Nikolaus Lenau

Nikolaus Lenau was the nom de plume of Nikolaus Franz Niembsch Edler von Strehlenau (13 August 1802 – 22 August 1850), a German-language Austrian poet.

Nikolaus Lenau
Lenau in 1839


Lenau's Grave in Weidling, Austria

He was born at Schadat, now Lenauheim, Banat, then part of the Habsburg Monarchy, now in Romania. His father, a Habsburg government official, died in 1807 in Budapest, leaving his children in the care of their mother, who remarried in 1811. In 1819 Nikolaus went to the University of Vienna; he subsequently studied Hungarian law at Pozsony (Bratislava) and then spent the next four years qualifying himself in medicine. Unable to settle down to any profession, he began writing verse. The disposition to sentimental melancholy inherited from his mother, stimulated by disappointments in love and by the prevailing fashion of the romantic school of poetry, descended into gloom after his mother's death in 1829.[1]

Soon afterwards, however, a legacy from his grandmother enabled him to devote himself wholly to poetry. His first published poems appeared in 1827, in Johann Gabriel Seidl's Aurora. In 1831 he moved to Stuttgart, where he published a volume of Gedichte (1832) dedicated to the Swabian poet, Gustav Schwab. He also made the acquaintance of Ludwig Uhland, Justinus Kerner, Karl Mayer and others. His restless spirit longed for change, and he determined to seek peace and freedom in America.[1]

In October 1832 he landed at Baltimore and settled on a homestead in Ohio. He also lived six months in New Harmony, Indiana, with a group called the Harmony Society. Life in the primeval forest fell lamentably short of the ideal he had pictured. He disliked Americans with their eternal English lisping of dollars (englisches Talergelispel), and in 1833 returned to Germany. The appreciation of his first volume of poems revived his spirits.[1]

From then on he lived partly in Stuttgart and partly in Vienna. In 1836 his Faust appeared, in which he laid bare his own soul to the world;[2][1] in 1837, Savonarola, an epic in which freedom from political and intellectual tyranny as an essential component of Christianity was stated. In 1838 his Neuere Gedichte proved that Savonarola had been the result of a passing exaltation. Of these new poems, some of the finest were inspired by his hopeless passion for Sophie von Löwenthal, the wife of a friend. In 1842 appeared Die Albigenser, and in 1844 he began writing his Don Juan, a fragment of which was published after his death.[1]

Soon afterwards he developed signs of mental ill-health. In October 1844, he jumped from a window one morning and ran down a street shouting "Revolt! Freedom! Help! Fire!".[3] He was placed in an asylum, under restraint, for the remainder of his life. He died in the asylum at Oberdöbling near Vienna[1] and was buried in the cemetery of Weidling, near Klosterneuburg. On his grave is the replica of an open book with an extract from one of his poems (An Frau Kleyle) inscribed on the left-hand page, while on the right-hand page there is the final stanza from his poem Vergangenheit. The city of Stockerau in Lower Austria has proclaimed itself "Lenau City", because Nikolaus Lenau went on extensive walks in the alluvial forests next to Stockerau and the Danube and was inspired to write one of his most famous lyric poems, "Schilflieder", during this time. He has various streets and squares in Vienna and the surrounding area named after him.

Lenau's fame rests mainly upon his shorter poems; even his epics are essentially lyric in quality. His excellent poem, "Herbst", expresses the sadness and melancholy he felt after his sojourn in the United States and his strenuous travels across the Atlantic to return to Europe. In it, he mourns the loss of youth, the passing of time and his own sense of futility. The poem is archetypal of Lenau's style and culminates with the speaker dreaming of death as a final escape from emptiness. He is the greatest modern lyric poet of Austria, and the typical representative in German literature of that pessimistic Weltschmerz which, beginning with Lord Byron, reached its culmination in the poetry of Giacomo Leopardi.[1]

Lenau's Sämtliche Werke were first published in 4 vols. by Anastasius Grün in 1855, but there are several more modern editions, as those by Max Koch in Joseph Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur of 1888 (vols. 154 and 155), and E. Castle (2 vols., 1900).[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lenau, Nikolaus" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Janů, Jaroslav. Lenau. p. 116.

