Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (Russian: Никола́й Миха́йлович Карамзи́н, IPA: [nʲɪkɐˈlaj mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ kərɐmˈzʲin]; 12 December [O.S. 1 December] 1766 – 3 June [O.S. 22 May] 1826) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic. He is best remembered for his History of the Russian State, a 12-volume national history.
Portrait of Karamzin by Vasily Tropinin, 1818.
|Born||Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin|
12 December [O.S. 1 December] 1766
Znamenskoye, Simbirsk Uyezd, Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||3 June [O.S. 22 May] 1826 (aged 59)|
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Occupation||Writer, historian, poet|
|Notable works||Poor Liza|
History of the Russian State
Karamzin was born in the village of Mikhailovka (modern-day Karamzinka village of the Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia) near Simbirsk in the Znamenskoye family estate. Another version exists that he was born in 1765 in the Mikhailovka village of the Orenburg Governorate (modern-day Preobrazhenka village of the Orenburg Oblast, Russia) where his father served, and in recent years Orenburg historians have been actively disputing the official version. His father Mikhail Yegorovich Karamzin (1724—1783) was a retired Kapitan of the Imperial Russian Army who belonged to the Russian noble family of modest means founded by Semyon Karamzin in 1606. For many years its members had served in Nizhny Novgorod as high-ranking officers and officials before Nikolay's grandfather Yegor Karamzin moved to Simbirsk with his wife Ekaterina Aksakova of the ancient Aksakov dynasty related to Sergey Aksakov. According to Nikolay Karamzin, his surname derived from Kara-mirza, a baptized Tatar and his earliest-known ancestor who arrived to Moscow to serve under the Russian rule. No records of him were left. The first documented Karamzin lived as early as 1534.
His mother Ekaterina Petrovna Karamzina (née Pazukhina) also came from a Russian noble family of moderate income founded in 1620 when Ivan Demidovich Pazukhin, a long-time officer, was granted lands and a title for his service during the Polish–Russian War. His two sons founded two family branches: one in Kostroma and one in Simbirsk which Ekaterina Karamzina belonged to. Her father Peter Pazukhin also made a brilliant military career and went from Praporshchik to Colonel; he had been serving in the Simbirsk infantry regiment since 1933. As far as the family legend goes, the dynasty was founded by Fyodor Pazukh from Lithuanian szlachta who left Mstislavl in 1496 to serve under Ivan III of Russia. Ekaterina Petrovna was born between 1730 and 1735 and died in 1769 when Nikolay was only over 2 years old. In 1770 Mikhail Karamzin married for the second time to Evdokia Gavrilovna Dmitrieva (1724—1783) who became Nikolay's stepmother. He had three siblings — Vasily, Fyodor and Ekaterina — and two agnate siblings.
Nikolay was sent to Moscow to study under Swiss-German teacher Johann Matthias Schaden; he later moved to St Petersburg, where he made the acquaintance of Ivan Dmitriev, a Russian poet of some merit, and occupied himself with translating essays by foreign writers into his native language. After residing for some time in Saint Petersburg he went to Simbirsk, where he lived in retirement until induced to revisit Moscow. There, finding himself in the midst of the society of learned men, he again took to literary work.
In 1789, he resolved to travel, visiting Germany, France, Switzerland and England. On his return he published his Letters of a Russian Traveller, which met with great success. These letters, modelled after Irish-born novelist Laurence Sterne's A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, were first printed in the Moscow Journal, which he edited, but were later collected and issued in six volumes (1797–1801).
In the same periodical, Karamzin also published translations from French and some original stories, including Poor Liza and Natalia the Boyar's Daughter (both 1792). These stories introduced Russian readers to sentimentalism, and Karamzin was hailed as "a Russian Sterne".
