Nikolaus Gross

Blessed Nikolaus Gross (German: Groß) (30 September 1898 – 23 January 1945) was a German Roman Catholic.[1] Gross first worked in professions requiring skilled labor before becoming a coal miner like his father while joining a range of trade union and political movements.[2] But he soon settled on becoming a journalist before he got married while World War II prompted him to become a resistance fighter in the time of the Third Reich and for his anti-violent rhetoric and approach to opposing Adolf Hitler. He was also one of those implicated and arrested for the assassination attempt on Hitler despite not being involved himself.[3][4]

His cause for sainthood saw it acknowledged that Gross had died in 1945 "in odium fidei" (in hatred of the faith) which allowed for Pope John Paul II to preside over the beatification for the murdered journalist on 7 October 2001 in Saint Peter's Square.

Blessed
Nikolaus Gross
Nikolaus Groß Ikone sel.gesprochen 2001
Layman; Martyr
Born30 September 1898
Niederwenigern, Hattingen, German Empire
Died23 January 1945 (aged 46)
Plötzensee prison, Berlin, Nazi Germany
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Beatified7 October 2001, Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City by Pope John Paul II
Feast15 January
AttributesPalm

Life

Nikolaus und Elisabeth Groß
Nikolaus and his wife Elisabeth.

Nikolaus Gross was born in Niederwenigern on 30 September 1898 to a miner; he was baptized on 2 October and he attended the local Catholic school from 1905 until 1912.[4]

Gross first worked in a plate rolling mill as a grinder (1912–15) and then as a coal miner like his father before him from 1915 until 1920. In June 1917 he joined the Christian Mineworkers' Trade Union and in 1918 joined a Christian political movement. On 6 June 1919 he joined the Saint Anthony's Miners' Association.[4][2]

He furthered his education in evening courses at the Volksverein für das katholische Deutschland and in 1920 gave up his job as a miner and worked for the Christian Mineworkers' Trade Union ("Gewerkverein Christlicher Bergarbeiter") in Oberhausen in a secretarial role from July 1920 until June 1921. From July 1921 until May 1922 he was an assistant editor at the union newspaper known as the "Bergknappen" in Essen.[1][4] From June 1922 until October 1922 he was a trade union secretarial worker in Waldenburg in Lower Silesia and afterwards in Zwickau and then at (December 1924 to December 1926) Bottrop. In January 1927 he changed jobs to become the assistant editor at the Westdeutsche Arbeiterzeitung which was the organizational organ of the Katholische Arbeitnehmer-Bewegung ("Catholic Workers' Movement" or K.A.B.) before soon becoming the general editor in 1929.[3][2] The Westdeutsche Arbeiterzeitung stood out as a paper that was critical of the Nazis. After the elections in March 1933 the paper was banned for three weeks. In the beginning of 1935 the paper bore the name Kettelerwacht and was banned once and for all on 19 November 1938 but he continued to publish an underground edition to expose the lies of propaganda. Gross took over the leadership of the Düsseldorf K.A.B. for its secretarial worker had been called into the Wehrmacht. His activities were linked with travels which would be a help to him in his upcoming resistance activities. He also represented the K.A.B. at Catholic conferences.[1][4]

He had good friends from the K.A.B. as well as trade unions and the Christian politicians and all would discuss alternatives to the Nazi regime in the so-called Cologne Circle which was meeting in the K.A.B.'s center called the Kettelerhaus in Cologne no later than 1942. This group worked with those in Berlin about Carl Friedrich Goerdeler and took part in his personal plans for the time after Adolf Hitler was out of office should that have happened.[4][3]

Gross later became engaged to Elisabeth Koch (11.03.1901-21.02.1971) and the two later married on 24 May 1923. The pair had seven children:[2]

  • Nikolaus Heinrich (1925-2005)
  • Bernhardine Elisabeth (1926-2015)
  • Marianne (b. 1927)
  • Liesel (b. 1929)
  • Alexander (b. 1931)
  • Bernhard (b. 1934)
  • Helene (b. 1939)[2]