External links

Alexander of Württemberg (1801–1844)

Alexander Christian Frederick, Count of Württemberg (5 November 1801, Copenhagen – 7 July 1844, Wildbad) was a German army officer and poet. He was the eldest surviving son of William Frederick Philip, Duke of Württemberg, who was a younger brother of Frederick I of Württemberg

He received a military education in order to become a regular officer. Afterwards, he was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the 3rd Cavalry Regiment of Württemberg. The regiment was stationed in Esslingen am Neckar where Alexander von Württemberg stayed in the Obere Palmsche Palais.

For his summer residence, he lived in Schloss Serach. There he visited with poets such as Emma Niendorf, Gustav Schwab, Justinus Kerner, Ludwig Uhland, and Hermann Kurz. These visits came to be known as the Serach Poet Circle.

Alexander von Württemberg formed a particularly close friendship with Nikolaus Lenau, who shared his dejection and depression. He was married in 1832 to his Hungarian wife, Helene Festetics de Tolna. Together they had two sons and two daughters.

He suffered from chronic headaches and moved to Italy in 1843 in a futile attempt to improve his health. He then moved to Wildbad, Württemberg where he died from a stroke in 1844. His body is interned in the Stiftskirche, Stuttgart.

Dolls of Death

Dolls of Death (German: Puppen des Todes) is a 1920 German silent crime film directed by Reinhard Bruck and starring Albert Bassermann, Elsa Bassermann and Bernhard Goetzke.

Don Juan (Strauss)

Don Juan, Op. 20, is a tone poem in E major for large orchestra written by the German composer Richard Strauss in 1888. It is singled out by Carl Dahlhaus as a "musical symbol of fin-de-siècle modernism", particularly for the "breakaway mood" of its opening bars.The premiere of Don Juan took place on 11 November 1889 in Weimar, where Strauss served as Court Kapellmeister; he conducted the orchestra of the Weimar Opera. The work, composed when Strauss was only twenty-four years old, became an international success and established his reputation. In comments written two days after the premiere, Strauss said, "Well then – Don Juan had a great success, it sounded wonderful and went very well. It unleashed a storm of applause rather unusual for Weimar."The Don Juan legend originated in Renaissance-era Spain. Strauss's tone poem is based on Don Juans Ende, a play derived from an unfinished 1844 retelling of the tale by poet Nikolaus Lenau. Strauss reprinted three excerpts from the play in his score. In Lenau's rendering, Don Juan's promiscuity springs from his determination to find the ideal woman. Despairing of ever finding her, he ultimately surrenders to melancholy and wills his own death.Performances of the work last around sixteen minutes. Excerpts from Don Juan are staples of professional orchestral auditions due to the numerous technical and musical demands on each instrument.

Germans of Romania

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939), a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania.

Johann Gabriel Seidl

Johann Gabriel Seidl (21 June 1804 – 18 July 1875)

was an Austrian archeologist, poet, storyteller and dramatist. He wrote the lyrics to "Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze unsern Kaiser, unser Land!" This was the 1854 version of the Austrian Imperial Anthem, music by Joseph Haydn (Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser).

Born in Vienna, Johann Gabriel Seidl was the son of a lawyer and studied law himself. In 1829, he began to teach at a gymnasium in Celje, Slovenia. In 1840 he became curator at the Coin and Antiquities Museum (Münz- und Antikenkabinett) in Vienna. From 1856 until 1871, he was responsible for the treasury. He spent most of his life in Vienna and died there in 1875.

Besides his scientific studies, Seidl published numerous poems and short stories, including the first poems by Nikolaus Lenau. Many of his poems were set to music by Franz Schubert (e.g. "Die Taubenpost" from Schwanengesang) and Carl Loewe (e.g. "Die Uhr"). Besides having written poems in standard German, Seidl also wrote in the Austrian dialect.

