Nickname

A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing - commonly used for affection.

The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment.

It is a form of endearment and amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, and also from a title (for example, City of Fountains), although there may be overlap in these concepts.

"Moniker" also means a nickname or personal name.[1].

Nicknames of the states, 1884
Map of the United States showing the state citizen nicknames as hogs. Lithograph by Mackwitz, St. Louis, 1884.

Etymology

The compound word ekename, literally meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303.[2] This word was derived from the Old English phrase eaca "an increase", related to eacian "to increase".[3] By the 15th century, the misdivision of the syllables of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename".[4] Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained relatively stable ever since.

Conventions in various languages

To inform an audience or readership of a person's nickname without actually calling them by their nickname, English nicknames are generally represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names (e.g., Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower, Daniel Lamont "Bubba" Franks, etc.). However, it is also common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or later in the body of the text, such as in an obituary (e.g., Frankie Frisch, "The Fordham Flash"). The middle name is generally eliminated (if there is one), especially in speech. Like English, German uses (German-style) quotation marks between the first and last names (e.g., Andreas Nikolaus „Niki“ Lauda). Other languages may use other conventions; for example, Italian writes the nickname after the full name followed by detto 'called' (e.g., Salvatore Schillaci detto Totò), in Spanish the nickname is written in formal contexts at the end in quotes following alias (e.g. Alfonso Tostado, alias «el Abulense»), and Slovenian represents nicknames after a dash or hyphen (e.g., Franc Rozman – Stane). The latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names.

Uses in various societies

In Viking societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn (Old Norse terms for nicknames) which were used in addition to, or instead of the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname also often entailed a formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts known in Old Norse as nafnfestr ('fastening a name').

Slaves have often used nicknames, so that the master who heard about someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as practising capoeira was illegal for decades.

In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is often based on a shortening of a person's proper name. However, in other societies, this may not necessarily be the case. For example: "my nickname is farmer Phil"

In Indian society, for example, generally people have at least one nickname (call name or affection name) and these affection names are generally not related to the person's proper name. Indian nicknames very often are a trivial word or a diminutive (such as Bablu, Dabbu, Banti, Babli, Gudiya, Golu, Sonu, Chhotu, Raju, Adi, Ritu, etc.).

In Hispanic culture, a nickname is used for a term of endearment and family love, for example: "Papi". It is a colloquial term for “daddy” in Spanish, but in many Spanish-speaking cultures, particularly in the Caribbean, it is often used as a general term of affection for any man, whether it's a relative, friend, or love.

In Australian society, Australian men will often give ironic nicknames. For example, a man with red hair will be given the nickname 'Blue' or 'Bluey'. A tall man will be called 'Shorty', an obese person 'Slim' and so on.

In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname 'Clark' will be nicknamed 'Nobby': the surname 'Miller' will have the nickname 'Dusty' (alluding to the flour dust of a miller at work): the surname 'Adams' has the nickname 'Nabby'. There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, and Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed 'Jock', an Irishman 'Paddy' (alluding to St Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland) or 'Mick' (alluding to the preponderance of Roman Catholicism in Ireland), and a Welshman may be nicknamed 'Taffy'. Some nicknames referred ironically to a person's physical characteristics, such as 'Lofty' for a short person, or 'Curly' for a bald man. Traditional English nicknaming - usually for men rather than women - was common through the first half of the 20th century, and was frequently used in the armed services during World War I and World War II, but has become less common since then.

In Chinese culture, nicknames are frequently used within a community among relatives, friends and neighbors. A typical southern Chinese nickname often begins with a "阿" followed by another character, usually the last character of the person's given name. For example, Taiwanese politician Chen Shui-bian (陈水扁) is sometimes referred as "阿扁" (A-Bian). In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may also connote one's occupation or status. For example, the landlord might be known simply as Towkay (Hokkien for "boss") to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔 (literally, Uncle Bread). Among Cantonese-speaking communities, the character "仔" (pronounced "zai") may be used in a similar context of "Junior" in Western naming practices.

Performing arts and literature

Many writers, performing artists, and actors have nicknames, which may develop into a stage name or pseudonym. A bardic name may also result from a nickname. Many writers have pen names which they use instead of their real names. Famous writers with a pen name go as far back as Plato (according to a late tradition) and Paul, and see also this List of pen names.

Sports

It is not uncommon for sportspeople or a sports team to have nicknames. Some, such as those of sports clubs or athletic teams, are official while others are adopted over time.

