious Georgians have been buried or reburied there. The Pantheon is administered by the Government of Tbilisi and is frequented by locals as well as the city’s visitors.Otar Chkheidze
Otar Chkheidze (28 November 1920. Village Kelktseuli, region of Gori, Georgia – 2007) Georgian writer, literary man, PhD (1949).
His father and uncles fell a victim to the redoubtable and tragic events of 1924 in Georgia caused by communist regime. The family was raided and evicted from homeland. He graduated from the high school in Tbilisi in 1938. In 1942 he graduated from the Tbilisi State University, the faculty of Philology – West European languages and literature. For a while he was a teacher in a village. From 1948 he was a visiting professor at Shota Rustaveli Batumi State Institute, from 1949 – in Nikoloz Baratashvili Gori State Pedagogical Institute. From 1949 to 1971 he was the head of the Chair of Russian Language and Literature, from 1971 to 1980 he was the head of the Chair of Foreign Languages and Literature. He also occupied the positions of executive secretary of the Georgian Writers' Union in 1950–1951 years, and of the member of editorial board of literary magazines "Mnatobi", "Ciskari" and literary newspaper "Literaturuli Sakartvelo" – (successively) from 40s to 90s until this social work became senseless. He published his first story in 1940 in the magazine "Chveni Taoba". Since then his works are being published successively: the story cycle “Sketches from my Village”, novel cycle “Kartli Cronicles”(the Georgian Cronicles): “Tiniskhidi”, book I-III, 1950–1955; “Mist”, 1955; “The Dike”, 1956; “The Shoal”, 1958; “Kvernaki”, 1965; “Rise and Decent”, 1967; “Phantoms”, 1968; “Dusty Wind”, 1974 (Giorgi Shengelaia shot a film after this novel “The Journey of a Young Composer", 1985); "Tskhratskaro", 1980; "Mountain Range", 1984 etc.]. Otar Chkheidze is the author of dramatic works, plays: “Whose is Visi?” (staged in 1964), “Old Romances” (staged in 1966), “Tevdore” (staged in 1967), “Ketevan” (staged in 1970); biographies: “Novel and History” (1965, 1976), “Italian Journals of Byron”, etc.; He is also the author of the works of criticism. His recent novels: “Artistic Revolution”, “White Bear”, “Bermuda Triangle”, “2001”, “Humiliated” and the latest 22nd novel “Laser Show” (2005) describe the events that took place in the period of the post communist regime in Georgia. Each of these works are created right after the historical events took place and indeed true chronicles written as a work of art which will be handed over to the next generation, the chronicles created by impartial contemporary. His works are translated in Russian, and also in the languages of the peoples of former Soviet Union. They are also translated in Bulgarian. He is awarded by a Literary Prize "Saba" (2005) and "Ilia Chavchavadze" Reward (2006). Both of the prizes he received for the important contribution he made to Literature.Princess Elene of Georgia
Elene (Georgian: ელენე; 1753 – 17 June 1786) was a Georgian princess royal (batonishvili), a daughter of Heraclius II, King of Kartli and Kakheti. She was the mother of Solomon II of Imereti, the last king to have reigned in the Georgian polities.Solomon Dodashvili
Solomon Dodashvili (Georgian: სოლომონ დოდაშვილი) also known as Solomon Ivanovich Dodaev-Mogarsky (Russian: Соломон Иванович Додаев-Могарский) (May 17, 1805 – August 20, 1836) was a Georgian philosopher, journalist, historian, grammarian, belletrist and enlightener.
Dodashvili was born in Magharo, Kakheti, Georgia, then part of Imperial Russia. Having graduated from St Petersburg University in 1827, he obtained a Magister degree in philosophy there in 1828. During his stay in the Russian capital, he was close to Decembrist ideas and witnessed their 1825 mutiny. In 1828, Dodashvili returned to Tiflis, where he worked as an educator. He composed histories, grammars, and summaries of philosophy for his young pupils and led them into political opposition to the Russian rule. His idealistic pedagogues influenced many Georgian intellectuals and poets, including Nikoloz Baratashvili, who combined modern nationalism with European Romanticism. At the same time, from 1828 to 1832, he edited the first Georgian-language newspaper "Tp’ilisis utsk’ebani", a weekly addition to the Russian "Tiflisskie Vedomosti".
His career was terminated by the failure of the 1832 conspiracy against the Russian hegemony, in which he was a participant. Unlike most of his coconspirators, who seconded the restoration of Georgian monarchy, he proposed a republic as a form of government. Arrested by police, he was deported to Russia proper. He was kept in captivity in Vyatka and died there of tuberculosis. He was reburied to Mtatsminda Pantheon, Tbilisi, in 1994.Main works
S. Dodashvili. "Logic" (a monograph), St. Petersburg, 1828 (in Russian); Tbilisi, 1949 (in Georgian)
S. Dodashvili. "Short look at the Georgian literature".- "Moskovskie Vedomosti", No 10, Moscow, 1832 (in Russian)
S. Dodashvili. "Methodology of Logic" (a monograph), Tbilisi, 1829 (in Russian)
S. Dodashvili. "Brief Grammar of Georgian language", Tbilisi, 1830 (in Georgian)Valerian Gaprindashvili
Valerian Gaprindashvili (Georgian: ვალერიან გაფრინდაშვილი) (December 21, 1888 – January 31, 1941) was a Georgian poet and translator whose early, Symbolist, poetry was of much influence on development of Georgian metaphor and verse.
Born in Kutaisi, he graduated from the Moscow University in 1914. Returning to Georgia, Gaprindashvili was one of the founder members of the Symbolist group Blue Horns in 1915/16. His early, innovating poems illustrate the world as a mystic show populated with phantoms and doubles mixed with nearly "sacral" heroes from history and literature such as Cagliostro, Hamlet, Ophelia, Hannibal, etc. His first and best book, Daisebi ("Sundowns", 1919), at a time he called "the Dionysian night" of Georgia, introduced into Georgian the aesthetics of Baudelaire and Paul Valéry, as well as the mannerisms of the Russian Symbolists. Gaprindashvili significantly distanced himself from the Georgian literary classics’ understanding of a poet's mission and suggested an outcast, mad and suicidal person as an eventual result of a poet's natural evolution. From the 1920s, like many of his fellow Symbolists, he faced an ideological pressure from the newly established Soviet regime which forced him to make a conciliatory move towards the standards of Soviet literature. He survived Stalinist purges of the 1930s, but his later years were unproductive.
Gaprindashvili also made translations from Eugène Edine Pottier, Goethe, Pushkin, Lermontov, Alexander Blok, Nikolay Nekrasov, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and others. He also translated and published in Russian the works of the Georgian Romanticist poet Nikoloz Baratashvili.
|Ancestors of Nikoloz Baratashvili|