Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας or, τῆς πίστεως, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene /ˈnaɪsiːn/ because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea (present day İznik, Turkey) by the First Council of Nicaea in 325.[1] In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, and the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.

The Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural ("we believe"), but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular ("I believe"). The Anglican and many Protestant denominations generally use the singular form, sometimes the plural.

The earlier Apostles' Creed is also used in the Latin West, but not in the Eastern liturgies.[2][3][4] On Sundays and solemnities, one of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily. The Nicene Creed is also part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the Catholic Church.[5][6]

In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy, immediately preceding the Anaphora (Eucharistic Prayer), and is also recited daily at compline.[7][8]

Nicaea icon
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine, accompanied by the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325), holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381

History

Rylands Nicene Creed papyrus
Oldest extant manuscript of the Nicene Creed, dated to the 6th Century

The purpose of a creed is to provide a doctrinal statement of correct belief or orthodoxy. The creeds of Christianity have been drawn up at times of conflict about doctrine: acceptance or rejection of a creed served to distinguish believers and deniers of particular doctrines. For that reason, a creed was called in Greek a σύμβολον (symbolon), which originally meant half of a broken object which, when fitted to the other half, verified the bearer's identity.[9] The Greek word passed through Latin symbolum into English "symbol", which only later took on the meaning of an outward sign of something.[10]

The Nicene Creed was adopted to resolve the Arian controversy, whose leader, Arius, a clergyman of Alexandria, "objected to Alexander's (the bishop of the time) apparent carelessness in blurring the distinction of nature between the Father and the Son by his emphasis on eternal generation".[11] In reply, Alexander accused Arius of denying the divinity of the Son and also of being too "Jewish" and "Greek" in his thought. Alexander and his supporters created the Nicene Creed to clarify the key tenets of the Christian faith in response to the widespread adoption of Arius' doctrine, which was henceforth marked as heresy.

The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the co-essential divinity of the Son, applying to him the term "consubstantial". The 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as worshipped and glorified with the Father and the Son. The later Athanasian Creed (not used in Eastern Christianity) describes in much greater detail the relationship between Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The earlier Apostles' Creed does not explicitly affirm the divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but in the view of many who use it, this doctrine is implicit in it.

Original Nicene Creed of 325

The original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. At that time, the text ended with the words "We believe in the Holy Spirit", after which various anathemas against Arian propositions were added.[12]

F. J. A. Hort and Adolf von Harnack argued that the Nicene creed was the local creed of Caesarea[13] (an important center of Early Christianity) recited in the council by Eusebius of Caesarea. Their case relied largely on a very specific interpretation of Eusebius' own account of the Council's proceedings.[14] More recent scholarship has not been convinced by their arguments.[15] The large number of secondary divergences from the text of the creed quoted by Eusebius make it unlikely that it was used as a starting point by those who drafted the conciliar creed.[16] Their initial text was probably a local creed from a Syro–Palestinian source into which they awkwardly inserted phrases to define the Nicene theology.[17] The Eusebian Creed may thus have been either a second or one of many nominations for the Nicene Creed.

Soon after the Council of Nicaea, new formulae of faith were composed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, to counter new phases of Arianism. The Catholic Encyclopedia identifies at least four before the Council of Sardica (341), where a new form was presented and inserted in the Acts of the Council, though it was not agreed on.

Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed

What is known as the "Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed" or the "Nicene–Constantinopolitan Creed"[18] received this name because of a belief that it was adopted at the Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople in 381 as a modification of the original Nicene Creed of 325. In that light, it also came to be very commonly known simply as the "Nicene Creed". It is the only authoritative ecumenical statement of the Christian faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and the major Protestant denominations.[19][20] (The Apostles' and Athanasian creeds are not as widely accepted.)[21]

It differs in a number of respects, both by addition and omission, from the creed adopted at the First Council of Nicaea. The most notable difference is the additional section "And [we believe] in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver-of-Life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets. And [we believe] in one, holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, [and] we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen."[22]

Since the end of the 19th century,[23] scholars have questioned the traditional explanation of the origin of this creed, which has been passed down in the name of the council, whose official acts have been lost over time. A local council of Constantinople in 382 and the third ecumenical council (Ephesus, 431) made no mention of it,[24] with the latter affirming the 325 creed of Nicaea as a valid statement of the faith and using it to denounce Nestorianism. Though some scholarship claims that hints of the later creed's existence are discernible in some writings,[25] no extant document gives its text or makes explicit mention of it earlier than the fourth ecumenical council at Chalcedon in 451.[23][24][26] Many of the bishops of the 451 council themselves had never heard of it and initially greeted it skeptically, but it was then produced from the episcopal archives of Constantinople, and the council accepted it "not as supplying any omission but as an authentic interpretation of the faith of Nicaea".[24] In spite of the questions raised, it is considered most likely that this creed was in fact adopted at the 381 second ecumenical council.[21]

On the basis of evidence both internal and external to the text, it has been argued that this creed originated not as an editing of the original Creed proposed at Nicaea in 325, but as an independent creed (probably an older baptismal creed) modified to make it more like the Nicene Creed.[27] Some scholars have argued that the creed may have been presented at Chalcedon as "a precedent for drawing up new creeds and definitions to supplement the Creed of Nicaea, as a way of getting round the ban on new creeds in Canon 7 of Ephesus".[26] It is generally agreed that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed is not simply an expansion of the Creed of Nicaea, and was probably based on another traditional creed independent of the one from Nicaea.[21][23]

The third Ecumenical Council (Council of Ephesus of 431) reaffirmed the original 325 version[28] of the Nicene Creed and declared that "it is unlawful for any man to bring forward, or to write, or to compose a different (ἑτέραν) faith as a rival to that established by the holy Fathers assembled with the Holy Ghost in Nicaea" (i.e., the 325 creed). The word ἑτέραν is more accurately translated as used by the Council to mean "different", "contradictory", rather than "another".[29][29] This statement has been interpreted as a prohibition against changing this creed or composing others, but not all accept this interpretation.[29] This question is connected with the controversy whether a creed proclaimed by an Ecumenical Council is definitive in excluding not only excisions from its text but also additions to it.

