Nigerian naira

The naira (sign: ; code: NGN) is the currency of Nigeria. It is subdivided into 100 kobo.

The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is the sole issuer of legal tender money throughout the Nigerian Federation. It controls the volume of money supplied in the economy in order to ensure monetary and price stability. The Currency & Branch Operations Department of the CBN is in charge of currency management, through the procurement, distribution/supply, processing, reissue and disposal/disintegration of bank notes and coins.

Nigerian naira
ISO 4217
Banknotes₦5, ₦10, ₦20, ₦50, ₦100, ₦200, ₦500, ₦1000
Coins50 kobo, ₦1, ₦2
User(s) Nigeria
Central bankCentral Bank of Nigeria
PrinterNigerian Security Printing and Minting Company Limited
MintNigerian Security Printing and Minting Company Limited


The naira was introduced on 1 January 1973, replacing the pound at a rate of 2 naira = 1 pound.[2] This made Nigeria the last former British colony to abandon the £sd currency system in favour of the decimal currency system. There was a plan to redenominate the naira at 1 new naira = 100 old naira in 2008, but the plan was suspended. The currency sign is U+20A6 NAIRA SIGN. The name naira is simply a contraction of "Nigeria", while the subdivision, kobo, is a local pronunciation of English "copper."

Rampant inflation has occurred in Nigeria. The Central Bank of Nigeria claimed that they attempted to control the annual inflation rate below 10%. In 2011, the CBN increased key interest rate 6 times, rising from 6.25% to 12%. On 31 January 2012, the CBN decided to maintain the key interest rate at 12%, in order to reduce the impact of inflation due to reduction in fuel subsidies.[3]

As of 20 June 2016, the naira was allowed to float, after being pegged at 197 to one US dollar for several months. Trades speculated the natural range of the naira would be between 280 and 350 to the dollar.[4]


Nigeria's kobo
Nigerian coins from the colonial era until now, popularly known as "kobo"

In 1973, coins were introduced in denominations of ½, 1, 5, 10 and 25 kobo, with the ½ and 1 kobo in bronze and the higher denominations in cupro-nickel. The ½ kobo coins were minted only that year. In 1991, smaller 1, 10 and 25 kobo coins were issued in copper-plated-steel, along with nickel-plated-steel 50 kobo and 1 naira. On 28 February 2007, new coins were issued in denominations of 50 kobo, 1 and 2 naira, with the 1 and 2 naira bimetallic. Some Nigerians expressed concerns over the usability of the ₦2 coin.[5] The deadline for exchanging the old currency was set at 31 May 2007.[6] The central bank stated that the ½ to 25 kobo coins were withdrawn from circulation with effect from 28 February 2007.


On January 1, 1973, the Central Bank of Nigeria introduced notes for 50 kobo, 1, 5, 10 and 20 naira. The 50 kobo notes were last issued in 1989. In 1991, 50 naira notes were issued, followed by 100 naira in 1999, 200 naira in 2000, 500 naira in 2001 and 1000 naira on October 12, 2005.

On February 28, 2007, new versions of the 5 to 50 naira banknotes were introduced. Originally the 10, 20 and 50 naira were to be polymer banknotes,[14] but the 5,10 and 50 were delayed to late 2009 and only the 20 was released in polymer. The notes are slightly smaller (130 × 72 mm) and redesigned from the preceding issues. In mid-2009 when Sanusi Lamido Sanusi took over as CBN Governor he eventually changed the 5, 10 and 50 naira to polymer notes.

On the 1000 naira notes, there is a subtle shiny strip running down the back of the note. It is a shimmery gold colour showing 1000 naira. The triangular shape in the middle of the front of the note changes its colour from green to blue when tilted. The main feature on the front is the engraved portraits of Alhaji Aliyu Mai-Bornu and Dr Clement Isong, former governors of the Central Bank of Nigeria.

On the first prints of the 100 naira notes issued starting December 1, 1999, Zuma Rock was captioned as located in Federal Capital Territory, while actually it is situated in Niger State. Later prints removed the reference to FCT, ABUJA.[15]

In 2012 the Central Bank of Nigeria may be contemplating the introduction of new currency denominations of N5,000. The bank has also made plans to convert ₦5, ₦10, ₦20 and ₦50 into coins which are all presently notes.[16]

The Central Bank of Nigeria has announced that it will no longer issue banknotes on polymer citing higher costs and environmental issues.[17][18][19]

On November 12, 2014, the Central Bank of Nigeria issued a 100 naira commemorative note to celebrate the centennial of Nigeria's existence. The notes are similar to its regular issue with the portrait of Chief Obafemi Awolowo on front, but is redesigned to include a new color scheme, revised security features, the text "One Nigeria, Great Promise" in microprinting and on the back is a quickresponse code (QRC) which when scanned leads users to a website about Nigeria's history.[20][21]

