Nicator

Nicator is a genus of songbird endemic to Africa. The genus contains three medium sized passerine birds.[1]

Nicator
Nicator Gronvold
N. gularis (left) and N. chloris (right)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Nicatoridae
Genus: Nicator
Hartlaub & Finsch, 1870
Nicator distribution map
Range of the genus

Taxonomy

Laniarius vireo - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - UBA01 IZ16600469, crop
Yellow-throated nicator of the tropical lowlands

The systematic affinities of the genus have been a long-standing mystery. The group was originally assigned to the shrikes (Laniidae). In the 1920s James Chapin noted the similarities between the nicators and both the bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) and the bushshrikes (Malaconotidae). It wasn't until 1943 that Jean Théodore Delacour placed the genus with the bulbuls. Storrs Olson argued that the genus was more closely related to the bushshrikes, as the nicators lacked the ossification of the nostril found in all other bulbuls.[2] A number of features, including the position of the facial bristles (which are preorbital rather than rictal), their nests and the calls, make the genus unique, and DNA studies have recently suggested that the genus is best treated as a monogeneric family.[3] Some authorities, like the Clements Checklist, treat the nicators as a new family, Nicatoridae.[4]

The name of the genus is derived from nikator, Greek for conqueror.[5] Within the genus, the western and eastern nicators are considered to form a superspecies and are sometimes treated as the same species.[1]

Description

The nicators are shrike-like birds, 16 to 23 cm (6.3–9.1 in) in length. The eastern and western nicators are similar in size and larger than the yellow-throated nicator. The males are considerably heavier than the females, for example in the western nicator the males range from 48 to 67 g (1.7–2.4 oz), whereas the females only weigh 32 to 51 g (1.1–1.8 oz). The yellow-throated nicator is much lighter, ranging from only 21 to 26 g (0.74–0.92 oz). The nicators have heavy hooked bills. The plumage of the genus is overall olive on the backs, tail and wings, with yellow spotting on the wings, and lighter grey or whitish undersides.[1]

Distribution and habitat

The nicators are endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. The western nicator has a mostly continuous distribution from Senegal to eastern Uganda and northern Angola. The eastern nicator has a discontinuous distribution in East Africa from Somalia south to eastern South Africa. The yellow-throated nicator is distributed in central Africa from Cameroon to Uganda.[1]

The nicators occupy a wide range of forest and woodland habitats.[1]

Species

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Fishpool, Lincoln; Tobias, Joseph (2005). "Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 10, Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 247–248. ISBN 84-87334-72-5
  2. ^ Olson, Storrs (1989). "Preliminary systematic notes on some Old World Passerines". Rivista Italiana di Ornitologia. 59 (3/4): 183–195.
  3. ^ Beresford, P; Barker, FK; Ryan, PG; Crowe, TM (2005). "African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): molecular systematics of several evolutionary 'enigmas'". Proc. R. Soc. B. 272 (1565): 849–858. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2997. PMC 1599865. PMID 15888418.
  4. ^ Clements Checklist team (2009). "Updates & Corrections - Dec 2009". The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  5. ^ Jobling, James A. (1991). A Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Oxford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-19-854634-3.
Alexander (grandson of Seleucus I Nicator)

Alexander (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος; flourished 3rd century BC) was a Greek nobleman of Anatolia and served as a Seleucid official.Alexander was the first son born to Achaeus by an unnamed Greek mother. His father Achaeus was a wealthy nobleman who owned estates in Anatolia. His family had power in Anatolia with strong royal connections. Alexander had three siblings, two sisters, Antiochis and Laodice I, and a brother Andromachus. His father Achaeus was the second son of King Seleucus I Nicator and his first wife Apama I.According to surviving inscriptions, Alexander was already active and held high positions under his paternal uncle Antiochus I Soter. A surviving decree at Bargylia honoring a judge from Teos mentions Alexander as having been ‘left in charge’ by Antiochus I Soter, meaning that Alexander was some sort of governor in the Caria region. The surviving decree at Bargylia dates from 270–261 BC.During the reign of his paternal cousin and brother-in-law Antiochus II Theos, Alexander was a very powerful figure in Anatolia. Between 261–244 BC in Magnesia ad Sipylum, he is noted in writing a letter about land allotments granted to soldiers and he was honored at Tralles.In the year 240 BC Alexander was still loyal to his nephew Seleucus II Callinicus, as he was the governor of Lydia, based at Sardis. In the civil war between Seleucus II Callinicus and his brother Antiochus Hierax, Alexander supported his second nephew, and held Sardis against attacks by Seleucus II.After the end of the civil war, nothing is known on Alexander. His namesake was his great-nephew Seleucus III Ceraunus, whose name was Alexander until he succeeded his father Seleucus II Callinicus as King in 225 BC.