In one respect, the Eastern Orthodox Church's received text[30] of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed differs from the earliest text, which is included in the acts of the Council of Chalcedon of 451: The Eastern Orthodox Church uses the singular forms of verbs such as "I believe", in place of the plural form ("we believe") used by the council. Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches use exactly the same form of the Creed, since the Catholic Church teaches that it is wrong to add "and the Son" to the Greek verb "ἐκπορευόμενον", though correct to add it to the Latin "qui procedit", which does not have precisely the same meaning.[31] The form generally used in Western churches does add "and the Son" and also the phrase "God from God", which is found in the original 325 Creed.[32]

Comparison between creed of 325 and creed of 381

The following table, which indicates by [square brackets] the portions of the 325 text that were omitted or moved in 381, and uses italics to indicate what phrases, absent in the 325 text, were added in 381, juxtaposes the earlier (AD 325) and later (AD 381) forms of this Creed in the English translation given in Philip Schaff's compilation The Creeds of Christendom (1877).[33]

First Council of Nicaea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381)
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible. We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father [the only-begotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God,] Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds (æons), Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father;
By whom all things were made [both in heaven and on earth]; by whom all things were made;
Who for us men, and for our salvation, came down and was incarnate and was made man; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, and was made man;
He suffered, and the third day he rose again, ascended into heaven; he was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and the third day he rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father;
From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead. from thence he shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead. ;
whose kingdom shall have no end.
And in the Holy Ghost. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spake by the prophets.
In one holy catholic and apostolic Church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
[But those who say: 'There was a time when he was not;' and 'He was not before he was made;' and 'He was made out of nothing,' or 'He is of another substance' or 'essence,' or 'The Son of God is created,' or 'changeable,' or 'alterable'— they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic Church.]

The differences between the actual wordings (in Greek) adopted in 325[34] and in 381[35] can be presented in a similar way, as follows:

First Council of Nicaea (325) First Council of Constantinople (381)
Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων ὁρατῶν τε και ἀοράτων ποιητήν. Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Θεὸν Πατέρα παντοκράτορα, ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς, ὁρατῶν τε πάντων καὶ ἀοράτων.
Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, γεννηθέντα ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς [μονογενῆ, τοὐτέστιν ἐκ τῆς οὐσίας τοῦ Πατρός, Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ,] φῶς ἐκ φωτός, θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα, οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί Καὶ εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ, τὸν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεννηθέντα πρὸ πάντων τῶν αἰώνων, φῶς ἐκ φωτός, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί·
δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο, [τά τε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς] δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο·
τὸν δι' ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα καὶ σαρκωθέντα καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα, τὸν δι' ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν καὶ σαρκωθέντα ἐκ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς παρθένου καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα,
παθόντα, καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, καὶ ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς,

σταυρωθέντα τε ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, καὶ παθόντα καὶ ταφέντα, καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς γραφάς, καὶ ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς, καὶ καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Πατρός,

καὶ ἐρχόμενον κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς. καὶ πάλιν ἐρχόμενον μετὰ δόξης κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς·
οὗ τῆς βασιλείας οὐκ ἔσται τέλος.
Καὶ εἰς τὸ Ἅγιον Πνεῦμα. Καὶ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, τὸ Κύριον, τὸ ζῳοποιόν, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, τὸ σὺν Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ συμπροσκυνούμενον καὶ συνδοξαζόμενον, τὸ λαλῆσαν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν. Εἰς μίαν, ἁγίαν, καθολικὴν καὶ ἀποστολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν· ὁμολογοῦμεν ἓν βάπτισμα εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν· προσδοκοῦμεν ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν, καὶ ζωὴν τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος. Ἀμήν.
[Τοὺς δὲ λέγοντας, Ἦν ποτε ὅτε οὐκ ἦν, καὶ Πρὶν γεννηθῆναι οὐκ ἦν, καὶ ὅτι Ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων εγένετο, ἢ Ἐξ ἑτέρας ὑποστάσεως ἢ οὐσίας φάσκοντας εἶναι, ἢ κτιστόν, ἢ τρεπτόν, ἢ ἀλλοιωτὸν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ, τούτους ἀναθεματίζει ἡ ἁγία καθολικὴ καὶ ἀποστολικὴ ἐκκλησία].

Filioque controversy

In the late 6th century, some Latin-speaking churches added the words "and from the Son" (Filioque) to the description of the procession of the Holy Spirit, in what many Eastern Orthodox Christians have at a later stage argued is a violation of Canon VII of the Third Ecumenical Council, since the words were not included in the text by either the Council of Nicaea or that of Constantinople.[36] This was incorporated into the liturgical practice of Rome in 1014.[31] Filioque eventually became one of the main causes for the East-West Schism in 1054, and the failures of the repeated union attempts.

The Vatican stated in 1995 that, while the words καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ ("and the Son") would indeed be heretical if used with the Greek verb ἐκπορεύομαι[37] (from ἐκ, "out of" and πορεύομαι "to come or go")—which is one of the terms used by St. Gregory of Nazianzus and the one adopted by the Council of Constantinople[31][38][39]—and the word Filioque is not heretical when associated with the Latin verb procedo and the related word processio. Whereas the verb ἐκπορεύομαι in Gregory and other Fathers necessarily means "to originate from a cause or principle," the Latin term procedo (from pro, "forward;" and cedo, "to go") has no such connotation and simply denotes the communication of the Divine Essence or Substance. In this sense, processio is similar in meaning to the Greek term προϊέναι, used by the Fathers from Alexandria (especially Cyril of Alexandria) as well as others.[31][40] Partly due to the influence of the Latin translations of the New Testament (especially of John 15:26), the term ἐκπορευόμενον (the present participle of ἐκπορεύομαι) in the creed was translated into Latin as procedentem. In time, the Latin version of the Creed came to be interpreted in the West in the light of the Western concept of processio, which required the affirmation of the Filioque to avoid the heresy of Arianism.[31][41]

Views on the importance of this creed

The view that the Nicene Creed can serve as a touchstone of true Christian faith is reflected in the name "symbol of faith", which was given to it in Greek and Latin, when in those languages the word "symbol" meant a "token for identification (by comparison with a counterpart)".[42]

In the Roman Rite Mass, the Latin text of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, with "Deum de Deo" (God from God) and "Filioque" (and from the Son), phrases absent in the original text, was previously the only form used for the "profession of faith". The Roman Missal now refers to it jointly with the Apostles' Creed as "the Symbol or Profession of Faith or Creed", describing the second as "the baptismal Symbol of the Roman Church, known as the Apostles' Creed".[43]

The liturgies of the ancient Churches of Eastern Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches), use the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, never the Western Apostles' Creed.