In 1940 he endured interrogations and house searches since he was being monitored at the time. On 12 August 1944 he was arrested sometime towards noon in connection with the failed plot to kill Hitler at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia. He was first taken to Ravensbrück and then to Berlin at the Tegel prison (from September 1944) where his wife visited him twice and reported the torture done to a hand and both his arms.[4] From prison he sent letters to his wife including the farewell letter just moments before he died.[3] On 15 January 1945 he was sentenced to death at the Volksgerichtshof (Roland Freisler condemned him) and was hanged on 23 January 1945 at the Plötzensee prison in Berlin. His remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at a sewage plant.[1][4][2] He died soon after the Servant of God Eugen Bolz who was imprisoned in the same prison.

Beatification and other honors

Hattingen Niederwenigern - Domplatz - Nikolaus-Groß-Haus 02 ies
Sign at the Nikolaus-Groß-Haus (museum) in Niederwenigern.
Spockhövel Haßlinghausen - Nikolaus-Groß-Platz 01 ies
Nikolaus Groß memorial in Sprockhövel-Haßlinghausen.

The beatification process commenced on 19 January 1988 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued the official "nihil obstat" to the cause and titled Gross as a Servant of God; but it would be a decade until the actual diocesan phase of investigation opened in the Essen diocese on 12 November 1996 which later closed on 12 October 1997. The C.C.S. validated the diocesan phase in Rome on 13 November 1998 and received the Positio dossier in 2000 for investigation. The theologians approved the dossier's contents on 25 May 2001 as did the members of the C.C.S. on 3 July 2001. Pope John Paul II confirmed on 7 July 2001 that Gross had been killed "in odium fidei" (in hatred of the faith) and so beatified Gross in Saint Peter's Square on 7 October 2001.

The current postulator for the cause (since 1996) is Dr. Andrea Ambrosi.

There is a museum dedicated to Nikolaus Gross in Niederwenigern. In 1948 a street in Cologne was named in his honor and streets were named after him in places such as Berlin and Essen amongst others. A chapel was dedicated to him on 10 October 2004, and a memorial stone in Gelsenkirchen-Buer on 26 October 2003.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Blessed Nikolaus Gross". Saints SQPN. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Gross, Nikolaus, Bl". Encyclopedia.com. 2003. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "Blessed Nikolaus Gross". Santi e Beati. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Bl. Nikolaus Gross". Holy See. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

External links

1945

1945 (MCMXLV)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1945th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 945th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1940s decade. This year also marks the end of the Second World War, the deadliest conflict in human history.

Bernhard Letterhaus

Bernhard Letterhaus (10 July 1894, Barmen – 14 November 1944) was a German Catholic Trade Unionist and member of the resistance to Nazism.

He grew up in Barmen, Wuppertal and after an apprenticeship in a textile factory, he was an active member of the Association of Christian textile workers. He served in World War I and was then secretary of the Catholic Labour Movement in Mönchengladbach. He moved to Cologne where he was in contact with Nikolaus Gross a fellow catholic opponent of the Nazis.

He was conscripted into the Wehrmacht upon the outbreak of World War II. Upon posting to the OKW in Berlin he developed contacts with the 20 July plot conspirators including Carl Goerdeler's group. If the attempt to assassinate Hitler had succeeded he was earmarked to be the Reconstruction Minister. He was arrested in its aftermath, tried by the People's Court, sentenced to death by Roland Freisler and executed at Plötzensee Prison the next day.

Catholic Church and Nazi Germany

Popes Pius XI (1922–39) and Pius XII (1939–58) led the Roman Catholic Church through the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. Around a third of Germans were Catholic in the 1930s. The Church in Germany had spoken against the rise of Nazism, but the Catholic aligned Centre Party capitulated in 1933 and was banned. In the various 1933 elections the percentage of Catholics voting for the Nazis party was remarkably lower than the average. Nazi key ideologue Alfred Rosenberg was banned on the index of the Inquisition, presided by later pope Pius XII. Adolf Hitler and several key Nazis had been raised Catholic, but became hostile to the Church in adulthood. While Article 24 of the NSDAP party platform called for conditional toleration of Christian denominations and the 1933 Reichskonkordat treaty with the Vatican purported to guarantee religious freedom for Catholics, the Nazis were essentially hostile to Christianity and the Catholic Church faced persecution in Nazi Germany. Its press, schools and youth organisations were closed, much property confiscated and around one third of its clergy faced reprisals from authorities. Catholic lay leaders were targeted in the Night of the Long Knives purge. The Church hierarchy attempted to co-operate with the new government, but in 1937, the Papal Encyclical Mit brennender Sorge accused the government of "fundamental hostility" to the church.