Alexander Balas

Alexander I Theopator Euergetes, surnamed Balas (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρoς Bάλας), was the ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150/Summer 152 – August 145 BC. Alexander defeated Demetrius Soter for the crown in 150 BC. Ruling briefly, he lost the crown to Demetrius II Nicator during his defeat at the Battle of Antioch (145 BC) in Syria, dying shortly after.

He is the title character of the oratorio Alexander Balus, written in 1747 by George Frideric Handel.

Antigonia (Syria)

Antigonia (Greek: Αντιγόνεια) also transliterated as Antigonea and Antigoneia was a Hellenistic city in Seleucid Empire, Syria (in modern Turkey), on the Orontes, founded by Antigonus I Monophthalmus in 307 BC, and intended to be the capital of his empire; the site is approximately 7 km northeast of Antakya, Hatay Province, Turkey. After the Battle of Ipsus, 301 BC, in which Antigonus perished, the inhabitants of Antigonia were removed by his successful rival Seleucus I Nicator to the city of Antioch, which Seleucus founded a little lower down the river. (Strabo xvi. p. 750; Diod. xx. 47; Liban. Antioch. p. 349; Malalas, p. 256.) Diodorus erroneously says that the inhabitants were removed to Seleucia Pieria. Antigonia continued, however, to exist, and is mentioned in the war with the Parthians after the defeat of Crassus. (Dion Cass. xl. 29.)

Antigonid dynasty

The Antigonid dynasty (; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus I Soter (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3 – 2 June 261 BC), was a king of the Hellenic Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father Seleucus I Nicator in 281 BC and reigned until his death on 2 June 261 BC. He is the last known ruler to be attributed the ancient Mesopotamian title King of the Universe.

Antiochus VII Sidetes

Antiochus VII Euergetes (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ζ΄ Ευεργέτης), nicknamed Sidetes (Greek: Σιδήτης) (from Side, a city in Asia Minor), also known as Antiochus the Pious, was ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from July/August 138 to 129 BC. He was the last Seleucid king of any stature. After Antiochus was killed in battle, the Seleucid realm was restricted to Syria.

Apamea (Euphrates)

Apamea or Apameia (Greek: Απάμεια) was a Hellenistic city on the left (viz., the eastern) bank of the Euphrates, opposite the famous city of Zeugma, at the end of a bridge of boats (Greek: Ζεῦγμα zeugma) connecting the two, founded by Seleucus I Nicator (Pliny, v. 21). The city was rebuilt by Seleucus I. The site, once partially covered by the village of Tilmusa (formerly Rumkale), Şanlıurfa Province, Turkey, is now flooded by the lake formed by the Birecik Dam (Birejik Dam).The ancient term Zeugma actually referred to the twin cities on the opposing banks of the river. Today the name Zeugma is usually understood to refer to the settlement on the west bank, called Seleucia (Greek: Σελεύκεια) after the founder, while the one on the East bank was called Apamea after his Persian wife Apama.

Cleopatra Thea

Cleopatra Thea (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Θεά, which means "Cleopatra the Goddess"; c. 164 – 121 BC) surnamed Eueteria (i.e., "good-harvest/fruitful season") was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She was queen consort of Syria from 150 to about 125 BC as the wife of three Syrian kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator, eventually in co-regency with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus until 121 or 120 BC.