While in certain places where the Byzantine Rite is used, the choir or congregation sings the Creed at the Divine Liturgy, in many places the Creed is typically recited by the cantor, who in this capacity represents the whole congregation although many, and sometimes all, members of the congregation may join in rhythmic recitation. Where the latter is the practice, it is customary to invite, as a token of honor, any prominent lay member of the congregation who happens to be present, e.g., royalty, a visiting dignitary, the Mayor, etc., to recite the Creed in lieu of the cantor. This practice stems from the tradition that the prerogative to recite the Creed belonged to the Emperor, speaking for his populace.

Some evangelical and other Christians consider the Nicene Creed helpful and to a certain extent authoritative, but not infallibly so in view of their belief that only Scripture is truly authoritative.[44][45] Non-Trinitarian groups, such as the Church of the New Jerusalem, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Jehovah's Witnesses, explicitly reject some of the statements in the Nicene Creed.[46][47][48][49]

Ancient liturgical versions

There are several designations for the two forms of the Nicene creed, some with overlapping meanings:

  • Nicene Creed or the Creed of Nicaea is used to refer to the original version adopted at the First Council of Nicaea (325), to the revised version adopted by the First Council of Constantinople (381), to the liturgical text used by the Orthodox Church (with "I believe" instead of "We believe"),[50] to the Latin version that includes the phrase "Deum de Deo" and "Filioque",[51] and to the Armenian version, which does not include "and from the Son", but does include "God from God" and many other phrases.[52]
  • Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed can stand for the revised version of Constantinople (381) or the later Latin version[53] or various other versions.[54]
  • Icon/Symbol of the Faith is the usual designation for the revised version of Constantinople 381 in the Orthodox churches, where this is the only creed used in the liturgy.
  • Profession of Faith of the 318 Fathers refers specifically to the version of Nicaea 325 (traditionally, 318 bishops took part at the First Council of Nicaea).
  • Profession of Faith of the 150 Fathers refers specifically to the version of Constantinople 381 (traditionally, 150 bishops took part at the First Council of Constantinople).

In musical settings, particularly when sung in Latin, this Creed is usually referred to by its first word, Credo.

This section is not meant to collect the texts of all liturgical versions of the Nicene Creed, and provides only three, the Greek, the Latin, and the Armenian, of special interest. Others are mentioned separately, but without the texts. All ancient liturgical versions, even the Greek, differ at least to some small extent from the text adopted by the First Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople. The Creed was originally written in Greek, owing to the location of the two councils.[52]

But though the councils' texts have "Πιστεύομεν ... ὁμολογοῦμεν ... προσδοκοῦμεν" (we believe ... confess ... await), the Creed that the Churches of Byzantine tradition use in their liturgy has "Πιστεύω ... ὁμολογῶ ... προσδοκῶ" (I believe ... confess ... await), accentuating the personal nature of recitation of the Creed. The Latin text, as well as using the singular, has two additions: "Deum de Deo" (God from God) and "Filioque" (and from the Son). The Armenian text has many more additions, and is included as showing how that ancient church has chosen to recite the Creed with these numerous elaborations of its contents.[52]

An English translation of the Armenian text is added; English translations of the Greek and Latin liturgical texts are given at English versions of the Nicene Creed in current use.

Greek liturgical text

Πιστεύω εἰς ἕνα Θεόν, Πατέρα, Παντοκράτορα, ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς, ὁρατῶν τε πάντων καὶ ἀοράτων.

Καὶ εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν μονογενῆ, τὸν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεννηθέντα πρὸ πάντων τῶν αἰώνων·

φῶς ἐκ φωτός, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί, δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο.

Τὸν δι' ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν καὶ σαρκωθέντα

ἐκ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς Παρθένου καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα.

Σταυρωθέντα τε ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, καὶ παθόντα καὶ ταφέντα.

Καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς Γραφάς.

Καὶ ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Πατρός.

Καὶ πάλιν ἐρχόμενον μετὰ δόξης κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς, οὗ τῆς βασιλείας οὐκ ἔσται τέλος.

Καὶ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, τὸ κύριον, τὸ ζῳοποιόν,

τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον,

τὸ σὺν Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ συμπροσκυνούμενον καὶ συνδοξαζόμενον,

τὸ λαλῆσαν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν.

Εἰς μίαν, Ἁγίαν, Καθολικὴν καὶ Ἀποστολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν.

Ὁμολογῶ ἓν βάπτισμα εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.

Προσδοκῶ ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν.

Καὶ ζωὴν τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος.

Ἀμήν.[55][56]

Latin liturgical version

Creed icon (Russia, 17 c.).jpeg
17th-century Russian icon illustrating the articles of the Creed

Credo in unum Deum,

Patrem omnipoténtem,

Factórem cæli et terræ,

visibílium ómnium et invisibílium.

Et in unum Dóminum Iesum Christum,

Fílium Dei unigénitum,

et ex Patre natum ante ómnia sǽcula.

Deum de Deo, lumen de lúmine, Deum verum de Deo vero,

génitum, non factum, consubstantiálem Patri:

per quem ómnia facta sunt.

Qui propter nos hómines et propter nostram salútem

descéndit de cælis,

et incarnátus est de Spíritu Sancto

ex María Vírgine, et homo factus est;

crucifíxus étiam pro nobis sub Póntio Piláto,

passus et sepúltus est,

et resurréxit tértia die, secúndum Scriptúras,

et ascéndit in cælum, sedet ad déxteram Patris;

et íterum ventúrus est cum glória,

iudicáre vivos et mórtuos,

cuius regni non erit finis.

Et in Spíritum Sanctum, Dóminum et vivificántem:

qui ex Patre Filióque procédit,

qui cum Patre et Fílio simul adorátur et conglorificátur,

qui locútus est per prophétas.

Et unam, sanctam, cathólicam et apostólicam Ecclésiam.

Confíteor unum baptísma in remissiónem peccatórum.

Et expécto resurrectiónem mortuórum,

et vitam ventúri sǽculi. Amen.[57]

The Latin text adds "Deum de Deo" and "Filioque" to the Greek. On the latter see The Filioque Controversy above. Inevitably also, the overtones of the terms used, such as "παντοκράτορα" (pantokratora) and "omnipotentem" differ ("pantokratora" meaning Ruler of all; "omnipotentem" meaning omnipotent, Almighty). The implications of this for the interpretation of "ἐκπορευόμενον" and "qui ... procedit" was the object of the study The Greek and the Latin Traditions regarding the Procession of the Holy Spirit published by the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in 1996.