In 1794, Karamzin abandoned his literary journal and published a miscellany in two volumes entitled Aglaia, in which appeared, among other stories, The Island of Bornholm and Ilya Muromets, the latter a story based on the adventures of the well-known hero of many a Russian legend. From 1797 to 1799, he issued another miscellany or poetical almanac, The Aonides, in conjunction with Derzhavin and Dmitriev. In 1798 he compiled The Pantheon, a collection of pieces from the works of the most celebrated authors ancient and modern, translated into Russian. Many of his lighter productions were subsequently printed by him in a volume entitled My Trifles. Admired by Alexander Pushkin and Vladimir Nabokov, the style of his writings is elegant and flowing, modelled on the easy sentences of the French prose writers rather than the long periodical paragraphs of the old Slavonic school. His example proved beneficial for the creation of a Russian literary language, a major contribution for the history of Russian literature.
In 1802 and 1803, Karamzin edited the journal the Envoy of Europe (Vestnik Evropy). It was not until after the publication of this work that he realized where his strength lay, and commenced his 12 volume History of the Russian State. In order to accomplish the task, he secluded himself for two years at Simbirsk.
When Emperor Alexander learned the cause of his retirement, Karamzin was invited to Tver, where he read to the emperor the first eight volumes of his history. He was a strong supporter of the anti-Polish policies of the Russian Empire, and expressed hope that "there would be no Poland under any shape or name". In 1816, he removed to St Petersburg, where he spent the happiest days of his life, enjoying the favour of Alexander I and submitting to him the sheets of his great work, which the emperor read over with him in the gardens of the palace of Tsarskoye Selo.
He did not, however, live to carry his work further than the eleventh volume, terminating it at the accession of Michael Romanov in 1613. He died on 22 May (old style) 1826, in the Tauride Palace. A monument was erected to his memory at Simbirsk in 1845.
Karamzin is credited for having introduced the letter Ë/ë into the Russian alphabet some time after 1795, replacing the obsolete form that had been patterned after the extant letter Ю/ю. Ironically, the use of that form is generally deprecated, typically appearing merely as E/e in books other than dictionaries and Russian schoolchildren's primers.
Karamzin is well-regarded as a historian. Until the appearance of his work, little had been done in this direction in Russia. The preceding attempt of Vasily Tatishchev was merely a rough sketch, inelegant in style, and without the true spirit of criticism. Karamzin was most industrious in accumulating materials, and the notes to his volumes are mines of interesting information. Perhaps Karamzin may justly be criticized for the false gloss and romantic air thrown over the early Russian annals; in this respect his work is reminiscent of that of Sir Walter Scott, whose writings were at that time creating a great sensation throughout Europe and probably influenced Karamzin.
Karamzin wrote openly as the panegyrist of the autocracy; indeed, his work has been styled the Epic of Despotism and considered Ivan III as the architect of Russian greatness, a glory that he had earlier (perhaps while more under the influence of Western ideas) assigned to Peter the Great. (The deeds of Ivan the Terrible are described with disgust, though.)
In the battle pieces, he demonstrates considerable powers of description, and the characters of many of the chief personages in the Russian annals are drawn in firm and bold lines. As a critic Karamzin was of great service to his country; in fact he may be regarded as the founder of the review and essay (in the Western style) among the Russians.
Also, Karamzin is sometimes considered a founding father of Russian conservatism. Upon appointing him a state historian, Alexander I greatly valued Karamzin's advice on political matters. His conservative views were clearly expounded in The Memoir on Old and New Russia, written for Alexander I in 1812. This scathing attack on reforms proposed by Mikhail Speransky was to become a cornerstone of official ideology of imperial Russia for years to come.
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about 12 miles (19 km) away from that site. "On April 5, 1713, in St. Petersburg, in the presence of Peter I, the wooden Church of the Annunciation was consecrated. This day is considered the official founding date of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra." (April 5, 1713 Gregorian was March 25 Julian, feast of the Annunciation.)
"The relics of St. Alexander Nevsky were solemnly transferred from Vladimir to the new capital of Russia September 12, 1724, by decree of Peter the Great." (In fact it was August 30 Julian, or September 10 Gregorian; however, since the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar, the transfer of the relics is still celebrated on August 30 Julian, which corresponds to September 12 Gregorian in the 20th–21st centuries.) Nevsky became patron of the newly founded Russian capital; however, the massive silver sarcophagus of St. Alexander Nevsky was relocated during Soviet times to the State Hermitage Museum where it remains (without the relics) today.