Among the most courageous demonstrations of opposition inside Germany were the 1941 sermons of Bishop August von Galen of Münster. Nevertheless, wrote Alan Bullock "[n]either the Catholic Church nor the Evangelical Church... as institutions, felt it possible to take up an attitude of open opposition to the regime". In every country under German occupation, priests played a major part in rescuing Jews, but Catholic resistance to mistreatment of Jews in Germany was generally limited to fragmented and largely individual efforts. Mary Fulbrook wrote that when politics encroached on the church, Catholics were prepared to resist, but that the record was otherwise patchy and uneven, and that, with notable exceptions, "it seems that, for many Germans, adherence to the Christian faith proved compatible with at least passive acquiescence in, if not active support for, the Nazi dictatorship".Catholics fought on both sides in the Second World War. Hitler's invasion of predominantly Catholic Poland ignited the conflict in 1939. Here, especially in the areas of Poland annexed to the Reich—as in other annexed regions of Slovenia and Austria—Nazi persecution of the church was intense. Many clergy were targeted for extermination. Through his links to the German Resistance, Pope Pius XII warned the Allies of the planned Nazi invasion of the Low Countries in 1940. From that year, the Nazis gathered priest-dissidents in a dedicated clergy barracks at Dachau, where 95 percent of its 2,720 inmates were Catholic (mostly Poles, and 411 Germans) and 1,034 priests died there. Expropriation of church properties surged from 1941.

The Vatican, surrounded by Fascist Italy, was officially neutral during the war, but used diplomacy to aid victims and lobby for peace. Vatican Radio and other media spoke out against atrocities. While Nazi antisemitism embraced modern pseudo-scientific racial principles, ancient antipathies between Christianity and Judaism contributed to European antisemitism. During the Nazi era, the Church rescued many thousands of Jews by issuing false documents, lobbying Axis officials, hiding them in monasteries, convents, schools and elsewhere; including in the Vatican and papal residence at Castel Gandolfo. The Pope's role during this period is contested. The Reich Security Main Office called Pius XII a "mouthpiece" of the Jews. His first encyclical, Summi Pontificatus, called the invasion of Poland an "hour of darkness", his 1942 Christmas address denounced race murders and his Mystici corporis Christi encyclical (1943) denounced the murder of the handicapped.

Christian left

The Christian left is a range of centre-left and left-wing Christian political and social movements that largely embrace social justice viewpoints and uphold a social gospel. Given the inherent diversity in international political thought, the term can have different meanings and applications in different countries. Although there is some overlap, the Christian left is distinct from liberal Christianity, meaning not all Christian leftists are liberal Christians, and vice versa. Some Christian leftists have socially conservative views on social issues but lean left on economic issues.

German resistance to Nazism

German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945. Some of these engaged in active resistance with plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power by assassination and overthrow his regime.

The term German resistance should not be understood as meaning that there was a united resistance movement in Germany at any time during the Nazi period, analogous to the more coordinated Polish Underground State, Greek Resistance, Yugoslav Partisans, French Resistance, Dutch Resistance, Norwegian resistance movement and Italian Resistance. The German resistance consisted of small and usually isolated groups. They were unable to mobilize political opposition. Except for individual attacks on Nazis (including Hitler) or sabotage acts, the only real strategy was to persuade leaders of the Wehrmacht to stage a coup against the regime: the 1944 assassination attempt against Hitler was intended to trigger such a coup.Approximately 77,000 German citizens were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, People's Courts and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which enabled them to engage in subversion and conspiracy; in addition, the Canadian historian Peter Hoffman counts unspecified "tens of thousands" in concentration camps who were either suspected of or actually engaged in opposition. By contrast, the German historian Hans Mommsen wrote that resistance in Germany was "resistance without the people" and that the number of those Germans engaged in resistance to the Nazi regime was very small. The resistance in Germany included German citizens of non-German ethnicity, such as members of the Polish minority who formed resistance groups like Olimp.

