Nha Trang (/ˌnɑːˈtʃæŋ/; Vietnamese: [ɲaː˧ ʈaːŋ˧] (listen)) is a coastal city and capital of Khánh Hòa Province, on the South Central Coast of Vietnam. It is bounded on the north by Ninh Hoà district, on the south by Cam Ranh town and on the west by Diên Khánh District. The city has about 392,000 inhabitants, a number that is projected to increase to 560,000 by 2015 and 630,000 inhabitants by 2025. An area of 12.87 square kilometres (4.97 sq mi) of the western communes of Diên An and Diên Toàn is planned to be merged into Nha Trang which will make its new area 265.47 square kilometres (102.50 sq mi) based on the approval of the Prime Minister of Vietnam in September 2012.
Nha Trang is well known for its beaches and scuba diving and has developed into a popular destination for international tourists, attracting large numbers of backpackers, as well as more affluent travelers on the south-east Asia circuit; it is already very popular with Vietnamese tourists, with Nha Trang Bay widely considered as among the world's most beautiful bays. Tourists are welcomed to participate in the Sea Festival, held biennially. Nha Trang was the site of the Miss Universe 2008 Pageant on July 14, 2008 and Miss Earth 2010 was held on December 4, 2010. It was also the site for the April 14, 2015 season 8 finale of Face Off. Nha Trang was approved to host the 2016 Asian Beach Games.
Historically, the city was known as Kauthara under the Champa. The city is still home to the famous Po Nagar Tower built by the Champa. Being a coastal city, Nha Trang is a centre for marine science based at the Nha Trang Oceanography Institute. The Hon Mun marine protected area is one of four first marine protected areas in the world admitted by the IUCN.
Thành phố Nha Trang
|Nha Trang City|
Location in Vietnam
|Admin. division||Khánh Hòa Province|
|• People's Committee President||Lê Hữu Thọ|
|• People's Committee Vice President 1||Nguyễn Anh Tuấn|
|• People's Committee Vice President 2||Lê Huy Toàn|
|• People's Committee Vice President 3||Nguyễn Khắc Hà|
|• Total||251 km2 (97 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,675/km2 (4,340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||GMT + 7|
According to some researchers, the name Nha Trang derives from a Vietnamese spelling of the Cham language name of the site Ya Trang (literally "Reed River"), the name of the Cai River as referred to by the Cham people. From the name of this river, the name was adopted to call what is now Nha Trang, which was officially made Vietnam's territory in 1698. Ya Drang is a common Cham and Montagnard place name, same as Ia Drang Valley.
As far as the recorded naming of Nha Trang is concerned, in Toàn tập Thiên Nam Tứ Chí Lộ Đồ Thư, a geographical book written by a Vietnamese scholar with the family of Đỗ Bá in the second half of the 18th century, the name Nha Trang Môn ("Nha Trang gate") was mentioned. In another map dating to the 17th century, known as Giáp Ngọ Niên Bình Nam Đồ by a noble called Đoan Quận công Bùi Thế Đạt, the name Nha Trang Hải môn (Nha Trang Sea Gate) was also cited. In Vietnamese recorded historic bibliographies, these books are perhaps the earliest ones that mentioned this place name.
In a work by Lê Quý Đôn called Phủ biên tạp lục (1776), many Nha Trang-related names were mentioned, such as đầm Nha Trang, dinh Nha Trang, nguồn Nha Trang, and đèo Nha Trang. Some would say that the Nha Trang is actually a part of the Dead Sea in the early 1700s but the idea was then removed in 1738.
Kauthara, also translated as ancient clam, is a constituent state of the empire-leading kingdom and its ruling area is located in the area from today's Fu An province to Cam Ranh. Yanpunagara, the capital of Yangpu, occupies the faith of a man and is deeply influenced by religions such as Brahmanism and Buddhism. However, in addition to that, the gods who formerly occupied ruled the indigenous faith in the motherland, such as Çri Maladakuthara (釋利摩落陀古笪羅) in the ancient Gur'an region in the south, are one of those who can preserve the old God Most of the old gods who dominated the motherland were replaced by brahmanist gods such as the goddess Yan Pu Nagara (楊浦那竭羅)  and the Bhagavati (妻婆伽婆底), Replaced, located in Nha Trang near today. Bhagavati is mixed with Yan Pu Nagara, a goddess in the local faith, which is quite revered by the people and has dedicated ancestral temples to enshrine it.
From 1653 to the 19th century, Nha Trang was a deserted area rich in wildlife (animals like tigers) and was a part of Hà Bạc, Vĩnh Xương County, Diên Khánh Province. After just two decades in the early 20th century, Nha Trang underwent a rapid change. On August 30, 1924, the Governor-General of French Indochina decreed Nha Trang as a townlet (urban centre). Nha Trang Townlet was established from the ancient villages of Xương Huân, Phương Câu, Vạn Thạnh, Phương Sài, and Phước Hải.