In 1797, the monastery was raised to the rank of lavra, making it only the third lavra in the Russian Orthodox Church that had that designation bestowed upon it, following only the Kiev Monastery of the Caves and the Trinity Monastery of St Sergius.
The monastery grounds contain two baroque churches, the Annunciation Church and the Feodorovskaya Church, designed by father and son Trezzini and built from 1717–1722 and 1742–1750, respectively; the Neoclassical Holy Trinity Cathedral, built in 1778–1790 to a design by Ivan Starov and consecrated to the Holy Trinity; and numerous structures of lesser importance. It also contains the Lazarevskoe, Tikhvin, Nikolskoe, and Kazachye Cemeteries, where ornate tombs of Leonhard Euler, Mikhail Lomonosov, Alexander Suvorov, Nikolay Karamzin, Modest Mussorgsky, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Karl Ivanovich Rossi, Prince Garsevan Chavchavadze, a Georgian aristocrat, Sergei Witte and other famous Russians are preserved. During the Revolution, People's Commissar of Social Welfare Kollontai wanted to convert the monastery into a 'sanctuary for war invalids'; she sent a group of sailors 19 January 1918, who were met by an angry crowd of worshipers, and after some fighting a priest was shot and killed.Today Alexander Nevsky Lavra sits on Alexander Nevsky Square, where shoppers can buy bread baked by the monks. Visitors may also visit the cathedral and cemeteries for a small admission fee. While many of the grave sites are situated behind large concrete walls, especially those of famous Russians, many can be seen by passers-by while strolling down Obukhovskoy Oborony Street.Dmitry Bludov
Count Dmitry Nikolayevich Bludov (1785–1864) was a Russian imperial official who filled a variety of posts under Nicholas I - Deputy Education Minister (1826–28), Minister of Justice (1830–31, 1838–39), Minister of the Interior (1832–38), Chief of the Second Section (1839–62). Alexander II appointed him President of the Academy of Sciences (1855) and Chairman of the State Council (1862).
Despite his distinguished official career, Bludov is also notable for his literary background. He was related by blood to Gavrila Derzhavin and Vladislav Ozerov. He was also a founding member of the Arzamas Society, with Cassandra as his alias. Bludov's personal friends included Nikolay Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky. It was Bludov who edited and published their posthumous works. Antonina Bludova, a writer and salon-holder, was his daughter.
Bludov headed the Russian embassy in London in 1817–20. Although on friendly terms with many of the Decembrists, Bludov presided over the court that condemned them to death. During Nicholas I's reign he was considered one of the more liberal officials. He was in charge of reorganizing the courts and drafting a new criminal code (adopted in 1845). Bludov's extensive diaries have never been published.Leo Tolstoy described Bludov's house on Nevsky Avenue as the place "where writers, and in general, the best people of the time would gather. I remember that I read Two Hussars there for the first time. Bludov was a man who was at one time close to the Decembrists and sympathetic in spirit to the whole progressive movement. All the same he continued in government service under Nicholas".In 1830, Carl Friedrich von Ledebour in 'Icones Plantarum' (Icon. Pl.) Vol.2 page5 named an iris with specific name of Iris bloudowii after Dmitry.Gavriil Kamenev
Gavriil Petrovich Kamenev (Russian: Гаврии́л Петро́вич Ка́менев, IPA: [ɡəvrʲɪˈil pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈkamʲɪnʲɪf] (listen); 1772–1803) was a Russian poet, writer, and translator.
Kamenev was born on 3 February 1772 in Kazan and lived there in adverse circumstances (he was not good at business and was unhappily married), his only bright moments being brief visits to Moscow. He had attended a boarding school, but was essentially self-educated.
Kamenev published poems in The Pleasant and Agreeable Pastime, Muse, Ipokrene, Literary News and especially in the publications of the Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts. In the latter he published his ballad "Gromval", marking the first appearance of the Romantic strain in Russian literature. In "Gromval", Kamenev used the then-unusual anapaest and dactyl poetic feet.