Again, the terms "ὁμοούσιον" and "consubstantialem", translated as "of one being" or "consubstantial", have different overtones, being based respectively on Greek οὐσία (stable being, immutable reality, substance, essence, true nature),[3] and Latin substantia (that of which a thing consists, the being, essence, contents, material, substance).[58]

"Credo", which in classical Latin is used with the accusative case of the thing held to be true (and with the dative of the person to whom credence is given),[59] is here used three times with the preposition "in", a literal translation of the Greek "εἰς" (in unum Deum ..., in unum Dominum ..., in Spiritum Sanctum ...), and once in the classical preposition-less construction (unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam).

Armenian liturgical text

Հաւատամք ի մի Աստուած, ի Հայրն ամենակալ, յարարիչն երկնի եւ երկրի, երեւելեաց եւ աներեւութից։

Եւ ի մի Տէր Յիսուս Քրիստոս, յՈրդին Աստուծոյ, ծնեալն յԱստուծոյ Հօրէ, միածին՝ այսինքն յէութենէ Հօր։

Աստուած յԱստուծոյ, լոյս ի լուսոյ, Աստուած ճշմարիտ յԱստուծոյ ճշմարտէ, ծնունդ եւ ոչ արարած։ Նոյն ինքն ի բնութենէ Հօր, որով ամենայն ինչ եղեւ յերկինս եւ ի վերայ երկրի, երեւելիք եւ աներեւոյթք։

Որ յաղագս մեր մարդկան եւ վասն մերոյ փրկութեան իջեալ ի յերկնից՝ մարմնացաւ, մարդացաւ, ծնաւ կատարելապէս ի Մարիամայ սրբոյ կուսէն Հոգւովն Սրբով։

Որով էառ զմարմին, զհոգի եւ զմիտ, եւ զամենայն որ ինչ է ի մարդ, ճշմարտապէս եւ ոչ կարծեօք։

Չարչարեալ, խաչեալ, թաղեալ, յերրորդ աւուր յարուցեալ, ելեալ ի յերկինս նովին մարմնով, նստաւ ընդ աջմէ Հօր։

Գալոց է նովին մարմնովն եւ փառօք Հօր ի դատել զկենդանիս եւ զմեռեալս, որոյ թագաւորութեանն ոչ գոյ վախճան։

Հաւատամք եւ ի սուրբ Հոգին, յանեղն եւ ի կատարեալն․ Որ խօսեցաւ յօրէնս եւ ի մարգարէս եւ յաւետարանս․ Որ էջն ի Յորդանան, քարոզեաց զառաքեալսն, եւ բնակեցաւ ի սուրբսն։

Հաւատամք եւ ի մի միայն, ընդհանրական, եւ առաքելական, Սուրբ Եկեղեցի․ ի մի մկրտութիւն, յապաշխարհութիւն, ի քաւութիւն եւ ի թողութիւն մեղաց․ ի յարութիւնն մեռելոց․ ի դատաստանն յաւիտենից հոգւոց եւ մարմնոց․ յարքայութիւնն երկնից, եւ ի կեանսն յաւիտենականս։

English translation of the Armenian version

We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, the maker of heaven and earth, of things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the begotten of God the Father, the Only-begotten, that is of the essence of the Father.

God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten and not made; of the very same nature of the Father, by Whom all things came into being, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible.

Who for us humanity and for our salvation came down from heaven, was incarnate, was made human, was born perfectly of the holy virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit.

By whom He took body, soul, and mind, and everything that is in man, truly and not in semblance.

He suffered, was crucified, was buried, rose again on the third day, ascended into heaven with the same body, [and] sat at the right hand of the Father.

He is to come with the same body and with the glory of the Father, to judge the living and the dead; of His kingdom there is no end.

We believe in the Holy Spirit, in the uncreated and the perfect; Who spoke through the Law, prophets, and Gospels; Who came down upon the Jordan, preached through the apostles, and lived in the saints.

We believe also in only One, Universal, Apostolic, and [Holy] Church; in one baptism in repentance, for the remission, and forgiveness of sins; and in the resurrection of the dead, in the everlasting judgement of souls and bodies, and the Kingdom of Heaven and in the everlasting life.[60]

Other ancient liturgical versions

The version in the Church Slavonic language, used by several Eastern Orthodox Churches is practically identical with the Greek liturgical version.

This version is used also by some Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches. Although the Union of Brest excluded addition of the Filioque, this was sometimes added by Ruthenian Catholics,[61] whose older liturgical books also show the phrase in brackets, and by Ukrainian Catholics. Writing in 1971, the Ruthenian Scholar Fr. Casimir Kucharek noted, "In Eastern Catholic Churches, the Filioque may be omitted except when scandal would ensue. Most of the Eastern Catholic Rites use it."[62] However, in the decades that followed 1971 it has come to be used more rarely.[63][64][65]

The versions used by Oriental Orthodoxy and the Church of the East[66] differ from the Greek liturgical version in having "We believe", as in the original text, instead of "I believe".[67]

English translations

The version found in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is still commonly used by some English speakers, but more modern translations are now more common. The International Consultation on English Texts published an English translation of the Nicene Creed, first in 1970 and then in successive revisions in 1971 and 1975. These texts were adopted by several churches. The Roman Catholic Church in the United States, which adopted the 1971 version in 1973, and the Catholic Church in other English-speaking countries, which in 1975 adopted the version published in that year, continued to use them until 2011, when it replaced them with the version in the Roman Missal third edition. The 1975 version was included in the 1979 Episcopal Church (United States) Book of Common Prayer, but with one variation: in the line "For us men and for our salvation", it omitted the word "men".