Joseph Matthäus Aigner

Joseph Matthäus Aigner (18 January 1818, Vienna – 19 February 1886, Vienna) was an Austrian portrait painter, who studied under Friedrich von Amerling and Carl Rahl. He painted portraits of Franz Joseph I of Austria and his wife Elizabeth, Franz Grillparzer, Friedrich Halm, Nikolaus Lenau, and Maximilian I of Mexico.

In 1847 he married actress Fanny Matras (1828–1878).

As commander of the Academic Legion during the 1848 revolutions in Vienna, Aigner was court-martialed for high treason and condemned to death. However, Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz pardoned him.

According to Ripley's Believe It or Not!, a Capuchin monk, whose name Aigner never knew, saved his life three times, when he attempted to hang himself at ages 18 and 22 and when he was sentenced to death. Aigner successfully committed suicide with a pistol in Vienna in 1886, and the same monk presided over his funeral.


Lenauheim is a commune in Timiș County, Banat, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Bulgăruș, Grabaț and Lenauheim.

List of compositions by Alban Berg

The following is an incomplete list of the compositions of Alban Berg.

Jugendlieder (1), composed 1901–4, voice and piano, published 1985"Herbstgefühl" (Siefried Fleischer)

"Spielleute" (Henrik Ibsen)

"Wo der Goldregen steht" (F. Lorenz)

"Lied der Schiffermädels" (Otto Julius Bierbaum)

"Sehnsucht" I (Paul Hohenberg)

"Abschied" (Elimar von Monsterberg-Muenckenau)

"Grenzen der Menschheit" (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

"Vielgeliebte schöne Frau" (Heinrich Heine)

"Sehnsucht" II (Paul Hohenberg)

"Sternefall" (Karl Wilhelm)

"Sehnsucht" III (Paul Hohenberg)

"Ich liebe dich!" (Christian Dietrich Grabbe)

"Ferne Lieder" (Friedrich Rückert)

"Ich will die Fluren meiden" (Friedrich Rückert)

"Geliebte Schöne" (Heinrich Heine)

"Schattenleben" (Martin Greif)

"Am Abend" (Emanuel Geibel)

"Vorüber!" (Franz Wisbacher)

"Schummerlose Nächte" (Martin Greif)

"Es wandelt, was wir schauen (Joseph von Eichendorff)

"Liebe (Rainer Maria Rilke)

"Im Morgengrauen (Karl Stieler)

"Grabschrift (Ludwig Jakobowski)Jugendlieder (2), composed 1904–8, voice and piano, published 1985"Traum" (Frida Semler)

"Augenblicke" (Robert Hamerling)

"Die Näherin" (Rainer Maria Rilke)

"Erster Verlust" (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

"Süss sind mir die Schollen des Tales" (Karl Ernst Knodt)

"Er klagt das der Frühling so kortz blüht" (Arno Holz)

"Tiefe Sehnsucht" (Detlev von Liliencron)

"Über den Bergen" (Karl Busse)

"Am Strande" (Georg Scherer)

"Winter" (Johannes Schlaf)

"Fraue, du Süsse" (Ludwig Finckh)

"Verlassen" (Bohemian folksong)

"Regen" (Johannes Schlaf)

"Traurigkeit" (Peter Altenberg)

"Hoffnung" (Peter Altenberg)

"Flötenspielerin" (Peter Altenberg)

"Spaziergang" (Alfred Mombert)

"Eure Weisheit" (Johann Georg Fischer)

"So regnet es sich langsam ein" (Cäsar Flaischlein)

"Mignon" (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

"Die Sorglichen" (Gustav Falke)

"Das stille Königreich" (Karl Busse)

"An Leukon" (Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim)Seven Early Songs, voice and piano, composed 1905–8, revised and orchestrated 1928"Nacht" (Carl Hauptmann)

"Schilflied" (Nikolaus Lenau)

"Die Nachtigall" (Theodor Storm)

"Traumgekrönt" (Rainer Maria Rilke)

"Im Zimmer" (Johannes Schlaf)

"Liebesode" (Otto Erich Hartleben)

"Sommertage" (Paul Hohenberg)Schliesse mir die Augen beide (Theodor Storm), voice and piano, composed 1907, published in 1930 & 1955