Kamenev translated several of August von Kotzebue's works into Russian, wrote about his impressions of Moscow, and was acquainted with Nikolay Karamzin and other famous writers. Kamenev's significance as the first Russian Romantic writer was acknowledged by Pushkin.
Kamenev died on 25 or 26 July 1803 in Kazan.Gostomysl
Gostomysl (Russian: Гостомысл, IPA: [ɡəstɐˈmɨsl]) is a fictitious 9th-century posadnik of Novgorod who was introduced into the historiography by Vasily Tatishchev, an 18th-century historian. Gostomysl's rule is associated with the confederation of Northern tribes, which was formed to counter the Varangian threat in the mid-9th century and embraced the Ilmen Slavs, Krivichs, Merya, and Chud. Sergey Platonov and Aleksey Shakhmatov believed that the capital of the confederation was in modern Russa and Gostomysl could have been one of its leaders.
According to Tatishchev, who claimed to have derived his information from the now-lost Ioachim Chronicle, Gostomysl was elected by the Ilmen Slavs their supreme ruler and expelled the Varangians from Russia. Once he had a dream of a large tree growing from the womb of his daughter, Umila. This was interpreted by pagan priests as a prophecy of Umila's son becoming a great leader and of his issue coming to rule a large territory. Indeed, after a period of civil disorder, Umila's son Rurik succeeded to his grandfather in Novgorod and his progeny came to rule the largest state in Europe.
The legend of Gostomysl was much aired by the writers and composers working in the nationalist milieu of Catherine II's reign. However, the historians Gerhardt Friedrich Müller and Nikolay Karamzin gave no credit to Tatischev's story, believing that the very name of Gostomysl resulted from a misinterpretation of two Slavic words - gost' ("guest") and mysl' ("thought").
Although Gostomysl's existence is doubted by virtually every modern historian, the name is not an artificial derivation as was previously thought. It was indeed recorded in 844, when Louis the German defeated "rex Gostomuizli" of the Obodrites. Besides, the story of Umila's dream bears striking similarities to the account of Harald Fairhair's birth in some of the Norse sagas, which treat the genealogical tree seen in a dream by his mother on the eve of the childbirth as a symbol of the Hairfair dynasty of which Harald was the author.Hypatian Codex
The Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Belarusian: Іпацьеўскі летапіс; Russian: Ипатьевская летопись; Ukrainian: Іпатіївський літопис, Іпатський літопис, Літопис руський за Іпатським списком) is a compendium of three chronicles: the Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle. It is the most important source of historical data for southern Rus'.The codex was rediscovered in what is today Ukraine in 1617 and then copied by monks in Kyiv in 1621. It was re-discovered yet again in the 18th century at the Hypatian Monastery of Kostroma by the Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin.
The codex is the second oldest surviving manuscript of the Primary Chronicle, after the Laurentian Codex. The Hypatian manuscript dates back to ca. 1425, but it incorporates much precious information from the lost 12th-century Kievan and 13th-century Galician chronicles. The codex was possibly compiled at the end of the 13th century.Since 1810, the codex has been preserved in the Russian National Library, St Petersburg. The language of this work is Old Church Slavonic with many East Slavisms.Jovan Rajić
Jovan Rajić (Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Рајић; September 21, 1726 – December 22, 1801) was a Serbian writer, historian, traveller, and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Serbian academics of the 18th century. He was one of the most notable representatives of Serbian Baroque literature along with Zaharije Orfelin, Pavle Julinac, Vasilije III Petrović-Njegoš, Simeon Končarević, Simeon Piščević, and others (although he worked in the first half of 18th century, as Baroque trends in Serbian literature emerged in the late 17th century).