Gross (surname)

Gross is a surname of German, Prussian, and Yiddish origin. The word means "big", "tall" or "great", and was likely adopted in Europe over the 15th to 19th centuries during the times of the House of Habsburg when monarchs of the royal families (Emperor or Empress) were called "the Great" (der Groß). Descendants of this House may have adopted the name Gross from their ancestors. In Germany, the name is usually spelled Groß, which is the correct spelling under German orthographic rules. German-speaking Christian hymns use references to Jesus as "Mein Herr ist Groß" (My Lord is Great) or "So Groß ist der Herr" (So Great is the Lord). In Switzerland, the name is spelled Gross. Some Germans and Austrians also use the spelling with "ss" instead of "ß".

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No. 5 Fighter Sector RAAF

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No. 5 Squadron RNZAF

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No. 666 Squadron RCAF

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No. 68 AT Grenade

No. 68 Squadron RAF

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No. 69 Squadron RAF

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No. 73 Squadron RAF

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No. 76 Special Incendiary Grenade

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No. 83 Group RAF

No. 83 Squadron RAF

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No. 9 Operational Group RAAF

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Nobuaki "Warren" Iwatake

Nobuo Fujita

Nobutaka Shiōden

Nobutake Kondō

Nobuyoshi Mutō

Nobuyuki Abe

Nobuzo Tohmatsu

Noctilien

Noel Agazarian

Noel Beresford-Peirse

Noel Gayler

Noel Irwin

Noel Mason-Macfarlane

Noel Purcell (water polo player)

Nogi Maresuke

Noisy-le-Sec (Paris RER)

Nomasu Nakaguma

Non-British personnel in the RAF during the Battle of Britain

Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League

None but the Brave

None Shall Escape

Noor Inayat Khan

Nora Levin

Norbert Čapek

Norbert Barlicki

Norbert Brainin

Norbert Eschmann

Norbert Jokl

Norbert Rillieux

Norbert Wollheim

Norberto Ceresole

Nordahl Grieg

Norden bombsight

Nordic race

Nordic Reich Party

Nordin Jbari

Nordstrom Sisters

Norfolk County Division

Norihiro Yasue

Norm Van Brocklin

Norman Augustus Finch

Norman Baillie-Stewart

Norman Bethune

Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett

Norman Bottomley

Norman C. Skogstad

Norman Cleaveland

Norman Cohn

Norman Cota

Norman Cyril Jackson

Norman Dike

Norman Fell

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.

Norman Francis Vandivier

Norman Harvey

Norman Howard Cliff

Norman Igo

Norman Jewison

Norman Jones (politician)

Norman Lear

Norman Lowell

Norman Mailer

Norman Mineta

Norman Miscampbell

Norman Pritchard

Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings

Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr.

Norman Scott

Norman Slater

Norman Smith (record producer)

Norman Sylla

Norman Taylor

Norman Wisdom

Norman Wodehouse

Norman Wylie

Norman Yardley

Normandie-Niemen

Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial

Normandy Landings

Norodom Sihanouk

Norris Bradbury

North African Campaign timeline

North African Campaign

North American A-27

North American A-36

North American B-25 Survivors

North American BT-9

North Atlantic Division

North Carolina-class battleship

North Caucasian Front

North Chahar Incident

North Eastern Area air defence command

North Karelian Group

North Point Camp

North Sea Fleet

North Weald Airfield

North West Europe Campaign

Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army

Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army

Northeast Indian Railways during World War II

Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army

Northeastern Army

Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army

Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army

Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters

Northern Combat Area Command

Northern District Army (Japan)

Northern Expedition (1926–1927)

Northern Front (Soviet Union)

Northern League (neo-Nazi)