An Leukon (Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim), voice and piano, composed 1908; published in 1937 & 1963 (Reich) & 1985 (UE) (2 versions exist: in G minor [1907]; in E minor [1908])

Frühe Klaviermusik, published 1989

Zwölf Variationen über ein eigenes Thema in C, piano, composed Nov. 8, 1908; published in 1957 & 1985

Symphony and Passacaglia, fragment, composed 1913

Piano Sonata, Op. 1, composed 1907–8, published April 24, 1911

Vier Lieder, Op. 2, voice and piano, composed 1909–10, published 1910"Schlafen, schlafen" (Friedrich Hebbel)

"Schlafend trägt man mich" (Alfred Mombert)

"Nun ich der Riesen Stärksten" (Alfred Mombert)

"Warm die Lüfte" (Alfred Mombert)String Quartet, Op. 3, composed 1910, published 1920

Fünf Orchesterlieder nach Ansichtkartentexten von Peter Altenberg, Op. 4, soprano and orchestra, 1912 (Altenberg Lieder)"Seele, wie bist du schöner"

"Sahst du nach dem Gewitterregen"

"Über die Grenzen des All"

"Nichts ist gekommen"

"Hier ist Friede"Vier Stücke, Op. 5, clarinet and piano, composed 1913, published 1920

Drei Stücke, Op. 6, orchestra, composed 1914–15

Wozzeck, Op. 7, composed 1914–22

Drei Bruchstücke aus ‘Wozzeck’, soprano and orchestra

Kammerkonzert, piano, violin, and 13 winds, composed 1923–5

Adagio, violin, clarinet and piano, arranged 1926 (arrangement of Kammerkonzert mvmt. 2)

Schliesse mir die Augen beide (Theodor Storm), voice and piano, composed 1925

Lyric Suite, string quartet, composed 1925–6

Drei Sätze aus der Lyrischen Suite, arranged for string orchestra, 1928

"Der Wein" (Charles Baudelaire), concert aria, soprano and orchestra, composed 1929

Four-part Canon Alban Berg an das Frankfurter Opernhaus, composed 1930

Lulu, composed 1929–35, orchestra part of Act 3 completed by Friedrich Cerha

Symphonische Stücke aus der Oper ‘Lulu’ (Lulu-Suite), soprano and orchestra, premièred under Kleiber in 1934

Violin Concerto, composed 1935

Vocal scores

Franz Schreker: Der ferne Klang (1911)

Arnold Schoenberg: Gurre-Lieder (1912)

Arnold Schoenberg: Litanei and Entrückung from String Quartet no.2, 1912

Arrangement for string quartet, piano, and harmonium

Johann Strauss II: Wein, Weib und Gesang, 1921

Lucreția Suciu-Rudow

Lucreția Suciu-Rudow (September 3, 1859 – March 5, 1900) was a Romanian poet from Austria-Hungary.