Rajić was the forerunner to modern Serbian historiography, and has been compared to the importance of Nikolay Karamzin to Russian historiography.Karamzin
Karamzin (Russian: Карамзин) is a Russian masculine surname, its feminine counterpart is Karamzina. It originates from the Tatar surname Kara-Murza, meaning black lord, and may refer to
Aurora Karamzin (1808–1902), Finnish-Swede philanthropist, wife of Andrei Karamzin, a son of Nikolay
Nikolay Karamzin (1766–1826), Russian writer, poet, historian and criticMikhail Pogodin
Mikhail Petrovich Pogodin (Russian: Михаи́л Петро́вич Пого́дин; 23 November [O.S. 11 November] 1800 – 20 December [O.S. 8 December] 1875) was a Russian historian and journalist who, jointly with Nikolay Ustryalov, dominated the national historiography between the death of Nikolay Karamzin in 1826 and the rise of Sergey Solovyov in the 1850s. He is best remembered as a staunch proponent of the Normanist theory of Russian statehood.
Pogodin's father was a serf housekeeper of Count Stroganov, and the latter ensured Mikhail's education in the Moscow University. As the story goes, Pogodin the student lived from hand to mouth, because he spent his whole stipend on purchasing new volumes of Nikolay Karamzin's history of Russia.
Pogodin's early publications were panned by Mikhail Kachenovsky, a Greek who held the university chair in Russian history. Misinterpreting Schlozer's novel teachings, Kachenovsky declared that "ancient Russians lived like mice or birds, they had neither money nor books" and that Primary Chronicle was a crude falsification from the era of Mongol ascendency. His teachings became exceedingly popular, spawning the so-called sceptical school of imperial historiography.
In 1823, Pogodin completed his dissertation in which he debunked Kachenovsky's idea of Khazar origin of Rurikid princes. He further stirred up the controversy by proclaiming that serious scholars should not only trust but worship Nestor. The dispute ended with Kachenovsky's chair being devolved on Pogodin. In the 1830s and 1840s he augmented his reputation by publishing many volumes of obscure historical documents and the last part of Mikhail Shcherbatov's history of Russia.
Towards the end of the 1830s, Pogodin turned his attention to journalism, where his career was likewise a slow burner. Between 1827 and 1830 he edited The Herald of Moscow with Alexander Pushkin as one of the regular contributors. Upon first meeting the great poet in 1826, Pogodin (in)famously remarked in his diary that "his mug doesn't look promising". However, this remark is usually taken out of context as Pogodin wrote glowing reviews of Pushkin's work as early as 1820.
In 1841 Pogodin joined his old friend Stepan Shevyrev in editing Moskvityanin (The Muscovite), a periodical which came to voice Slavophile opinions. In the course of the following fifteen years of editing, Pogodin and Shevyrev steadily slid towards the most reactionary form of Slavophilism. Their journal became embroiled in a controversy with the Westernizers, led by Alexander Herzen, who deplored Pogodin's "rugged, unbroomed style, his rough manner of jotting down cropped notes and unchewed thoughts".
Pogodin's main focus during the last segment of his scholarly career was on fending off Kostomarov's attacks against the Normanist theory. By that period, he championed the pan-Slavic idea of uniting Western Slavs under the aegis of the tsars and even visited Prague to discuss his plans with Pavel Jozef Šafárik and František Palacký. In the 1870s he was again pitted against a leading historian, this time Dmitry Ilovaisky, who advocated an Iranian origin of the earliest East Slavic rulers.
His grandson Mikhail Ivanovich Pogodin (1884–1969) was a museologist.Ostrogski coat of arms
Ostrogski (Latin: Baca – Perl, Latin: Laius – white (without chatoyancy)) is a Polish coat of arms of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. A variant of the Leliwa and Ogończyk coat of arms.Pantheon
Pantheon may refer to:
Pantheon (religion), the set of gods belonging to a particular religion, mythology or tradition
Pantheon (mythical creature), a mythical or imaginary creature used in heraldry, particularly in BritainPrincess Elene of Kartli
Princess Elene or Elene-Gulchara (Georgian: ელენე; ელენე-გულჩარა) (born 1591) was a Georgian royal princess (batonishvili) of the Bagrationi dynasty of Kartli branch.She was a daughter of King George X of Kartli and Tamar-Mariam Lipartiani-Dadiani.