See also

References

  1. ^ Readings in the History of Christian Theology by William Carl Placher 1988 ISBN 0-664-24057-7 pages 52–53
  2. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Liturgical Use of Creeds". Newadvent.org.
  3. ^ "The Nicene Creed - Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese". Antiochian.org.
  4. ^ "The Orthodox Faith - Volume I - Doctrine and Scripture - The Symbol of Faith - Nicene Creed". oca.org.
  5. ^ "PROFESSION OF FAITH". Vatican.va.
  6. ^ "Code of Canon Law - IntraText". Vatican.va.
  7. ^ [1] Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Archbishop Averky Liturgics – The Small Compline", Retrieved 2013-04-14
  8. ^ [2] Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Archbishop Averky Liturgics – The Symbol of Faith", Retrieved 2013-04-14
  9. ^ Liddell and Scott: σύμβολον; cf. split tally
  10. ^ Symbol. c.1434, "creed, summary, religious belief," from L.L. symbolum "creed, token, mark," from Gk. symbolon "token, watchword" (applied c.250 by Cyprian of Carthage to the Apostles' Creed, on the notion of the "mark" that distinguishes Christians from pagans), from syn- "together" + stem of ballein "to throw." The sense evolution is from "throwing things together" to "contrasting" to "comparing" to "token used in comparisons to determine if something is genuine." Hence, "outward sign" of something. The meaning "something which stands for something else" first recorded 1590 (in "Faerie Queene"). Symbolic is attested from 1680. (symbol. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. Accessed: 24 March 2008).
  11. ^ Lyman, J. Rebecca (2010). "The Invention of 'Heresy' and 'Schism'" (PDF). The Cambridge History of Christianity. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  12. ^ Bindley, T. Herbert. The Oecumenical Documents of the Faith Methuen & C° 4th edn. 1950 revised by Green, F.W. pp. 15, 26–27
  13. ^ "Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds. - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org.
  14. ^ Kelly J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds Longmans (1963) pp. 217–8
  15. ^ Williams, Rowan. Arius SCM (2nd Edn 2001) pp. 69-70
  16. ^ Kelly J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds Longmans (1963) pp. 218f
  17. ^ Kelly J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds Longmans (1963) pp. 22–30
  18. ^ Both names are common. Instances of the former are in the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church and in the Roman Missal, while the latter is used consistently by the Faith and Order Commission. "Constantinopolitan Creed" can also be found, but very rarely.
  19. ^ "Religion Facts, four of the five Protestant denominations studied agree with the Nicene Creed and the fifth may as well, they just don't do creeds in general". Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  20. ^ "Christianity Today reports on a study that shows most evangelicals believe the basic Nicene formulation". Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  21. ^ a b c "Nicene Creed". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  22. ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: Second Ecumenical: The Holy Creed Which the 150 Holy Fathers Set Forth...
  23. ^ a b c Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds Longmans (19602)p. 305; p.307 & pp. 322–331 respectively
  24. ^ a b c Davis, Leo Donald S.J., The First Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1990, ISBN 0-8146-5616-1, pp. 120–122 and 185
  25. ^ Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian Creeds London, 1973
  26. ^ a b Richard Price, Michael Gaddis (editors), The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon (Liverpool University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-85323039-7), p. 3
  27. ^ Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III: article Constantinopolitan Creed
  28. ^ It was the original 325 creed, not the one that is attributed to the second Ecumenical Council in 381, that was recited at the Council of Ephesus (The Third Ecumenical Council. The Council of Ephesus, p. 202).
  29. ^ a b c "NPNF2-14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org.
  30. ^ "Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds. - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Greek and Latin Traditions on Holy Spirit". Ewtn.com.
  32. ^ "Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds. - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org.
  33. ^ See Creeds of Christendom.
  34. ^ "Creed of Nicaea 325 - Greek and Latin Text with English translation". Earlychurchtexts.com.
  35. ^ "Nicene Creed Greek Text with English translation". Earlychurchtexts.com.
  36. ^ For a different view, see e.g. Excursus on the Words πίστιν ἑτέραν
  37. ^ "Strong's Greek: 1607. ἐκπορεύομαι (ekporeuomai) -- to make to go forth, to go forth". Biblehub.com.
  38. ^ St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio 39 in sancta lumina, in Patrologia Graeca, ed. by J.P. Migne, vol. 36, D’Ambroise, Paris 1858, XII, PG 36, 348 B: Πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἀληθῶς τὸ πνεῦμα, προϊὸν μὲν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς, οὐχ ὑϊκῶς δὲ, οὐδὲ γὰρ γεννητῶς, ἀλλ’ ἐκπορευτῶς [The Holy Spirit is truly Spirit, going from (προϊὸν, a word that can correspond to the Latin procedens) the Father, not as a Son (οὐχ ὑϊκῶς) nor indeed as begotten (γεννητῶς) but as originating (ἐκπορευτῶς)].
  39. ^ St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 31 on the Holy Spirit, in Patrologia Graeca, ed. by J.P. Migne, vol. 36, D’Ambroise, Paris 1858, X, PG 36, 141 C: Τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, ὃ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκπορεύεται· ὃ καθ’ ὅσον μὲν ἐκεῖθεν ἐκπορεύεται, οὐ κτίσμα· καθ’ ὅσον δὲ οὐ γεννητόν, οὐχ υἱός· καθ’ ὅσον δὲ ἀγεννήτου καὶ γεννητοῦ μέσον θεός: [The Holy Spirit, ‘who has his origin in the Father’ [John 15:26], who inasmuch as he has his origin in him, is not a creature. Inasmuch as he is not begotten, he is not the Son; inasmuch as he is the middle of the Unbegotten and the Begotten, he is God].
  40. ^ Such as St. Gregory of Nazianzen, as seen in the passage from Oratio 39 cited above.
  41. ^ Briefly, Arianism is a Trinitarian heresy that denies the divinity of the Son, the Second Person. It claims that the Son is subordinate to the Father, so much so that the Son is a mere creature. Orthodox (in the sense of non-heterodox) Trinitarian doctrine teaches that the Persons are distinct from each other only as regards their mutual relations. If the Father has the power to communicate the Divine essence to the Holy Spirit (which is the same thing as saying that the Holy Spirit proceeds—in the Latin sense—from the Father), it follows that the Son must have exactly the same power, since Father and Son are the same in every respect except in their mutual relation. Denying this (by denying the Filioque), Catholic doctrine would argue, would make the Son subordinate to the Father, as in Arianism.
  42. ^ See etymology given in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  43. ^ "Ordo Missae, 18–19" (PDF). Usccb.org.
  44. ^ N. R. Kehn, Scott Bayles, Restoring the Restoration Movement (Xulon Press 2009 ISBN 978-1-60791-358-0), chapter 7
  45. ^ Donald T. Williams, Credo (Chalice Press 2007 ISBN 978-0-8272-0505-5), pp. xiv–xv
  46. ^ Timothy Larsen, Daniel J. Treier, The Cambridge Companion to Evangelical Theology (Cambridge University Press 2007 9780521846981), p. 4
  47. ^ Dallin H. Oaks, Apostasy And Restoration, Ensign, May 1995
  48. ^ Stephen Hunt, Alternative Religions (Ashgate 2003 ISBN 978-0-7546-3410-2), p. 48
  49. ^ Charles Simpson, Inside the Churches of Christ (Arthurhouse 2009 ISBN 978-1-4389-0140-4), p. 133
  50. ^ Orthodox Prayer: The Nicene Creed
  51. ^ This version is called the Nicene Creed in Catholic Prayers, Creeds of the Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brisbane, etc.
  52. ^ a b c What the Armenian Church calls the Nicene Creed is given in the Armenian Church Library, St Leon Armenian Church, Armenian Diaconate, etc.]
  53. ^ E.g., Roman Missal | Apostles' Creed, Wentworthville: Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 2011, retrieved 30 September 2016, Instead of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, especially during Lent and Easter Time, the baptismal Symbol of the Roman Church, known as the Apostles’ Creed, may be used.
  54. ^ Philip Schaff, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. III: article Constantinopolitan Creed lists eight creed-forms calling themselves Niceno-Constantinopolitan or Nicene.
  55. ^ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America: Liturgical Texts. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Archived 9 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Η ΘΕΙΑ ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΑ. Church of Greece.
  57. ^ "Missale Romanum" (PDF). Musicasacra.com\accessdate=29 January 2018.
  58. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, A Latin Dictionary: substantia
  59. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, A Latin Dictionary: credo
  60. ^ "Text in Armenian, with transliteration and English translation" (PDF). Armenianlibrary.com.
  61. ^ Andrew Shipman, "Ruthenian Rite" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1912)
  62. ^ Kucharek, Casimir (1971), The Byzantine-Slav Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom: Its Origin and Evolution, Combermere, Ontario, Canada: Alleluia Press., p. 547, ISBN 0-911726-06-3
  63. ^ Babie, Paul. "The Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church in Australia and the Filioque: A Return to Eastern Christian Tradition". Compass.
  64. ^ "Pastoral Letter of the Ukrainian Catholic Hierarchy in Canada, 1 September 2005" (PDF). Archeparchy.ca.
  65. ^ "Mark M. Morozowich, "Pope John Paul II and Ukrainian Catholic Liturgical Life: Renewal of Eastern Identity"". Stsophia.us.
  66. ^ Creed of Nicaea (Assyrian Church of the East)
  67. ^ Nicene Creed (Armenian Apostolic Church); The Coptic Orthodox Church: Our Creed (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria); Nicene Creed Archived 26 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church); The Nicene Creed Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine (Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church); The Nicene Creed (Syriac Orthodox Church).