Computing

In the context of information technology, a nickname (usually called a nick) is a common synonym for the screen name or handle of a user. In computer networks it has become a common practice for every person to also have one or more nicknames for the purposes of pseudonymity, to avoid ambiguity, or simply because the natural name or technical address would be too long to type or take too much space on the screen.

People

Inauguration of Jimmy Carter
"I, Jimmy Carter..." James Earl Carter is sworn in as President of the United States using his nickname "Jimmy" in January 1977.

Nicknames are usually awarded to a person and they are not always chosen by the recipient themselves. Some nicknames are derogatory name calls. Note: the majority of the following examples are American English usage. Please see bullying definition. Nicknames may be based on a person's name or various attributes. Attributes upon which a nickname may be based include:

Title

Nicknames may refer to a person's occupation, social standing, or title. They may also refer to characteristics of a person.

Physical characteristics, personality, or lifestyle

Physical characteristics

Weimaraner wb
The Weimaraner's coat color led to its nickname of the "Silver Ghost".

Nicknames can be a descriptor of a physical characteristic or the opposite of a physical characteristic. In English, such nicknames are often considered offensive or derogatory, unless the nickname is based on a trait that is viewed positively. Some examples of nicknames related to physical characteristics include:

  • Weight: "Fatso" or "Slim" for a person who is overweight or thin, respectively.
  • Height: "Beanpole" or "Long John" (or other name) for a person who is tall, "Shortie" or "small-fry" for a short person.
  • Hair colour: "Red", "Ginger", "Ranga", or "Bluey" for a person with red hair. "Blondie" a girl with blonde hair.
  • Type of hair: "Curley" or "Cue Ball" for a person without hair as in "Curley" from "The Three Stooges"
  • Baldness: "Chrome dome" for a person whose scalp reflects the light
  • Complexion: "Pinky" for a person with Rosacea, "Zit" or "pizza-face" for severe acne, various racial slurs for skin color.
  • Hand dominance: "Lefty" for a left-handed person.

Sometimes nicknames are based on things that are not a part of a person's body. Such nicknames can be temporary.

  • "Four-eyes" for a person with glasses
  • "Train tracks", "tin teeth", "metal mouth", or "braceface" for a person with braces, such as Sharon Spitz on the animated series Braceface

Occasionally the description can be ironically reversed. Thus in schoolboy or army usage "Lofty" may be applied to somebody very short or "Titch" to an unusually tall person.[5]

All of the above examples would be offensive in most contexts.

Personality

Nicknames can be a descriptor of a personality characteristic or the opposite of a personality characteristic. These types of nicknames were often used in fairy tales such as "Snow White". Sometimes such nicknames may be indicative of a physical disorder.

  • Talkative: "Motormouth", "Chatterbox", "Ratchet-Jaw", "Chatty Kathy"
  • Cautious: "Nervous Nellie"
  • Tired Demeanor: "Sleepy" as in a dwarf from Snow White
  • Pessimistic: "Sad Sack"
  • Negative: "Debbie Downer"
  • Glamorous: "Stunning Sign"
  • Boring: "Plain Jane"
  • Typical: "Average Joe"
  • Strong-willed: "The Iron Lady"
  • Successful: "Superstar"

Mental characteristics

A nickname may allude to a person's apparent intelligence (though often used sarcastically):

Lifestyle

Mallon-Mary 01
Mary Mallon (1870–1938) was nicknamed "Typhoid Mary"

Other quirks

  • "Nerd" for a person who is smart
  • "Geek" for a person who is internet and online savvy

Abbreviation or modification

A nickname can be a shortened or modified variation on a person's real name.

  • Contractions of longer names: Margaret to Greta.
  • Initials: Using the first letters of a person's first and middle/last name, e.g. "DJ" for Daniel James
  • Dropping letters: With many nicknames, one or more letters, usually R, are dropped: Fanny from Frances, Walt from Walter.
  • Phonetic spelling : Sometimes a nickname is created through the phonetic spelling of a name: Len from Leonard.
  • Letter swapping: During the middle ages, the letter R would often be swapped for either L or D: Hal from Harry, Molly from Mary, Sadie from Sarah, from Robert: Hob, Dob, Rob, Bob and Nob, from Richard: Rick, Dick, and Hick; Bill from Will (which in turn comes from William), and Margaret: Peg, and Meg.
  • In 19th-century frontier America, Mary and Molly were often given the nickname Polly.