During French Indochina, Nha Trang was seen as de facto capital of Khánh Hòa Province. The colonial administration offices (like Envoy Office, Commanding Office, Trade Office, Post Office) were situated in Nha Trang. Local royal offices like Province Chief, Provincial Judge, Military Commander are in Diên Khánh city (a walled military city 10 km south-west of Nha Trang).
On 7 May 1937, the Governor-General of French Indochina by another decree upgraded Nha Trang Townlet to town. At this time, Nha Trang Town had five wards based on the ancient villages merged to make the town: Xương Huân, Phương Câu, Vạn Thạnh, Phương Sài, and Phước Hải.
On 27 January 1958, the president of the Republic of Vietnam, Ngô Đình Diệm by Decree 18-BNV abrogated the town status of Nha Trang and divided Nha Trang into two rural communes: Nha Trang Đông (Eastern Nha Trang) and Nha Trang Tây (Western Nha Trang), under the administration of Vĩnh Xương County.
During the late 1960s, the U.S. Army's First Field Force, Vietnam (1FFV)was headquartered in Nha Trang. 1FFV was a corps-level major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV).
On 22 October 1970, the government of the Republic of Vietnam by Decree 132-SL/NV reestablished Nha Trang Town on the ground of Nha Trang Đông and Nha Trang Tây and other rural communes. Following that establishment, the government by Decree 357-ĐUHC/NC/NĐ dated 5 June 1971 divided Nha Trang into 11 urban zones.
On 2 April 1975, communist (Viet Cong/PRG/VPA) forces captured the city. On 4 April 1975, Khánh Hòa Military Commission (Ủy ban Quân quản Khánh Hòa) divided Nha Trang into three administrative districts: District 1, District 2 and Vĩnh Xương District. In September 1975, the districts were merged to become one entity, the town of Nha Trang.
On 30 March 1977, the Council of the Government (now the cabinet) of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam by Decision 391-CP/QĐ upgraded Nha Trang to city status, a county-level city under the administration of Phú Khánh Province (a province created by merger of now Phú Yên Province and Khánh Hòa Province). Seven communes of former Vĩnh Xương County, namely Vĩnh Thái, Vĩnh Ngọc, Vĩnh Hiệp, Vĩnh Lương, Vĩnh Trung, Vĩnh Thạnh, Vĩnh Phương was split from Khánh Xương County to become Nha Trang City territory.
On 27 March 1978, the provincial government by Decision 54-BT founded Phước Đồng Commune under Nha Trang City.
On 1 July 1989, Khanh Hoa was split from Phu Khanh Province to become Khánh Hòa Province as it was before, Nha Trang was made the capital of Khánh Hòa Province. On April 22, 1999, the prime minister by Decision 106/1999 recognized Nha Trang City the second class municipal city. On April 22, 2009, the prime minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng recognized Nha Trang City at the first class municipal city.
Nha Trang city has a metropolitan area of 251 km² and population of about 500,000. It borders Ninh Hòa town in the north, Cam Ranh city in the south, Diên Khánh town in the west and the East Sea to the east. The city is on the beautiful Nha Trang Bay, which was chosen by Travel + Leisure in two succeeding years as one of 29 most beautiful bays in the world. Nha Trang is surrounded on all three sides by mountains and a large island and four smaller ones on the fourth side (in the ocean directly in front of the city's main area), blocking major storms from potentially damaging the city.
Nha Trang has a tropical savanna climate with a lengthy dry season from January to August and a shorter wet season from September to December, when 1,029 millimetres (41 in) of the city's total annual rainfall of 1,361 millimetres (54 in) is received from the north-east monsoon. During the wet season extremely heavy rainfall from typhoons is not uncommon, though the city is shielded from the worst winds.
Nha Trang is subdivided into 27 wards and communes, of which 20 are urban wards: Vĩnh Hải, Vĩnh Phước, Vĩnh Thọ, Xương Huân, Vạn Thắng, Vạn Thạnh, Phương Sài, Phương Sơn, Ngọc Hiệp, Phước Hòa, Phước Tân, Phước Tiến, Phước Hải, Lộc Thọ, Tân Lập, Vĩnh Nguyên, Vĩnh Trường, Phước Long (founded in November 1998), Vĩnh Hòa (founded in April 2002); and 8 suburban communes: Vĩnh Phương, Vĩnh Trung, Vĩnh Thạnh, Vĩnh Thái, Vĩnh Hiệp, Vĩnh Ngọc, Vĩnh Lương, and Phước Đồng. Since 1998, due to the high pace of urbanization, many urban planned zones have been built: Hòn Rớ, Bắc Việt, Thánh Gia, Đường Đệ, and Nam Hòn Khô.