Bibliography

External links

Catholic (term)

The word catholic (with lowercase c; derived via Late Latin catholicus, from the Greek adjective καθολικός (katholikos), meaning "universal") comes from the Greek phrase καθόλου (katholou), meaning "on the whole", "according to the whole" or "in general", and is a combination of the Greek words κατά meaning "about" and ὅλος meaning "whole". The term Catholic (usually written with uppercase C in English) was first used in the early 2nd century to indicate Christendom as a whole. In the context of Christian ecclesiology, it has a rich history and several usages.

The word in English can mean either "of the Catholic faith" or "relating to the historic doctrine and practice of the Western Church". Many Christians use it to refer more broadly to the whole Christian Church or to all believers in Jesus Christ regardless of denominational affiliation; it can also more narrowly refer to Catholicity, which encompasses several historic churches sharing major beliefs. "Catholicos", the title used for the head of some churches in Eastern Christian traditions, is derived from the same linguistic origin.

In non-ecclesiastical use, it derives its English meaning directly from its root, and is currently used to mean the following:

including a wide variety of things; all-embracing

universal or of general interest;

liberal, having broad interests, or wide sympathies; or

inclusive, inviting and containing strong evangelism.The term has been incorporated into the name of the largest Christian communion, the Catholic Church (also called the Roman Catholic Church). All of the three main branches of Christianity in the East (Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church and Church of the East) had always identified themselves as Catholic in accordance with Apostolic traditions and the Nicene Creed. Anglicans, Lutherans, and some Methodists also believe that their churches are "Catholic" in the sense that they too are in continuity with the original universal church founded by the Apostles. However, each church defines the scope of the "Catholic Church" differently. For instance, the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox churches, and Church of the East, each maintain that their own denomination is identical with the original universal church, from which all other denominations broke away.

Distinguishing beliefs of Catholicity, the beliefs of most Christians who call themselves "Catholic", include the episcopal polity, that bishops are considered the highest order of ministers within the Christian religion, as well as the Nicene Creed of AD 381. In particular, along with unity, sanctity, and apostolicity, catholicity is considered one of Four Marks of the Church, found the line of the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church."

During the medieval and modern times, additional distinctions arose regarding the use of the terms Western Catholic and Eastern Catholic. Before the East–West Schism, those terms had just the basic geographical meanings, since only one undivided Catholicity existed, uniting the Latin speaking Christians of West and the Greek speaking Christians of the East. After the split of 1054 terminology became much more complicated, resulting in the creation of parallel and conflicting terminological systems.

Covenant Presbyterian Church

The Covenant Presbyterian Church (CPC) is a Presbyterian denomination with 13 member churches in the US.Their distinctive beliefs include Young Earth Creationism, the inerrancy of the Bible, family integrated church and the promotion of homeschooling and Christian schools. They are known for permitting the practice of paedocommunion with approval of a local church's session.The church is Reformed in theology, and postmillennial eschatology. It subscribes to the Westminster Confession, the Westminster Larger Catechism and Westminster Shorter Catechism and the Nicene Creed.

Credo (Vivaldi)

The Credo in E minor (RV 591) is the only extant setting of the Nicene Creed by Antonio Vivaldi. Another setting exists (RV 592) but is of dubious authenticity.

Creed

A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

One of the most widely used creeds in Christianity is the Nicene Creed, first formulated in AD 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. It was based on Christian understanding of the Canonical Gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Affirmation of this creed, which describes the Trinity, is generally taken as a fundamental test of orthodoxy for most Christian denominations. The Apostles' Creed is also broadly accepted. Some Christian denominations and other groups have rejected the authority of those creeds.

Muslims declare the shahada, or testimony: "I bear witness that there is no god but (the One) God (Allah), and I bear witness that Muhammad is God's messenger."Whether Judaism is creedal has been a point of some controversy. Although some say Judaism is noncreedal in nature, others say it recognizes a single creed, the Shema Yisrael, which begins: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one."

Ecumenical creeds

Ecumenical creeds is an umbrella term used in the Western Church to refer to the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed and, less commonly, the Athanasian Creed. The ecumenical creeds are also known as the universal creeds. These creeds are accepted by almost all mainstream Christian denominations in the West, including Reformed churches, the Roman Catholic Church, Anglican churches and Lutheran churches. Many Methodist churches accept the Nicene Creed and Apostles' Creed.The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts the Nicene Creed, but does not use the Apostles' Creed or the Athanasian Creed.