Princess Elene was affianced to Tsar Feodor II of Russia.
In "Istoria Gosudarstva Rossiyskogo" by Nikolay Karamzin she is described by Russian prince Mikhail Tatishev as:
King George X of Kartli gave the oath, but the princess stayed in Georgia until the next Russian visit, by which time Feodor II was no longer alive.
The later fate of the princess is unknown.Sebbirozi
The Sebbirozi was a tribe mentioned by the 9th-century Bavarian Geographer (BG). It states that the Sebbirozi inhabit 90 settlements (Sebbirozi habent civitates XC).
Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin (1766–1826) identified them as the Severians.
German historian Johann Caspar Zeuss (1806–1856) believed them to have inhabited the hinterland of the Western Balkans.
Polish historian Joachim Lelewel (1786–1861) put them in Semberija.
Slovak scholar Pavel Jozef Šafařík (1795–1861) put them in Russia.
Polish historian Henryk Łowmiański (1898–1984) connected the ethnonym to the Severians.
Polish historian Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak treats the Sebbirozi as one of the five Turkic tribes from the source, precisely the Sabirs. Already in 1958 Łowmiański considered etymological and geographical relation between the Sebbirozi, Attorozi, Uuillerozi, Zabrozi, Chozirozi due to unusual non-Slavic, yet Turkic suffix -rozi. The Attorozi themselves are described as populus ferocissimus.Serge Poltoratzky
Serge Poltoratzky (alternate spellings: Sergei or Sergey and Poltoratsky, Poltoratskii or Poltoratskiy), 1803-1884, was a Russian literary scholar, bibliophile and humanitarian. His major literary work was the Dictionary of Russian Authors, which he worked on for decades. He travelled extensively in Europe to find books and manuscripts needed for this work. He was also interested in the letters of Voltaire and in Franco-Russian cultural relations. He wrote articles for the French press on these and other literary topics, often under the pseudonym R.E. According to Yuri Druzhnikov, Poltoratzky was the first to introduce Pushkin's work to a western European audience, in the October 1821 issue of Revue encyclopedique (published in Paris).
Among Poltoratzky's literary friends were Victor Hugo, Nikolay Karamzin, Charles Forbes René de Montalembert, Alexander Pushkin, Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve and Vasiliy Zhukovsky. He was also known for giving financial help to impoverished authors and scholars.
Poltoratzky's personal library, which included many rare books and unpublished manuscripts, was donated to the Imperial Public Library, now the Russian State Library.Sergey Uvarov
Count Sergey Semionovich Uvarov (Russian: Серге́й Семёнович Ува́ров) (25 August (5 September) 1786, Moscow – 4 (16) September 1855) was a Russian classical scholar best remembered as an influential imperial statesman under Nicholas I of Russia.
Of Tatar roots, Uvarov, connected through marriage with the powerful Razumovsky family, published a number of works on Ancient Greek literature and archaeology, which brought him European renown. A confirmed conservative, he was on friendly terms with Alexander Humboldt, Madame de Stael, Goethe, Prince de Ligne, Nikolay Karamzin, and Vasily Zhukovsky. Uvarov studied in Göttingen, and from 1811 to 1822, he curated the Saint Petersburg educational district.