Demetrius II Nicator

For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.Demetrius II (Ancient Greek: Δημήτριος Β`, Dēmḗtrios B; died 125 BC), called Nicator (Ancient Greek: Νικάτωρ, Nikátōr, "the Victor"), was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter possibly by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes. He ruled the Seleucid Empire for two periods, separated by a number of years of captivity in Hyrcania in Parthia: first from September 145 BC to July/August 138 BC and again from 129 BC until his death in 125 BC. His brother Antiochus VII ruled the Seleucid Empire in the interim between his two reigns.

Eastern nicator

The eastern nicator (Nicator gularis) is a species of songbird in the family Nicatoridae.

It is found in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, dry savanna, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland. It occurs south to around Mtunzini in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and is regularly reported from lowland areas north through to east Africa, including inland areas along the Zambezi River.This species was formerly called the "yellow-spotted nicator" although this is no longer the case, with that name now belonging solely to the central African western nicator.

Eumenes I

Eumenes I (Greek: Εὐμένης Αʹ) was dynast (ruler) of the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor from 263 BC until his death in 241 BC. He was the son of Eumenes, the brother of Philetaerus, the founder of the Attalid dynasty, and Satyra, daughter of Poseidonius. As he had no children, Philetaerus adopted Eumenes to become his heir.

Although nominally under Seleucid control, Pergamon under Philetaerus enjoyed considerable autonomy. However, upon his succession, Eumenes, perhaps with the encouragement of Ptolemy II, who was at war with the Seleucids, revolted, defeating the Seleucid king Antiochus I near the Lydian capital of Sardis in 261 BC. He was thus able to free Pergamon, and greatly increase the territories under his control. In his new possessions, he established garrison posts in the north at the foot of Mount Ida called Philetaireia after his adoptive father, and in the east, northeast of Thyatira near the sources of the river Lycus, called Attaleia after his grandfather, and he extended his control south of the river Caïcus to the Gulf of Cyme as well. Demonstrating his independence, he began to strike coins with the portrait of Philetaerus, while his predecessor had still depicted Seleucus I Nicator.

After the revolt from the Seleucids, there are no records of any further hostilities involving Pergamon during Eumenes' rule, even though there continued to be conflict between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, and even though the Galatian Gauls were continually plundering throughout the region. If Eumenes was able to keep Pergamon free from the ravages of the Gauls, it was probably because he paid them tribute.Although never assuming the title of "king," Eumenes did exercise all of the powers of one. Imitating other Hellenistic rulers, a festival in Eumenes' honour, called Eumeneia, was instituted in Pergamon.

It is not known whether he had children. A "Philetaerus son of Eumenes" is mentioned in an inscription in the town of Thespiae; some regard him as Eumenes' son, who would then have died before his father's death in 241. Eumenes adopted his first cousin once removed, Attalus I, who succeeded him as ruler of Pergamon.

List of Seleucid rulers

The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Greek: Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.

Seleucia Sidera

Seleucia Sidera (Greek: Σελεύκεια η Σιδηρᾶ, Seleukeia hê Sidêra; Latin: Seleucia Ferrea), also transliterated as Seleuceia, Seleukeia, and later known as Claudioseleucia, Greek Klaudioseleukeia, was an ancient city in the northern part of Pisidia, Anatolia, near the village of Bayat (old name Selef), near Atabey, about 15 km North-northeast of Isparta, Isparta Province, in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

Founded by Seleucus I Nicator or Antiochus I Soter to protect the military road across northern Pisidia. The city's surname Sidera (hê Sidêra, Ptol. v. 5. § 4; Hierocl. p. 673), is probably derives from iron-works in its vicinity. The city minted its own coins, some of which bear the image of the Asiatic divinity Men, who was worshipped at Antioch.

The city was restored by the Roman emperor Claudius, and the name was changed to Claudioseleucia. This name is retained on the city's coins down to the time of Claudius II, though in Ptolemy, the Synecdemus of Hierocles, and the Notitiae Dignitatum the name is recorded as Seleucia.

The city was Christianized early, its bishop, Eutychius being present at the Council of Nicaea in 325. [1]

The city is in ruins. Remnants of the city wall, a necropolis, and a theater can be found.