A creed by definition is a summary or statement of what one believes. It originates from the Latin credo meaning "I believe". The purpose of a creed is to act as a yardstick of correct belief. A creed is an epitome, not a full definition, of what is required for orthodoxy. It was hoped that by memorizing this summary of the faith, lay people without extensive theological training would still be able to recognize deviations from orthodox doctrines based on the Bible as interpreted in Christian tradition. The term ecumenical can refer to efforts by Christians of different church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings. The term is also often used to refer to efforts towards the visible and organic unity of different Christian churches in some form.

Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs

The Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs was a letter issued in May, 1848 by the four eastern patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church, who met at Council in Constantinople. It was addressed to all Eastern Orthodox Christians, as a response against pope Pius IX's Epistle to the Easterners, issued in January (1848).The encyclical was solemnly addressed to "All the Bishops Everywhere, Beloved in the Holy Ghost, Our Venerable, Most Dear Brethren; and to their Most Pious Clergy; and to All the Genuine Orthodox Sons of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church." The encyclical explicitly denounces the Filioque clause added by Rome to the Nicene Creed as a heresy, censures the papacy for missionizing among Eastern Orthodox Christians, and repudiates Ultramontanism (papal supremacy). It also describes the Roman Catholic Church as being in apostasy, heresy, and schism.

In the course of all this, it notably makes reference to the Eighth Ecumenical Council (879-880), in contrast with the opinion of many modern Eastern Orthodox Christians that there are only seven Ecumenical Councils accepted by the Orthodox Church.

English Language Liturgical Consultation

The English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC) is a group of national associations of ecumenical liturgists in the English-speaking world. Their work has been concerned with developing and promoting common liturgical texts in English and sharing a common lectionary wherever possible. It is the successor body to the International Consultation on English Texts (ICET).

ICET was formed in 1969 and, after circulating drafts in 1971, 1972 and 1973, completed its work in 1975 by publishing the booklet Prayers We Have in Common, its proposed English versions of liturgical texts that included the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed and the Lord's Prayer. These texts were widely adopted by English-speaking Christians, with the exception of the Lord's Prayer ("Our Father"), for which, in most countries, a traditional text was kept. The other three texts were accepted in the official 1975 English translation of the Roman Missal. In the United States the English translation of the Roman Missal was printed before the definitive 1975 ICEL text of the Nicene Creed was ready and therefore has in its place the 1973 draft. This differs in a few points from the final text; in one instance, the 1973 draft speaks of Christ becoming man after mentioning his birth, while the 1975 text does so after mentioning instead his incarnation.The Revised Common Lectionary was the product of a collaboration between the North American Consultation on Common Texts (CCT) and the International English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC). After a nine-year trial period, it was released in 1994.

English versions of the Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed, composed in part and adopted at the First Council of Nicaea (325) and revised with additions by the First Council of Constantinople (381), is a creed that summarizes the orthodox faith of the Christian Church and is used in the liturgy of most Christian Churches. This article endeavors to give the text and context of English-language translations.

Filioque

Filioque (Ecclesiastical Latin: [filiˈɔkwe]) is a Latin term added to the original Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed (commonly known as the Nicene Creed), and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity. The Latin term Filioque describes the Holy Spirit as proceeding from both the Father and the Son, (not from the Father only). In the Nicene Creed it is translated by the English phrase "and [from] the Son":

I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord, the giver of life,

who proceedeth from the Father ⟨and the Son⟩.

Who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified.or in Latin:

Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem:

qui ex Patre ⟨Filioque⟩ procedit

Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur, et cum glorificatur.Whether that term Filioque is included, as well as how it is translated and understood, can have important implications for how one understands the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, which is central to the majority of Christian churches. For some, the term implies a serious underestimation of the Father's role in the Trinity; for others, denial of what it expresses implies a serious underestimation of the role of the Son in the Trinity. Over time, the term became a symbol of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, although there have been attempts at resolving the conflict. Among the early attempts at harmonization are the works of Maximus the Confessor, who notably was canonised independently by both Eastern and Western churches.

The Filioque is included in the form of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed used in most Western Christian churches, first appearing in the 6th century. It was accepted by the popes only in 1014 and is rejected by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Church of the East. It is not in the original text of this Creed, attributed to the second ecumenical council, Constantinople I (381), which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father", without additions of any kind, such as "and the Son" or "alone"; the Latin text now in use in most Western Churches speaks of the Holy Spirit as proceeding "from the Father and the Son".

Differences over this doctrine and the question of papal primacy have been and remain primary causes of schism between the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches. The term has been an ongoing source of conflict between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, contributing, in major part, to the East–West Schism of 1054 and proving to be an obstacle to attempts to reunify the two sides.

First Council of Constantinople

The First Council of Constantinople (Greek: Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Greek: Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Latin: Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Latin: Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church, confirmed the Nicene Creed, expanding the doctrine thereof to produce the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, and dealt with sundry other matters. It met from May to July 381 in the Church of Hagia Irene and was affirmed as ecumenical in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon.

First Council of Nicaea

The First Council of Nicaea (; Greek: Νίκαια [ˈnikεa]) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.

This ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the Church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Hosius of Corduba, who was probably one of the papal legates, may have presided over its deliberations.Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the divine nature of God the Son and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Nicene Creed, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law.

First seven ecumenical councils

In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

These seven events represented an attempt by Church leaders to reach an orthodox consensus, restore peace and develop a unified Christendom. Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, the Church of the East, Anglican, Old Catholic, and Roman Catholics, all trace the legitimacy of their clergy by apostolic succession back to this period and beyond, to the earlier period referred to as Early Christianity.

This era begins with the First Council of Nicaea, which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 was seen by all later councils as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity.

The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church accept all seven of these councils as legitimate ecumenical councils. The Oriental Orthodox Churches accept only the first three, while the Church of the East accepts only the first two. There is also one additional council (the Quinisext Council), which was held between the sixth and seventh ecumenical councils (in AD 692), and which issued organizational, liturgical and canonical rules but did not discuss theology. It is accepted as ecumenical by the Eastern Orthodox Church alone, however the Eastern Orthodox do not give it a number, but rather count it as a continuation of the sixth council. The Catholic Church does not accept the Quinisext Council, but both the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church consider that there have been more ecumenical councils after the first seven (see: Eighth ecumenical council, Ninth ecumenical council, and Catholic ecumenical councils).