Currently Circulating Banknotes [1]
1999–2005 Series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark first printing issue
[2] ₦100 151 × 78 mm Red and multicolour Chief Obafemi Awolowo Zuma Rock As portrait(s), "CBN", value 1999 1 December 1999
[3] ₦200 Blue and multicolour Sir Ahmadu Bello Pyramid of agricultural commodity and livestock farming 2000 1 November 2000
[4] ₦500 Purple and multicolour Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe Off-shore oil-rig 2001 4 April 2001
[5] ₦1000 Purple Alhaji Aliyu Mai-Bornu, Dr. Clement Isong CBN's corporate headquarters in Abuja 2005 12 October 2005
2006 Series (Paper and Polymer banknotes)
[6] ₦5 130 × 72 mm Mauve Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Nkpokiti dancers Central Bank of Nigeria logo, "CBN" 2006 28 February 2007
[7] ₦10 Red Mr. Alvan Ikoku Fulani milk maids
[8] ₦20 Green General Murtala Mohammed Ladi Kwali
[9] ₦50 Blue Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba men and a woman Local fishermen
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Nigeria naira
Nigerian Naira Notes

Second naira

The naira was scheduled for redenomination in August 2008, although this was cancelled by then-President Umaru Musa Yar'Adua[22]), with 100 old naira to become 1 new naira. The Nigerian Central Bank stated that it will make the naira fully convertible against foreign currencies by 2009. Currently, the amount of foreign currency is regulated through weekly auctions, while the Central Bank sets the exchange rate. The naira appreciated against the dollar through 2007 due to high oil revenues. Also, the then-Bank Governor, Professor Chukwuma Soludo noted the weekly central bank auctions of foreign currency will gradually be phased out, and that the bank would "only intervene in the market as may be required to achieve defined policy objectives".[23]


Coins were to be issued in denominations of:

  • 1 Kobo (₦0.01)
  • 2 Kobo (₦0.02)
  • 5 Kobo (₦0.05)
  • 10 Kobo (₦0.10)
  • 20 Kobo (₦0.20)


Banknotes were to be printed in denominations of:

  • 50 Kobo (₦0.50)
  • 1 Naira (₦1)
  • 5 Naira (₦5):
  • 10 Naira (₦10)
  • 20 Naira (₦20)
  • 50 naira (₦50)
  • 100 naira (₦100)
  • 200 naira (₦200)
  • 500 naira (₦500)
  • 1000 naira (₦1000)
    • 50 kobo & 1 naira— are no longer in use.
    • 5 naira - has lesser value in 2018.

Exchange rates

Rate of the Nigerian naira for 1 USD (1994–2005)

This table shows the historical value of one U.S. Dollar in Nigerian naira - PM = Parallel Market.[24]

Date Naira per US$ Date Naira per US$ Date Naira per US$
1972 0.658 1993 17.30 (21.90 PM) 2014 170–199
1973 0.658 1994 22.33 (56.80 PM) 2015 199–300
1974 0.63 1995 21.89 (71.70 PM) 2016 390–489
1975 0.616 1996 21.89 (84.58 PM) 2017 ?
1976 0.62 1997 21.89 (84.58 PM) 2018 360
1977 0.647 1998 21.89 (84.70 PM)
1978 0.606 1999 21.89 (88–90 PM)
1979 0.596 2000 85.98 (105.00 PM)
1980 0.550 (0.900 PM) 2001 99–106 (104–122 PM)
1981 0.61 2002 109–113 (122–140 PM)
1982 0.673 2003 114–127 (135–137 PM)
1983 0.724 2004 127–130 (137–144 PM)
1984 0.765 2005 132–136
1985 0.894 (1.70 PM) 2006 128.50–131.80
1986 2.02 (3.90 PM) 2007 120–125
1987 4.02 (5.90 PM) 2008 115.50–120
1988 4.54 (6.70 PM) 2009 145–171
1989 7.39 (10.70 PM) 2010 148.21–154.8
1990 7.39 (10.70 PM) 2011 151.05–165.1
1991 8.04 (9.30 PM) 2012 155.09–161.5
1992 9.91 2013 153.21–162.9
Current NGN exchange rates