Seleucid–Mauryan war

The Seleucid–Mauryan War was fought between 305 and 303 BCE. It started when Seleucus I Nicator, of the Seleucid Empire, sought to retake the Indian satrapies of the Macedonian Empire which had been occupied by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, of the Maurya Empire.

The war ended in a settlement resulting in the annexation the Indus Valley region and part of Afghanistan to the Mauryan Empire, with Chandragupta securing control over the areas that he had sought, and a marriage alliance between the two powers. After the war, the Mauryan Empire emerged as the dominant power of the Indian Subcontinent, and the Seleucid Empire turned its attention toward defeating its rivals in the west.

Seleucus I Nicator

Seleucus I Nicator (; c. 358 BC – September 281 BC; Ancient Greek: Σέλευκος Αʹ Νικάτωρ, romanized: Séleukos Aʹ Nikátōr, lit. 'Seleucus I the Victor') was one of the Diadochi. Having previously served as an infantry general under Alexander the Great, he eventually assumed the title of basileus and established the Seleucid Empire over much of the territory in the Near East which Alexander had conquered.

After the death of Alexander in June 323 BC, Seleucus initially supported Perdiccas, the regent of Alexander's empire, and was appointed Commander of the Companions and chiliarch at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC. However, after the outbreak of the Wars of the Diadochi in 322, Perdiccas' military failures against Ptolemy in Egypt led to the mutiny of his troops in Pelusium. Perdiccas was betrayed and assassinated in a conspiracy by Seleucus, Peithon and Antigenes in Pelusium sometime in either 321 or 320 BC. At the Partition of Triparadisus in 321 BC, Seleucus was appointed Satrap of Babylon under the new regent Antipater. But almost immediately, the wars between the Diadochi resumed and Antigonus forced Seleucus to flee Babylon. Seleucus was only able to return to Babylon in 312 BC with the support of Ptolemy. From 312 BC, Seleucus ruthlessly expanded his dominions and eventually conquered the Persian and Median lands. Seleucus ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire.

Seleucus' wars took him as far as India, where, after two years of war (305–303 BC), he was defeated by the armies of the Maurya Empire and made peace by marrying his daughter to king Chandragupta, whereupon he was rewarded a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which would play a decisive role against Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and against Lysimachus at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. Seleucus' victories against Antigonus and Lysimachus left the Seleucid dynasty virtually unopposed in Asia and in Anatolia. However, Seleucus also hoped to take control of Lysimachus' European territories, primarily Thrace and Macedon itself. But upon arriving in Thrace in 281 BC, Seleucus was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had taken refuge at the Seleucid court with his sister Lysandra. The assassination of Seleucus destroyed Seleucid prospects in Thrace and Macedon, and paved the way for Ptolemy Ceraunus to absorb much of Lysimachus' former power in Macedon. Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus I as ruler of the Seleucid empire.

Seleucus founded a number of new cities during his reign, including Antioch (300 BC) and in particular Seleucia on the Tigris (c. 305 BC), the new capital of the Seleucid Empire, a foundation that eventually depopulated Babylon.

Seleucus V Philometor

The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor (Greek: Σέλευκος Ε΄ ὁ Φιλομήτωρ; 126/125 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the eldest son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea. The epithet Philometor means "mother-loving" and in the Hellenistic world usually indicated that the mother acted as co-regent for the prince.

Temple of Jupiter (Silifke)

Ruins of Temple of Jupiter refers to an archaeological site in Silifke, Turkey.

Silifke is an ilçe (district) in Mersin Province. Although the city which was founded by Seleucus I Nicator is an old city, the ground level of the city was elevated because of the floods caused by Göksu River (Calycadnus of the antiquity) and there aren't many archaeological remains on the surface of the present city fabric. Jupiter's temple is a notable exception because it was originally built on a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) high platform. Presently, there is no official restoration work on the ruins. But they are protected by fencing. They are situated to the west of the İnönü Boulevard of Silifke at 36°22′33″N 33°55′49″E.

Western nicator

The western nicator (Nicator chloris) is a species of songbird in the family Nicatoridae, which is native to the western and central Afrotropics.

Yellow-throated nicator

The yellow-throated nicator (Nicator vireo) is a species of songbird in the family Nicatoridae.

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