In 1832, Uvarov was appointed Deputy Minister of National Education, succeeding his father-in-law Count Aleksey Kirillovich Razumovsky. He was elected an Honorable Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1811 and was the president of that venerable institution from 1818 until his death. In the wake of the Decembrist revolt of 1825, the tsar moved to protect the status quo by centralizing the educational system. He wanted to neutralize the threat of foreign ideas and what he ridiculed as "pseudo-knowledge." However, Uvarov quietly promoted academic freedom and autonomy, raised academic standards, improved facilities, and opened higher education to the middle classes. By 1848 the tsar, fearing the political upheavals in the West might cause uprisings in Europe, ended Uvarov's innovations.Uvarov was responsible for coming up with the formula "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality", the basis of his activities regarding public education. According to Uvarov’s theory, the Russian folk (narod) is very religious and devoted to the Emperor, so the Orthodox religion and Autocracy are unconditional bases of the existence of Russia. Nationality (Narodnost) is deemed to be the necessity to follow independent national traditions and to fight foreign influence. The theory stated that it was necessary to reject western ideas – freedom of thinking, freedom of personality, individualism, rationalism which were considered by Orthodox religion as dangerous and rebel thinking. The chief of Russian political police (the III Department of His Majesty Personal Chancellery) Alexander von Benckendorff wrote that “the past of Russia was wonderful, the present is splendid and the future is above all dreams”. These three concepts were considered as "pillar-walls" of the Russian Empire. He worked to limit access to education by people of non-noble origin and strengthening governmental control over the universities and gymnasiums, once famously remarking, "No university Pugachevs." It means that only a small part of Russian population (only noble ones, many of them of foreign descent) had the possibility to get the education; it was almost impossible for Russian non-nobles to get access to education. Within this meaning, the Narodnost (Nationality) meant that Russian folk had to stay away from education (Western influence) in order to preserve the folks' pure Russian national character.
The universities were small and closely monitored, especially the potentially dangerous philosophy departments. Their main mission was to train a loyal, athletic, masculinized senior bureaucracy that avoided the effeminacy of office work.Despite these reactionary measures, Uvarov was also responsible for laying the foundations of high-quality education in Russia and reinstating the practice of sending Russian scientists abroad. Unfortunately all his deeds and acts were a dead contribution into Russian educational system, because almost 99% of Russian population (non-nobles, folk) were prohibited from getting education, no matter how talented they were.
Uvarovite, the rarest of garnets, is named after him. His son Aleksey Uvarov co-founded the Russian Archaeological Society and the State Historical Museum in Moscow.
Uvarov's known relationship was with Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich Dondukov-Korsakov, who, according to Pushkin's scurrilous epigram, was owed his appointment in the Academy of Sciences to his homosexual relationship with Uvarov.Tikhvin Cemetery
Tikhvin Cemetery (Russian: Тихвинское кладбище) is a historic cemetery in the centre of Saint Petersburg. It is part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, and is one of four cemeteries in the complex. Since 1932 it has been part of the State Museum of Urban Sculpture, which refers to it as the Necropolis of the Masters of Art (Russian: Некрополь мастеров искусств).
Opened in 1823 after the monastery's first cemetery, the Lazarevskoe, had become overcrowded, the cemetery was initially called the "New Lazarevsky". It acquired its name after the building of its cemetery church, consecrated to the icon of the Tikhvin Mother of God. It soon superseded the Lazarevskoe Cemetery and became a popular and prestigious burial ground. The first literary figure, Nikolay Karamzin, was buried in the cemetery in 1826, followed in 1833 by Nikolay Gnedich, an associate of Alexander Pushkin's. Several other friends of Pushkin were later buried in the cemetery. Particularly significant interments were those of Mikhail Glinka in 1857, Fyodor Dostoevsky in 1881, Modest Mussorgsky and Alexander Borodin in the 1880s, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1891.
During the Soviet period the cemetery was earmarked for development into a museum necropolis, envisaged primarily as a landscaped park, with strategically placed memorials to important figures of Russian history. With several notable artists having already been buried in the cemetery, it was decided to designate it as the "Necropolis of the Masters of Art". During the 1930s many important Russian composers, painters, sculptors, writers and poets were exhumed from their original resting places across the city, and brought, with or without their monuments, to be reburied in the Tikhvin cemetery. At the same time the monuments of those figures deemed not in keeping with the artistic theme of the cemetery were removed or destroyed. Several more burials of particularly important artists took place during the Soviet period, as the cemetery established a role as a kind of national pantheon. Today the cemetery operates as a museum necropolis under the auspices of the State Museum of Urban Sculpture.Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River 705 kilometers (438 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 613,786 (2010 Census); 635,947 (2002 Census); 625,155 (1989 Census).The city, founded as Simbirsk (Симби́рск), is the birthplace of Alexander Kerensky and Vladimir Lenin (born Ulyanov), for whom it was renamed in 1924. It is also famous for its writers such as Ivan Goncharov, Nikolay Yazykov and Nikolay Karamzin and painters (Arkady Plastov and Nikas Safronov). Ulyanovsk - UNESCO City of Literature since 2015.Vestnik Evropy
Vestnik Evropy (Russian: Вестник Европы) (Herald of Europe or Messenger of Europe) was the major liberal magazine of late-nineteenth-century Russia. It was published from 1866 to 1918.