See also


  1. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Home". Central Bank of Nigeria. Central Bank of Nigeria. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria:: History of The Currency".
  3. ^ "Nigeria leaves key rate at 12 pct as expected", Reuters, 31 January 2012
  4. ^ "Nigeria Floats its Currency". The Economist. 18 June 2016.
  5. ^ "Nigeria: Nigeria's New Notes And Coins". This Day. 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  6. ^ "Nigeria: New Currency - Two Per Cent of Withdrawals to Be in Coins - CBN". Vanguard. 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  7. ^ Central Bank of Nigeria. "Old Coins - 1973 Coins". Archived from the original on 2006-01-17. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  8. ^ "Welcome to the New Central Bank of Nigeria Website".
  9. ^ "Welcome to the New Central Bank of Nigeria Website".
  10. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria Website - Currency - 25 Kobo".
  11. ^ "Welcome to the New Central Bank of Nigeria Website".
  12. ^ "Welcome to the New Central Bank of Nigeria Website".
  13. ^ "Central Bank of Nigeria - Did You Find".
  14. ^ "CBN warns against fixing prices in foreign currency *To launch new notes Feb 2007". Vanguard Nigeria. 2006-11-06. Retrieved 2007-02-26.
  15. ^ "Big banknote too much for Nigeria". 29 December 1999 – via
  16. ^ CBN To Introduce N5000, N2000 Notes; N50, N20, N10 Coins Archived May 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Nigeria to abandon polymer banknotes Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine September 13, 2012. Retrieved on 2012-11-09.
  18. ^ CBN Clarifies Decision to Abandon Polymer Banknotes AllAfrica ( September 12, 2012. Retrieved on 2012-11-09.
  19. ^ Plan to Phase-out Polymer Banknotes Stirs New Controversy Archived April 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine This Day Live ( April 24, 2013. Retrieved on 2013-04-25.
  20. ^ "New ₦100 Commemorative Centenary Celebration". Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  21. ^ Nigeria new 100-naira commemorative confirmed Archived October 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine February 9, 2015. Retrieved on 2015-02-13.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-08-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Nigeria set to free its currency" Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 14 August 2007
  24. ^ "Dollar to naira Parallel Market Rate:: 1USD to Naira".

External links

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Beginning during the late 1990s economic boom, an influx of thousands of African traders and business people, predominantly from West Africa, arrived in Guangzhou and created an African community in the middle of the southern Chinese metropolis. At 2012, there was an estimation of more than 100,000 African living in Guangzhou. Since 2014, the city's African population has significantly declined due to strict immigration enforcement by Chinese authorities and economic pressures in home countries including depreciation of the Nigerian naira and Angolan kwanza.

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Biafran pound

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The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969; 3 pence, 6 pence, 1 shilling and 2½ shilling coins were minted, all made of aluminium. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios (typically at 2/6 (=.0125 GBP) for 1 pound notes in London philately/notaphily shops) and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value.

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Amounts are generally written by using the cifrão as the decimal separator, such as 2000 for 20 escudos, or 1.00000 for 1000.

Currency symbol

A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

Although several former currency symbols were rendered obsolete by the adoption of the euro, having a new and unique currency symbol – implementation of which requires the adoption of new Unicode and type formats – has now become a status symbol for international currencies. The European Commission considers the global recognition of the euro sign € part of its success. In 2009, India launched a public competition to replace the ₨ ligature it shared with neighbouring countries. It finalised its new currency symbol, ₹ (₹) on 15 July 2010. It is a blend of the Latin letter 'R' with the Devanagari letter 'र' (ra).

Egyptian pound

The Egyptian pound (Egyptian Arabic: جنيه مصرى‎ Genēh Maṣri [ɡeˈneː(h) ˈmɑsˤɾi]; sign: E£, L.E. ج.م; code: EGP) is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh (Egyptian Arabic: قرش‎ [ʔeɾʃ]; plural قروش [ʔʊˈɾuːʃ]), or 1,000 milliemes (Egyptian Arabic: مليم‎ [mælˈliːm]; French: millième).

The Egyptian pound is frequently abbreviated as LE or L.E., which stands for livre égyptienne (French for Egyptian pound). E£ and £E are commonly used on the internet. The name Genēh [ɡeˈneː(h)] is derived from the Guinea coin, which had almost the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century.

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Below is a list of the central banks and currencies of Africa.

List of circulating currencies

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List of currencies in Africa

African currency was originally formed from basic items, materials, animals and even people available in the locality to create a medium of exchange. This started to change from the 17th century onwards, as European colonial powers introduced their own monetary system into the countries they administered. As African countries achieved independence during the 20th century, some retained the new denominations that had been introduced, though others renamed their currencies for various reasons. Today inflation often creates a demand for more stable (but forbidden) foreign currency, while in rural areas the original bartering system is still in widespread usage. As of January 1, 2013, the Zambian Kwacha (ZMW) has the strongest currency in Africa.

Maradi, Niger

Maradi is the third largest city in Niger and the administrative centre of Maradi Region. It is seat of the Maradi Department and an Urban Commune.


N (named en ) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.


NGN, News Group Newspapers, the umbrella organisation for Rupert Murdoch's news empire.

NGN can mean multiple things:

Neurogenins, a family of bHLH transcription factors involved in specifying neuronal differentiation

New Game Network, a video game review website

New Generation Network, a British group and manifesto set up to challenge the current discourse of race relations in the UK

Next Generation Networking, a broad term to describe some key architectural evolutions in telecommunication core and access networks that will be deployed over the next 5–10 years

Nigerian naira, the ISO 4217 code for the currency of Nigeria

Nippon Golden Network, a Cable television network broadcasting Japanese programs in Hawaii, United States

No Good Nick, an upcoming American comedy web television series.

Noida Greater Noida Expressway, in Delhi, India

Non-geographic numbers, in the UK, telephone numbers not assigned to geographic areas or exchanges

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