Name portions

  • Front of name: Sometimes a nickname can come from the beginning of a given name: Chris from Christopher/Christina; Ed from Edward, Edmond, Edgar or Edwin, Iz or Izzy from Isaac, Isaiah, Isidore, Isabel, or Isabella; Joe or Jo from Joseph, Josephine, or Joanna.
  • End of name: Drew from Andrew, Xander from Alexander, Enzo or Renzo from Lorenzo, Beth from Elizabeth, Bel, Bell, Bella or Belle from Isabelle/Isabella
  • Middle of name: Liz from Elizabeth, Tori from Victoria or Del or Della from Adelaide
  • Addition of diminutives: Before the 17th century, most nicknames had the diminutive ending "-in" or "-kin", where the ending was attached to the first syllable: Watkin for Walter via Wat-kin; Hobkin from Robert via Hob-kin; or Thompkin from Thomas via Thom-Kin. While most of these have died away, a few remain, such as Robin (Rob-in, from Robert), Hank (Hen-Kin from Henry), Jack (Jan-kin from John), and Colin (Col-in from Nicolas).
  • Many nicknames drop the final one or two letters and add ether ie/ee/y as a diminutive ending: Davy from David, Charlie from Charles, Mikey from Michael, Jimmy from James and Marty from Martin.
  • Initialization, which forms a nickname from a person's initials: A.C. Slater from Albert Clifford Slater, or Dubya for George W. Bush, a Texan pronunciation of the name of the letter 'W', President Bush's middle initial.
  • Nicknames are sometimes based on a person's last name ("Tommo" for Bill Thompson, "Campo" for David Campese) or a combination of first and last name such as "A-Rod" for Alex Rodriguez)
  • Loose ties to a person's name with an attached suffix: Gazza for English footballer Paul Gascoigne (though used more widely in Australia for Gary) and similar "zza" forms (Hezza, Prezza, etc.) for other prominent personalities whose activities are frequently reported in the British press. (See also Oxford "-er" for a similar but wider phenomenon.)
  • Use of the second name.
  • Combination of first and middle name, or variations of a person's first and middle name. For example, a person may have the name Mary Elizabeth but has the nickname "Maz" or "Miz" by combining Mary and Liz.

Relationship

A nickname may refer to the relationship with the person. This is a term of endearment.

  • In Japanese culture, Japanese honorifics are designed so that a term of endearment conveys the exact status of the relationship between two people. However, the recipient of the honorific is allowed to restrict the use when used by a certain person.

Surname

A few surnames have a generic and traditional nickname, at least in England. Examples of this are:

  • Nobby for Clark or Clarke
  • Dusty for Miller
  • Chalkie for White
  • Bunny for Reed
  • Yosser for Hughes

To avoid confusion between peer groups with the same given names, surnames may be used as a nickname. Also common prefixes for names can be used as a nickname:

  • Mac for someone with the name Macmillan, MacIntyre, McCarthy, M'Clure, etc.
  • Fitz for someone with the name Fitzgerald, FitzPatrick, etc.

And other variations on the surname, such as:

  • Brownie for someone with the name Brown
  • Jeff for someone with the name Geoffrey, Jeffry, Jeffrys, etc.
  • Klu (or Ski) for someone with the name Kluszewski
  • Smittie (or Smitty) for someone with the name Smith, Smythe, Goldsmith, etc.

Action/incident

A specific incident or action can sometimes generate a nickname:

  • Capability Brown because he would frequently say to a client that his landscape was "capable of improvement".
  • Chemical Ali and Comical Ali.
  • Thirteen for Dr. Remy Hadley from TV's House M.D., because she was assigned the number 13 in her job interview process and continued to be called by her number even after she was hired.
  • "Opa" for the Dutch lifesaving KNRM-hero Dorus Rijkers. Dorus became a Grandpa (Dutch:Opa), at the age of 23 (by marriage to a widow with eight children), and soon everybody called him Opa.
  • "The Falling Man" for one of the jumpers during the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

Notable/fictional character

A nickname may compare the person with a famous or fictional character.

Place of origin/residence

Sometimes, a nickname may be related to their place of origin or residence.

  • Gloucester, Paul from Gloucester or PFG for someone named Paul who comes from Gloucester.
  • Newf or Newfie a person from Newfoundland, Canada

Reputation

Nicknames may be derived from or related to what the person is well known for.