She was born in Oradea. Her father Petre was a Romanian Orthodox priest active in the church school system in Oradea and a protopope in Beliu, who later settled in Ucuriș. Her mother Maria was a poet. The family home at Ucuriș hosted a small literary circle attended by George Coșbuc, Gheorghe Bogdan-Duică and Aurel Popovici. Lucreția, a cultivated woman who knew French, German and Hungarian, made her debut in 1884 in Familia, with the poem "Suvenir" ("Souvenir"). She regularly published poems in the magazine until 1895. In 1889, she published her collected poems in a single volume printed at Sibiu, also publishing poems in Tribuna and a translation of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's Laocoön. She married Wilhelm Rudow, who had obtained a doctorate in philosophy at Halle University; a philo-Romanian, he wrote a German-language history of Romanian literature. From April to November 1897 at Oradea, the couple published Foaia literară, a weekly magazine that ran for 30 editions. Its contributors included Coșbuc, Maria Cunțan and Ilarie Chendi. Her own submissions included verses and a romantic tale, Logodnica contelui Stuart ("Count Stuart's Betrothed"). Her work was popularized by Convorbiri Literare, which printed a number of her poems in 1898. Its patron Titu Maiorescu saw in her verses the sure signs of a Transylvanian cultural renaissance. Another review where she appeared was the Arad-based Tribuna poporului. Her last years were marked by suffering from tuberculosis.Suciu-Rudow's work consisted almost of love poetry. According to one critic, she possessed an authentic sensibility, sharply heightened by her illness and by a strong sentimental disappointment. She was influenced by Mihai Eminescu, from whom she borrowed motifs, images and rhythms, reproducing their atmosphere. However, she went beyond mere imitation: her lines were charged with sincerity, spontaneity and a characteristically feminine delicacy and grace. German Romantic poets such as Nikolaus Lenau and Heinrich Heine, whom she knew very well, were another influence, as seen through her light melancholy, pained regret caused by incomprehension, faded love and resignation. Her tone was consistently one of romantic sentimentalism, and she surpassed all prior Transylvanian female lyric poets through her musicality, elegant language and discretion. At times, her verses have the liveliness of Coșbuc's rhythms, and the theme of darkness recalls his "Vântul" and "Prahova". Several of her poems, such as "La drum" ("On the Road"), point to greater potential through their naturalness, pictorial images and adequate rhythm. Maiorescu, commenting about "La scaldă" ("Bathing"), noted its "carefree naturalism, almost at the level of ancient liberties", while Nicolae Iorga found that the same sonnet could be compared to Victor Hugo's "Sara la baigneuse".

Ludwig August von Frankl

Ludwig August Ritter von Frankl-Hochwart (February 3, 1810, in Chrast, Bohemia – March 12, 1894, in Vienna) was a Jewish Bohemian-Austrian writer and poet. He was a friend of Nikolaus Lenau. Also, he corresponded with Petar II Petrovic Njegos of Montenegro before he died in 1851. Frankl's Gusle, Serbische Nationallieder was dedicated to Vuk Karadžić's daughter in 1852. His object was to present some of the songs in Vuk which had not yet been translated, and he took the greatest pains to reproduce in German the metrical effect of the Serbian original.His son is Lothar von Frankl-Hochwart.

Maria Cunțan

Maria Cunțan (February 7, 1862–November 23, 1935) was an Imperial Austrian-born Romanian poet.

Born in Sibiu, her father Dimitrie, originally from Dobârca, was a Romanian Orthodox priest, composer and professor of liturgical music and Typicon at the city's seminary. The family was artistically inclined, and Maria's two younger sisters pursued musical careers. She attended primary school and the foreign languages institute in her native city, making her debut in Tribuna in 1891. In this period, she was devoted to the early work of George Coșbuc, holding literary and musical soirées at her home where she would read his poems. Among the participants was the then-student Ilarie Chendi, who helped launch her career.Various magazines published Cunțan's work both in her native country, which had become Austria-Hungary, and in the Romanian Old Kingdom. These include Convorbiri literare, Curierul literar, Foaia poporului, Flacăra, Luceafărul, Revista noastră, Revista scriitoarei, Sămănătorul, Sburătorul and Viața literară și artistică. She sometimes used the pen names Liliac and Rim. Some of her compositions imitated Heinrich Heine and Nikolaus Lenau; she also translated Friedrich Schiller's Maid of Orleans in 1909. Her original work appeared in three books: Poezii (1901), Poezii (1905) and Din caierul vremii (two volumes, 1916). In 1909, she joined the new Romanian Writers' Society as one of four female members, out of a total 47. Her father died the following year, plunging her into grief. Cunțan settled in the Old Kingdom capital of Bucharest in 1915, working as a charity nurse during World War I. She continued publishing for some years after the war, but eventually stopped, living out her days in the sunless room of an almshouse. Cunțan died in 1935, her funeral attended by a small group of friends that included Nicolae Iorga. During her life and in the decades that followed, critical opinion of her work was divided, with Chendi, Iorga, Sextil Pușcariu, Titu Maiorescu, Garabet Ibrăileanu and Radu Gyr viewing it with varying degrees of favorability, while George Călinescu and Eugen Lovinescu tended to be dismissive.