Northern Pursuit

Northern Territory Force

Northern Transylvania

Northover projector

Northumberland County Division

Northwest Staging Route

Northwest Territorial Imperative

Northwestern Front

Norton Air Force Base

Norton Fitzwarren

Norton Knatchbull, 6th Baron Brabourne

Nortraship

Norway Debate

Norwegian Campaign order of battle

Norwegian Campaign

Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities

Norwegian heavy water sabotage

Norwegian Independent Company 1

Norwegian POW Museum

Norwegian Resistance Movement

Norwegian resistance movement

Norwegian Righteous Among the Nations

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notable real and alleged Ku Klux Klan members in national politics

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (Paris Métro)

Notre-Dame-des-Champs (Paris Métro)

Notre Dame de Paris

Noua Dreaptă

Nourdin Boukhari

Noureddine Naybet

Nouvelle Athènes

November 9th Society

Novgorod Army Operational Group

Nowogródzka Cavalry Brigade

Nowy Kurier Warszawski

Nozu Michitsura

Noël Bas

Noël Coward

Noël Delberghe

Noël Hallé

Noël Lee

Noëlle Cordier

NR-40

NRA Battalion

NRA Brigade

NRA Company

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Number 13-class battleship

Number of deaths in Buchenwald

Number the Stars

Numbered Air Force

Nur für Deutsche

Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy

Nuremberg Code

Nuremberg Diary

Nuremberg Laws

Nuremberg Principles

Nuremberg Rally

Nuremberg Trials (film)

Nuremberg Trials

Nurken Abdirov

Nyoko-dō Hermitage

Nyssa Raatko

Népomucène Lemercier

Néstor Fabbri

Néstor Guillén

Lebach

Lebach is a town in the district of Saarlouis, in Saarland, Germany. It is situated approximately 15 km northeast of Saarlouis, and 20 km north of Saarbrücken. As of 2012, its population was 19,456.

List of members of the 20 July plot

On 20 July 1944, Adolf Hitler and his top military associates entered the briefing hut of the Wolf's Lair military headquarters, a series of concrete bunkers and shelters located deep in the forest East Prussia, not far from the World War I Battle of Tannenberg. Suddenly there was an enormous explosion, which killed three officers and a stenographer, and injured everyone else. This assassination attempt was the work of Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, an aristocrat who had been severely wounded – losing his right hand, left eye, and two fingers of his left hand – while serving in the North African theater of war.The bomb plot was a carefully planned coup d'état attempt against the Nazi regime, orchestrated by a group of disillusioned army officers. Their plan was to assassinate Hitler, seize power in Berlin, establish a new pro-Western government and save Germany from the total defeat.Immediately after arresting and executing the plot leaders in Berlin, the Gestapo, the secret police force of Nazi Germany, began arresting people involved or even suspected of being involved. The opportunity was also used to eliminate other Nazi critics remaining. In total, an estimated 7,000 people were arrested of which approximately 4,980 were executed, some slowly strangled with piano wire on Hitler's insistence. Among those executed were three field marshals, nineteen generals, twenty-six colonels, two ambassadors, seven diplomats, one minister and three secretaries of state, as well as the head of the Berlin police. This is a list of people who were identified at the time as being involved in the coup attempt.

List of people beatified by Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II beatified 1,327 people. The names listed below are from the Vatican website and are listed by year, then date. The locations given are the locations of the beatification ceremonies, not necessarily the birthplaces or homelands of the beatified.

Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany

The Roman Catholic Church suffered persecution in Nazi Germany. The Nazis claimed jurisdiction over all collective and social activity and the party leadership hoped to dechristianize Germany in the long term. Clergy were watched closely, and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps. Welfare institutions were interfered with or transferred to state control. Catholic schools, press, trade unions, political parties and youth leagues were eradicated. Anti-Catholic propaganda and "morality" trials were staged. Monasteries and convents were targeted for expropriation. Prominent Catholic lay leaders were murdered, and thousands of Catholic activists were arrested.

In all, an estimated one third of German priests faced some form of reprisal in Nazi Germany and 400 German priests were sent to the dedicated Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp. Persecution of the Church in Germany was at its most severe in the annexed Polish regions. Here the Nazis set about systematically dismantling the Church and most priests were murdered, deported or forced to flee. Of 2,720 clergy imprisoned at Dachau from Germany and occupied territories, the some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic.