Affiliation

A person's political affiliation may be the basis for a nickname:

Hirakata Nickname road Ginkgo street
Hirakata-shi, Osaka, Japan. Nickname road "Ginkgo street"

Titles of geographical places

Many geographical places have titles, or alternative names, which have positive implications. Paris, for example, is the "City of Light", Venice is "La Serenissima", and New Jersey is the "Garden State". It is not correct to call these titles nicknames; these alternative names are often used to boost the status of such places, contrary to the usual role of a nickname. Many places or communities, particularly in the USA, adopt titles because they can help in establishing a civic identity, help outsiders recognize a community or attract people to a community, promote civic pride, and build community unity.[6] Titles and slogans that successfully create a new community "ideology or myth"[7] are also believed to have economic value.[6] Their economic value is difficult to measure,[6] but there are anecdotal reports of cities that have achieved substantial economic benefits by "branding" themselves by adopting new slogans.[7]

By contrast, older city nicknames may be critical; London is still occasionally referred to as "The Smoke" in memory of its notorious "Pea-Souper" Smogs (smoke-filled fogs) of the 19th and early 20th centuries, and Edinburgh was "Auld Reekie" for the same reason, as countless coal fires polluted its atmosphere.

Collective nicknames of inhabitants of a geographical place

Besides or replacing the demonym, some places have collective nicknames for their inhabitants. Many examples of this practice are found in Wallonia and in Belgium in general, where such a nickname is referred to in French as "Blason populaire".

See also

References

  1. ^ "dictionary". merriam-webster.
  2. ^ "eke-name, n.", OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2017, retrieved 1 September 2017
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas, Online Etymology Dictionary, retrieved 2007-08-31
  4. ^ "Nickname", Profiles in healthcare communications, 22 (4): 1, 4–9, 2, July 2006, ISSN 1931-9592, PMID 16922251, retrieved 2008-10-25
  5. ^ Sutherland, Douglas. The English Gentleman's Child. Penguin. 1981.
  6. ^ a b c Muench, David (December 1993) "Wisconsin Community Slogans: Their Use and Local Impacts" Archived 2013-03-09 at the Wayback Machine University of Wisconsin - Extension Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  7. ^ a b Andia, Alfredo (September 10, 2007) "Branding the Generic City", MU.DOT magazine

External links

  • The dictionary definition of nickname at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Nicknames at Wikimedia Commons
A Clockwork Orange

A Clockwork Orange may refer to:

A Clockwork Orange (novel), a 1962 novel by Anthony Burgess

A Clockwork Orange (film), a 1971 film directed by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel

A Clockwork Orange (soundtrack), the film's official soundtrack

A Clockwork Orange: Wendy Carlos's Complete Original Score, a 1972 album by Wendy Carlos featuring music composed for the film

A Clockwork Orange: A Play with Music, a 1987 theatrical adaptation by Anthony Burgess

Clockwork Orange (plot), a supposed 1970s operation to discredit British politicians

"Clockwork Orange", a nickname for the Glasgow Subway in Glasgow, Scotland

"Clockwork Orange", a nickname for the Dutch national football team in the early 1970s

Athletic nickname

The athletic nickname, or equivalently athletic moniker, of a university or college within the United States is the name officially adopted by that institution for at least the members of its athletic teams. Typically as a matter of engendering school spirit, the institution either officially or unofficially uses this moniker of the institution's athletic teams also as a nickname to refer to people associated with the institution, especially its current students, but also often its alumni, its faculty, and its administration as well. This practice at the university and college tertiary higher-education level has proven so popular that it extended to the high school secondary-education level in the United States and in recent years even to the primary-education level as well.

Big Ben

Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.

The tower was designed by Augustus Pugin in a neo-gothic style. When completed in 1859, its clock was the largest and most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world. The tower stands 315 feet (96 m) tall, and the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square, measuring 39 feet (12 m) on each side. Dials of the clock are 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary.Big Ben is the largest of five bells and weighs 13.5 long tons (13.7 tonnes; 15.1 short tons). It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years. The origin of the bell's nickname is open to question; it may be named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw its installation, or heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben tolls on the hour. The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism, but an electric motor can be used as a backup.

The tower is a British cultural icon recognised all over the world. It is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and parliamentary democracy, and it is often used in the establishing shot of films set in London. The clock tower has been part of a Grade I listed building since 1970 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.