Matilda Cugler-Poni

Matilda Cugler-Poni (April 2, 1851 – September 9, 1931) was a Romanian poet.

Born in Iași, her parents were Carol von Cugler, an architect of Austrian origin, and his wife Matilda (née Hefner), of Czech origin. She had a careful education under the guidance of private tutors; this included extensive readings in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Romanian literature. She was the first woman who was actively involved in a literary circle in Romania, the prestigious Junimea. Her first published work was the poem "Unei tinere fete" ("To a Young Girl"), which appeared in 1867 in Convorbiri Literare, Junimea's journal, which went on to run her verses until 1893. She also submitted writings for Familia, Columna lui Traian, Albina, Tribuna and Viața Românească.Cugler-Poni belonged to the first group of convorbirist poets, who authored sentimental verses. A representative work was the 1874 book Poezii. Together with Veronica Micle, she was a modest precursor of feminine lyricism. Romantic in the fashion of Heinrich Heine and Nikolaus Lenau, her poems speak of longing, abandonment and betrayal. She also authored naturalist short stories that dealt with suburban tramps, craftsmen or small merchants from a moralist viewpoint. In 1881, she published a two-act comedy, Un tutor.Her first husband was the philologist Vasile Burlă; she later married chemist Petru Poni.

Mephisto Polka

The Mephisto Polka (S. 217) is a piece of program music written in folk-dance style for solo piano by Franz Liszt in 1882–83. The work's program is the same as that of the same composer's four Mephisto Waltzes, written respectively in 1859–60, 1880–81, 1882 and 1885 and based on the legend of Faust, not by Goethe but by Nikolaus Lenau (1802–50). The following program note, which Liszt took from Lenau, appears in the printed score of the Mephisto Waltz No. 1:

There is a wedding feast in progress in the village inn, with music, dancing, carousing. Mephistopheles and Faust pass by, and Mephistopheles induces Faust to enter and take part in the festivities. Mephistopheles snatches the fiddle from the hands of a lethargic fiddler and draws from it indescribably seductive and intoxicating strains. The amorous Faust whirls about with a full-blooded village beauty in a wild dance; they waltz in mad abandon out of the room, into the open, away into the woods. The sounds of the fiddle grow softer and softer, and the nightengale warbles his love-laden song.

The first recording of this piece was by France Clidat in her traversal of Liszt's works for Decca.

Nikolaus Lenau High School

Nikolaus Lenau High School (German: Nikolaus-Lenau-Lyzeum, Romanian: Liceul Teoretic „Nikolaus Lenau”) is a German language high school, located in Timişoara, Romania. The school was founded in 1870 and is named after the 19th century romantic poet Nikolaus Lenau who was born in the nearby village of Lenauheim.

Besides high school education (Lyzealklassen), the school additionally offers primary education (Grundschulklassen) and intermediate education (Gymnasialklassen) using German as the medium of instruction for the most part. The Nikolaus-Lenau-Lyzeum is currently considered the most important German language high school of the Banat region.Novelist Herta Müller, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature, graduated from the school. Physicist Stefan W. Hell, who shared the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, attended ninth grade there before emigrating to West Germany. In 1962, guitarist Bela Kamocsa, who was a student at Lenau and a drummer for the local orchestra, met fellow musician Nicu Covaci, who had been hired by one of the band leaders to produce and perform a school concert, founding Transsylvania Phoenix during the production process.

Notturno (Schoeck)

Notturno (German: Notturno: Fünf Sätze für Bariton und Streichquartett) is a song cycle for baritone and string quartet by Swiss composer Othmar Schoeck (1886-1957). It was composed between 1931 and 1933, and was published as his Op. 47.

It consists of musical settings of nine poems by the Austrian poet Nikolaus Lenau (1802-1850) and of one by the Swiss poet Gottfried Keller (1819-1890). It is in 14 sections: the German title Fünf Sätze (i.e. "Five pieces", or "movements") refers to the fact that the vocal settings fall into five groups, four of poems by Lenau and one of the poem by Keller, separated by instrumental interludes.