Nicholas Magni

Nicholas Magni (Nicolaus Magni de Iawor, Mikuláš Magni z Jawora, Nikolaus Groß von Jauer) (c. 1355 – 22 March 1435) was a late medieval theologian, a professor at Heidelberg University.

Born in Jawor, Silesia, he studied in Vienna (1377) and Prague under Matthew of Krakow (from 1378, baccalaureus 1392, magister artium 1395), from 1397 rector of Prague University. In 1402, he went to Heidelberg, where he was likewise made rector in 1406. He also represented the university at the Council of Constance 1414–1418, where he argued for a reform of the Church and the clergy.

His 1405 Tractatus de supersticionibus enjoyed great popularity throughout the 15th century, and survives in 80 manuscripts, but its influence did not extend beyond the end of the century, being superseded by the 1487 Malleus maleficarum, and was never printed.

Niederwenigern

Niederwenigern is a small borough of the city of Hattingen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated on the river Ruhr, 4 km east of Kupferdreh (a borough of Essen) and 3 km west of the center of Hattingen. The population is about 6,000 and before 1926, it was an independent municipality. Niederwenigern has a large 19th century Roman Catholic church, the St. Mauritius Church. There is also a Lutheran-Evangelical Protestant church. There is also a museum dedicated to Nikolaus Groß, a Catholic and trade union resistance fighter in the time of the Third Reich.

Niederwenigern has two kindergartens, two primary schools and some smaller shops for daily needs. Famous is the yearly "Mauritius Kirmes", a typical small fun fair celebrated at the end of September in relation to the saint's day of St.Mauritius. Its popularity is founded in the fact that a lot of (former) residents come back to Niederwenigern at this weekend to meet old friends. The fair lasts three days (Saturday through Monday).

Otto Müller (priest)

Fr. Otto Müller (English: Otto Mueller) (1870-1944) was a German Roman Catholic priest, active in the Christian Worker's movement and the German Resistance against Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime. Implicated in the July Plot, Müller died in custody in 1944.

Plötzensee Prison

Plötzensee Prison (German: Justizvollzugsanstalt Plötzensee, JVA Plötzensee) is a men's prison in the Charlottenburg-Nord locality of Berlin with a capacity for 577 prisoners, operated by the State of Berlin judicial administration. The detention centre established in 1868 has a long history; it became notorious during the Nazi era as one of the main sites of capital punishment, where about 3,000 inmates were executed. Famous inmates include East Germany's last communist leader Egon Krenz.

Saarlouis (district)

Saarlouis (Sarrelouis in French) is a Kreis (district) in the middle of the Saarland, Germany. Neighboring districts are Merzig-Wadern, Sankt Wendel, Neunkirchen, Saarbrücken, and the French département Moselle.

Stephan Reimertz

Stephan Reimertz (born 4 March 1962) is a German poet, essayist, novelist and art historian. His poems, aphorisms, essays, novels and biographies circulate through the idea of an authentic, self-determined life in the face of modernity and ask the question if contemporary life can still be sounded historically and grasped philosophically.

White Rose

The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the Third Reich led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign which called for active opposition to the Nazi party regime. Their activities started in Munich on 27 June 1942, and ended with the arrest of the core group by the Gestapo on 18 February 1943. They, as well as other members and supporters of the group who carried on distributing the pamphlets, faced show trials by the Nazi People's Court (Volksgerichtshof), and many of them were sentenced to death or imprisonment.

The group wrote, printed and initially distributed their pamphlets in the greater Munich region. Later on, secret carriers brought copies to other cities, mostly in the southern parts of Germany. In total, the White Rose authored six leaflets, which were multiplied and spread, in a total of about 15,000 copies. They denounced the Nazi regime's crimes and oppression, and called for resistance. In their second leaflet, they openly denounced the persecution and mass murder of the Jews. By the time of their arrest, the members of the White Rose were just about to establish contacts with other German resistance groups like the Kreisau Circle or the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack group of the Red Orchestra. Today, the White Rose is well-known both within Germany and worldwide.

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