On 21 August 2017, a four-year schedule of renovation works began on the tower, which are to include the addition of a lift. There are also plans to re-glaze and repaint the clock dials. With a few exceptions, such as New Year's Eve and Remembrance Sunday, the bells are to be silent until the work has been completed in the 2020s.

Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences.

Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic. Prior to the 20th century, educated Chinese also utilized a "courtesy name" or "style name" called zi (字, zì) by which they were known among those outside their family and closest friends.

From at least the time of the Shang dynasty, the Han Chinese observed a number of naming taboos regulating who may or may not use a person's given name (without being disrespectful). In general, using the given name connoted the speaker's authority and superior position to the addressee. Peers and younger relatives were barred from speaking it. Owing to this, many historical Chinese figures—particularly emperors—used a half-dozen or more different names in different contexts and for different speakers. Those possessing names (sometimes even mere homophones) identical to the emperor's were frequently forced to change them. The normalization of personal names after the May Fourth Movement has generally eradicated aliases such as the school name and courtesy name but traces of the old taboos remain, particularly within families.

Hospet

Hosapete, also known as Hospet, is a city in Ballari District in central Karnataka, India. It is located on the Tungabhadra River, 12 km from Hampi. Hampi is a World Heritage site containing the ruins of the medieval city of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Katyayana (Buddhist)

Kātyāyana was a disciple of Gautama Buddha. In Sanskrit his name is Kātyāyana or Mahākātyāyana; in Pāli Kaccāna, Kaccāyana, or Mahākaccāna; in Japanese 迦旃延 Kasennen, and in Thai he is called Phra Maha Katchaina (Thai: พระมหากัจจายนะ; Sinhala: මහා කච්චායන මහ රහතන් වහන්සේ).

List of U.S. state and territory nicknames

The following is a table of U.S. state and territory nicknames, including officially adopted nicknames, and other traditional nicknames for individual states and territories of the United States (and the District of Columbia).

List of United States Marine Corps battalions

This is a list of current United States Marine Corps battalions, sorted by the mission they perform.

List of United States Marine Corps regiments

This is a list of United States Marine Corps regiments, sorted by status and number, with the current or most-recent type and division. Some of the inactive regiments are succeeded by active battalions.

List of national association football teams by nickname

The following is a list of nicknames of national association football teams.

List of nicknames of Presidents of the United States

This is a list of nicknames of Presidents of the United States that were in common usage at the time they were in office or shortly thereafter.

List of nicknames used by Donald Trump

United States President, businessman, and television personality Donald Trump became widely known during the 2016 United States presidential election and his subsequent presidency for using nicknames to criticize foreign leaders, media figures, and politicians. His use of nicknames has been characterized as bullying by various media outlets.Nicknames predating the campaign that Trump appropriated are indicated by footnotes.

Lists of nicknames

This is a list of nickname-related list articles on Wikipedia. A nickname is "a familiar or humorous name given to a person or thing instead of or as well as the real name." A nickname is often considered desirable, symbolising a form of acceptance, but can sometimes be a form of ridicule. A moniker also means a nickname or personal name. The word often distinguishes personal names from nicknames that became proper names out of former nicknames. English examples are Bob and Rob, nickname variants for Robert.

Mascot

A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name. Mascots are also used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix.

In the world of sports, mascots are also used for merchandising. Team mascots are often related to their respective team nicknames. This is especially true when the team's nickname is something that is a living animal and/or can be made to have humanlike characteristics. For more abstract nicknames, the team may opt to have an unrelated character serve as the mascot. For example, the athletic teams of the University of Alabama are nicknamed the Crimson Tide, while their mascot is an elephant named Big Al. Team mascots may take the form of a logo, person, live animal, inanimate object, or a costumed character, and often appear at team matches and other related events, sports mascots are often used as marketing tools for their teams to children. Since the mid-20th century, costumed characters have provided teams with an opportunity to choose a fantasy creature as their mascot, as is the case with the Philadelphia Phillies' mascot, the Phillie Phanatic, and the Philadelphia Flyers' mascot, Gritty.

Costumed mascots are commonplace, and are regularly used as goodwill ambassadors in the community for their team, company, or organization such as the U.S. Forest Service's Smokey Bear.

Montana

Montana ( (listen)) is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently "The Last Best Place".Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, and the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the north.

The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, gas, coal, hard rock mining, and lumber. The health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the state's economy.

The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism. Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, and other attractions.

Surname

A surname, family name, or last name is the portion (in some cultures) of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture). Depending on the culture, all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules.