Holy Spirit in Christianity

For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person (hypostasis) of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son,and God the Holy Spirit; each entity itself being God.Nontrinitarian Christians, who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, differ significantly from mainstream Christianity in their beliefs about the Holy Spirit and generally fall into several distinct categories such as Unitarianism, Binitarianism, Modalism, and others. Some Christian theologians identify the Holy Spirit with the Ruach Hakodesh in Jewish scripture, and with many similar names including the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God), Ruach YHWH (Spirit of Yahweh), and the Ruach Hakmah (Spirit of Wisdom). In the New Testament it is identified with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit.The New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary". The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, and in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure.The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations. The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew (28:19): "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Since the first century, Christians have also called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" in prayer, absolution and benediction. In the book of the Acts of the Apostles the arrival of the Holy Spirit happens fifty days after the resurrection of the Christ, and is currently celebrated in Christendom with the feast of Pentecost.In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit.

Homoousion

Homoousion (; Greek: ὁμοούσιον, translit. homooúsion, lit. 'same in being, same in essence', from ὁμός, homós, "same" and οὐσία, ousía, "being" or "essence") is a Christian theological term, most notably used in the Nicene Creed for describing Jesus (God the Son) as "same in being" or "same in essence" with God the Father (ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί). The same term was later also applied to the Holy Spirit in order to designate him as being "same in essence" with the Father and the Son. Those notions became cornerstones of theology in Nicene Christianity, and also represent one of the most important theological concepts within the Trinitarian doctrinal understanding of God.

Mainstream

Mainstream is current thought that is widespread. It includes all popular culture and media culture, typically disseminated by mass media. It is to be distinguished from subcultures and countercultures, and at the opposite extreme are cult followings and fringe theories.

This word is sometimes used in a pejorative sense by subcultures who view ostensibly mainstream culture as not only exclusive but artistically and aesthetically inferior. In the United States, mainline churches are sometimes referred to synonymously as "mainstream."

Malagasy Protestant Church in France

The Malagasy Protestant Church in France (French: Église protestante malagache en France; Malagasy: Fiangonana Protestanta Malagasy aty Andafy) (FPMA) was founded in 1959 by Malagasy students in France with the agreement of the Federation of Protestant Churches in Madagascar. Its members belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar and the Lutheran Church in Madagascar living in France. It has 39 parishes with 8,000 members and of whom 6,000 are baptised members and 4,000 admitted to Lord supper. The Heidelberg Catechism, Apostles Creed, Athanasian Creed and Nicene Creed are the officially recognised confessions.Since 1999 it is a full member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches.

Nicene Christianity

Nicene Christianity as a set of Christian doctrinal traditions upholds the Nicene Creed, traditionally formulated at the First Council of Nicaea in AD 325 and amended at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381. Nicene Christianity can equate to mainstream Christianity.The main rival doctrine of Nicene Christianity at the time of Nicaea, Arian Christianity, became eclipsed during the 7th century AD with the conversion of the Gothic kingdoms to Nicene Christianity. The main points of dissent centered on Christology. Nicene Christianity regards Christ as divine and co-eternal with God the Father, while Arian Christianity treated Christ as the first created being and inferior to God the Father. Other non-Nicene currents have been considered heresies since the early medieval period.Present-day mainstream Christian Churches - including all of the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian and Ancient Churches, Lutheran and Anglican churches, together with most Protestant denominations - adhere to the Nicene Creed and thus exemplify Nicene Christianity.

Chalcedonian Christianity forms a large subset of Nicene Christianity. In addition to subscribing to the Nicene Creed, Chalcedonian Christians also subscribe to the decisions of the First Council of Ephesus in AD 431 and of the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451. The great majority of Nicene Christians are also Chalcedonian Christians. However, some portions of Eastern Christianity such as the Oriental Orthodox Churches and historically the Church of the East adhere to the Nicene Creed but not to the Chalcedonian Definition and are therefore part of Nicene Christianity but non-Chalcedonian. (The Church of the East also rejected the outcome of the 431 Council of Ephesus.)

Examples of non-Nicene Christianity today include the various either Protestant or non-Protestant non-trinitarian groups like most of the Latter Day Saint movement (with the exception of the Nicene Mormon group the Community of Christ - formerly known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), the Unitarian Church of Transylvania and the Oneness Pentecostals.

Protestant Reformed Christian Church in Croatia

The Protestant Reformed Christian Church in Croatia is an overseas diocese of the Reformed Episcopal Church.

It was founded on 24 May 2001, when several parishes withdraw from the Reformed Christian Church in Croatia. The oldest parish was founded in Tordinci, in 1551. There are parishes and missions in Zagreb, Osijek, Karlovac, Kapelna, Šibenik and Belgrade (Serbia). There is a mission church in Serbia in Belgrade.

The church confesses the Apostles Creed, Nicene Creed, Heidelberg Catechism and the 39 articles of the Anglican community and uses the Book of Common Prayer. The church came under the jurisdiction of the Reformed Episcopal Church in 2011.The Protestant Reformed Christian Church in Croatia is a member of the World Reformed Fellowship. Contacts with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Liberated) was also established.

The Biblical Church

The Biblical Church (Japanese: 聖書キリスト教会, Seisho Kirisuto Kyōkai) is a Protestant Christian denomination in Japan.that was founded by Reverend Reiji Oyama (尾山令仁牧師) since 1953. The group grew up around him to a Presbyterian Reformed denomination. In 2004 it had 19 congregations and 908 members. The Biblical Church subscribes the Apostles Creed, Athanasian Creed, Nicene Creed, and the Reformed Confessions like the Heidelberg Catechism, Second Helvetic Confession and the Westminster Confession. The denomination does ordain women to ministry.It is a member of the Japan Evangelical Association (JEA).

Prayers of the Mass
Marian prayers
Other prayers
Forms
Types
Order of Mass
Participants
Parts of the
Sanctuary / Altar
Altar cloths
Lights
Liturgical
objects
Liturgical books
Vestments
Liturgical year
(Roman Calendar)
Eucharistic
discipline
Eucharistic
theology
Regulations
and concepts
Related
History
Timeline
Ecclesiastical
Legal
Theology
Bible and
Tradition;
Catechism
Philosophy
Saints
Organisation
Hierarchy
Laity
Precedence
By country
Culture
Media
Institutes,
orders,
societies
Associations
of the faithful
Charities
The Lutheran Confessions — Documents of the Book of Concord
Order of the Divine Service in Lutheranism
Preparatory Service
The Service of the Word
The Service of the Eucharist
Participants
Parts of the Sanctuary
Candles
Liturgical vessels
Liturgical objects
Vestments
Liturgical books and hymnals

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.