"Sieh dort den Berg mit seinem Wiesenhange" (Lenau)

"Sieh hier den Bach, anbei die Waldesrose" (Lenau)

Andante appassionato (string quartet alone)

"Die dunklen Wolken hingen" (Lenau)

"Sahst du ein Glück vorübergehn" (Lenau)

Presto (string quartet alone)

"Der Traum war so wild" (Lenau)

"Es weht der Wind so kühl" (Lenau)

"Rings ein Verstummen, ein Entfärben" (Lenau)

"Ach, wer möchte einsam trinken" (Lenau)

Allegretto (string quartet alone)

"O Einsamkeit! wie trink' ich gerne" (Lenau)

Allegretto tranquillo (string quartet alone)

"Heerwagen, mächtig Sternbild der Germanen" (Keller)The cycle is late romantic in style, dark, chromatic and expressionist in character. It falls into five sections: Ruhig, a nature scene, on the death of love; Presto, a nightmare; Unruhig bewegt, memories of a dead friend; Ruhig und leise, birds and nature remind the poet of the death of a friend; Rasch und kräftig, quasi recit., the poet seeks solitude, looks to the stars, and begs for rest.According to Schoeck's biographer Chris Walton, Alban Berg had words of praise for Notturno. The work was premiered in 1933. It remained almost unnoticed until 1967, when Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau and the Juilliard Quartet introduced it to New York. Critic Miles Kastendieck wrote that, "Notturno stems from Mahler", and that the work evidenced "a surprisingly sustained melodic strength. ... Schoeck communicated something of himself, so that frequently at the end of a song he fashioned its cadence quite beautifully. Thus his final evocation achieved a tranquility most sensitively expressed". The same artists made the premier recording, in 1968. Music critic Alex Ross has described the final section, in which the poet addresses the Heerwagen (army wagon, the constellation Ursa Major), as "wrenchingly beautiful".A typical performance takes about 38 minutes.

Seven Early Songs (Berg)

The Seven Early Songs (Sieben frühe Lieder) (c. 1905 – 1908), are early compositions of Alban Berg, written while he was under the tutelage of Arnold Schoenberg. They are an interesting synthesis combining Berg's heritage of pre-Schoenberg song writing with the rigour and undeniable influence of Schoenberg. The writing very much carries with it the heritage of Richard Strauss (although the influences of a number of other composers can be discerned – Gustav Mahler and Hugo Wolf for example, as well as Claude Debussy's harmonic palette in evidence in "Nacht"), through the expansiveness of gesture and 'opening of new vistas,' and that of Richard Wagner. The songs were first written for a medium voice and piano; the composer himself revised them in 1928 for high voice and orchestra.

Siegfried Wagner

Siegfried Wagner (6 June 1869 – 4 August 1930) was a German composer and conductor, the son of Richard Wagner. He was an opera composer and the artistic director of the Bayreuth Festival from 1908 to 1930.


Stockerau (German pronunciation: [ʃtɔkəˈʁaʊ]) is a town in the district of Korneuburg in Lower Austria, Austria. Stockerau has 15.921 Citizens, which makes it the largest town in the Weinviertel. Stockerau is also called "Lenaustadt" (Lenau City) because the Austrian poet Nikolaus Lenau often spent time with his grandparents here.


Weltschmerz (from the German, literally world-pain, also world weariness, pronounced [ˈvɛltʃmɛɐ̯ts]) is a term coined by the German author Jean Paul and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who believes that physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind. This kind of world view was widespread among several romantic and decadent authors such as Lord Byron, Oscar Wilde, William Blake, the Marquis de Sade, Charles Baudelaire, Giacomo Leopardi, Paul Verlaine, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alfred de Musset, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolaus Lenau, Hermann Hesse, and Heinrich Heine.Frederick C. Beiser defines Weltschmerz more broadly as "a mood of weariness or sadness about life arising from the acute awareness of evil and suffering", and notes that by the 1860s the word was used ironically in Germany to refer to oversensitivity to those same concerns.

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