In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families even three or more are used (often due to a family claim to nobility).

Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world. In Europe, the concept of surnames became popular in the Roman Empire and expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Western Europe as a result. During the Middle Ages this practice died out as Germanic, Persian, and other influences took hold. During the late Middle Ages surnames gradually re-emerged, first in the form of bynames (typically indicating individual's occupation or area of residence), which gradually evolved into modern surnames. In China surnames have been the norm since at least the 2nd century BC.A family name is typically a part of a person's personal name which, according to law or custom, is passed or given to children from one or both of their parents' family names. The use of family names is common in most cultures around the world, with each culture having its own rules as to how these names are formed, passed and used. However, the style of having both a family name (surname) and a given name (forename) is far from universal. In many cultures, it is common for people to have one name or mononym, with some cultures not using family names. In most Slavic countries, as well as other countries including Greece and Iceland, for example, there are different family name forms for male and female members of the family. Issues of family name arise especially on the passing of a name to a new-born child, on the adoption of a common family name on marriage, on renouncing of a family name and on changing of a family name.

Surname laws vary around the world. Traditionally in many European countries for the past few hundred years, it was the custom or law that a woman would on marriage use the surname of her husband and that children of a man would have the father's surname. If a child's paternity was not known, or if the putative father denied paternity, the new-born child would have the surname of the mother. That is still the custom or law in many countries. The surname for children of married parents is usually inherited from the father. In recent years there has been a trend towards equality of treatment in relation to family names, with women being not automatically required or expected, or in some places even forbidden, to take the husband's surname on marriage, and children not automatically being given the father's surname. In this article, family name and surname both mean the patrilineal surname, handed down from or inherited from the father's, unless explicitly stated otherwise. Thus, the term "maternal surname" means the patrilineal surname which one's mother inherited from either or both of her parents. For a discussion of matrilineal ('mother-line') surnames, passing from mothers to daughters, see matrilineal surname.

It is common for women in the entertainment industry (like Celebrities) to keep their maiden name after they get married, especially if they achieved their fame before marriage. The same can be said for women who achieved their fame during a previous marriage; For example: Kris Jenner (born Kris Houghton) was married to her second spouse Caitlyn Jenner when she rose to prominence in the reality show Keeping Up with the Kardashians and singer Britney Spears has been married twice after she rose to prominence, but she still uses her maiden name.

In English-speaking cultures, family names are often used by children when referring to adults but are also used to refer to someone in authority, the elderly, or in a formal setting, and are often used with a title or honorific such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Doctor, and so on. Generally the given name is the one used by friends, family, and other intimates to address an individual. It may also be used by someone who is in some way senior to the person being addressed. This practice also differs between cultures; see T–V distinction.

The study of proper names (in family names, personal names, or places) is called onomastics. A one-name study is a collection of vital and other biographical data about all persons worldwide sharing a particular surname.

Tar Heel

Tar Heel is a nickname applied to the U.S. state of North Carolina. It is also the nickname of the University of North Carolina athletic teams, students, alumni, and fans.

The exact etymology of the nickname is unknown, but most folklore believe its roots come from the fact that tar, pitch, and turpentine created from the vast pine forests that were some of North Carolina's most important exports early in the state's history. It also finds loose associations to the period’s group of bare knuckle fighters who brawled using the famed tar pits of the area as their battle ground. For a time after the American Civil War, the name Tar Heel was originally derogatory, but it was later reappropriated by the people of North Carolina. Because the exact history of the term is unknown, a number of legends have developed to explain it. One such legend claims it to be a nickname given during the U.S. Civil War, because of the state's importance on the Confederate side, and the fact that the troops "stuck to their ranks like they had tar on their heels". The term "Tar Heel" gained popularity during the Civil War.

The Invincibles (football)

In English football, "The Invincibles" is a nickname that has been used to refer to the Preston North End team of the 1888–89 season, managed by William Sudell, and the Arsenal team of the 2003–04 season managed by Arsène Wenger. Preston North End earned the nickname after completing an entire season undefeated in league and cup competition (27 games), while Arsenal were undefeated in the league only (38 games). The actual nickname of the Preston team was the "Old Invincibles", but both versions have been in use.

The term "Invincibles" has also been used elsewhere in European football. Italian clubs Milan and Juventus received the nickname after winning the 1991–92 and 2011–12 Serie A titles respectively. Celtic earned the nickname after going unbeaten across domestic league and cup competition during the 2016–17 season in Scotland.

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