The magazine (named for an earlier publication edited by Nikolay Karamzin) was founded by Mikhail Matveevich Stasyulevich, a former professor of history, who remained the publisher-editor until 1909; its editorial office "was located in Stasyulevich's flat at 20 Galernaya Street and was one of the centres of St. Petersburg's cultural and political life (the journal's major contributors as well as their friends and associates used to get together on Wednesdays)." The first issue appeared in March 1866; for the first two years it was a historical quarterly, but from 1868 it covered history, politics, and literature and came out each month. "The journal always had a serious, objective, professorial character; even in the most heated polemics, for example, it shunned harsh invective and often even avoided naming its adversary." It consistently supported the zemstvos, judicial reforms, and other reforms of the 1860s, publishing frequent articles on foreign countries and on Russian history that served to promote its own views on contemporary society and politics. It "placed its dark red monthly booklet, 'like a little brick, on the slowly and arduously erected structure of social rights and consciousness.'"During the heated ideological struggles of the 1870s and 1880s, the magazine tried to steer a course between moderate reformism and the kind of revolutionary socialism it consistently opposed; Leonid-Lyudvig Slonimsky, a frequent contributor on economic and political topics, wrote a regular "Foreign Survey" which he used "to sketch the outlines of an ideal relationship between liberals and socialists in Russia’s not-too-distant parliamentary future, which involved one group supplementing its program with demands for social reforms and the other abandoning its calls for revolution." In the 1880s it repudiated state socialism "as a matter of principle, while continuing to build on the arguments in favor of state interference, which it saw
as guaranteeing the people’s welfare"; it also "rejected both the absolutization of the right to private ownership of land and the idea that the land should be nationalized."Following the 1905 Russian Revolution, many of its members joined the Constitutional Democratic Party, which separated the journal more and more from the radical movement, and in the spring of 1918 its publication was suppressed by the Soviet authorities (the last issue was March 1918).
Among its contributors over the years were the scientists Kliment Timiryazev, Ivan Sechenov, and Ilya Mechnikov; the historians Sergey Solovyov, Konstantin Kavelin, and Tadeusz Zielinski; the literary scholars Alexander Veselovsky and Alexander Pypin; and the writers Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Goncharov, Aleksandr Ostrovsky, Grigory Danilevsky, and Vladimir Solovyov, among many others.Vladimir Ilyich-class motorship
Vladimir Ilyich class is a class of Russian river passenger ships. It is named after the first ship of the class Vladimir Ilyich.
Four-deck cruise ships manufactured in Germany, 1974–1983.Vladimir Meshchersky
Prince Vladimir Petrovich Meshchersky (11 January 1839 – 23 July 1914) was a Russian journalist and novelist.
He was the grandson of historian Nikolay Karamzin.Meshchersky was editor of Grazhdanin (The Citizen), a traditional conservative newspaper which received subsidies from the imperial authorities. According to Leon Trotsky, "The sole paper which [Tsar] Nicholas read for years, and from which he derived his ideas, was a weekly published on state revenue by Prince Meshchersky, a vile, bribed journalist of the reactionary bureaucratic clique, despised even in his own circle."Meshchersky also contributed to the periodicals The Russian Messenger and Moskovskiye Vedomosti (Moscow News). He was the author of several novels and memoirs.
He was a friend of the composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and acquired a reputation as a homosexual philanderer. His patrons, the Tsars Alexander III and Nicholas II, protected him from public disgrace.