Nha Trang is home to the multidisciplinary Nha Trang University (formerly Nha Trang Fishery University); the Naval and Aviation Academy; a teacher's training college; Khanh Hoa University, as well as the Nha Trang Oceanography Institute a unique institute of oceanography in Vietnam and the Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang, one of the many famous Pasteur Institutes.
The French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin, discoverer of the Yersinia pestis bacterium lived in Nha Trang for 50 years and was affectionately known as Ông Năm. He established the Indochinese Pasteur Institute (now known as the Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang), devoted to researching the bubonic plague. Yersin died in Nha Trang on 1 March 1943. A street in the city is named after him, and a shrine has been built over his tomb. There is a Yersin Museum dedicated to his achievements.
Nha Trang's economy relies largely on tourism. In the suburban areas around the city, the shipbuilding industry has developed and contributed significantly to the local economy. Fishery and services are also important to the city. Khánh Hòa Province in general and Nha Trang is particular are among the largest contributors to Vietnam's annual budget revenues. Lobster farming on the sea is an important industry for the people living in suburb areas.
To the south of the city, by Cam Ranh Bay, several industrial parks are under construction and have been partly available for investors. Once the construction of the deep-water port on Vân Phong Bay has been completed, this area will become the third important economic zone in the province (besides Nha Trang and Cam Ranh).
Nha Trang is one of the most important tourist hubs of Vietnam, thanks to its beaches with fine and clean sand and the clear ocean water with mild temperatures all year round. There are several resorts — such as Vinpearl, Diamond Bay and Ana Mandara — and amusement and water parks, in the city and on islands off the coast. The possibly most beautiful street of Nha Trang is Tran Phu Street along the seaside, sometimes referred to as the Pacific Coast Highway of Vietnam.
Lying off Nha Trang is the Hon Tre Island (Bamboo Island), with a major resort operated by the Vinpearl Group. The Vinpearl Cable Car, a gondola lift system, links the mainland to the five-star resort and theme park on Hon Tre Island.
Nha Trang is a stopover for annual yacht races starting in Hong Kong. In recent years, the city has welcomed many five-star sea cruises. In addition to sailboat racing, Nha Trang provides a rich variety of tourist activities for visitors. Island hopping, scuba diving, water sports and other sporting activities can be enjoyed. The Nha Trang Tourist Information Center (a non-governmental organisation), located near the Cho Dam Market has been set up to provide information for visitors.
The local cuisine is most famous for fresh seafood and barbecued pork rolled in rice paper. The area's bird's nest soup is deemed one of the best in Vietnam. Bird's nests are collected in the wild, on bird farms on the islands off the coast and even in some houses in the inner city. The farmed bird in question belongs to the swiftlet group, popularly referred to as yến hàng (Aerodramus fuciphagus and A. germani).
Scuba diving and kite boarding are available, as are catamaran sailboats. Winds are steady.
Two local culinary specialities that attract people are bánh canh chả cá (bánh canh with fish paddies) and bún cá sứa (rice vermicelli with jelly fish).
The nightlife is known as superior to other coastal towns such as Mui Ne and Vũng Tàu It is usually busiest around the Vietnamese New Year and can be worth visiting most of the year, with the possible exception of the rainy period (especially November).
Many tourists enjoy the Nha Trang River Cai boat ride (locally known as Song Cai, as "song" means "river" in the Vietnamese language).
When Cam Ranh Bay used to be an important naval base, Nha Trang Airport was the main airport of the city. This airport was used by the United States Air Force and Republic of Vietnam Air Force during the Vietnam War. When part of Cam Ranh Bay was made an economic development zone by the Vietnamese government, Cam Ranh International Airport (also a military airport built by the United States during Vietnam War) was made the new civilian airport of the city. This airport is located by Cam Ranh Bay, 28 km (17 mi) south of the city and was (as of 2007) the fourth busiest airport in passenger traffic in Vietnam serving more than 683,000 passengers in 2008. As of 2016, the airport has domestic connections to Hanoi, Hồ Chí Minh City, Hải Phòng, Đà Nẵng, Vinh.
The city is next to the National Route 1A, the backbone north-south road of the country. The Reunification Railway crosses the city and stops at Nha Trang Railway Station. The construction work of Vân Phong Port, north of the city, a deep-water project capable of handling ships up to 100,000 tonnes, and with a capacity of 100 million tonnes of cargo per annum, is under progress by a consortium of Japanese corporations. The estimated investment capital for this port-city complex project is expected to reach US$15 billion.
Mexico City, Mexico
| Miss Universe
Atlantis Paradise Island
Boracay Convention Center
| Miss Earth
University of the Philippines Theater
Quezon City, Philippines
The 2011 FIBA Asia Under-16 Championship was the qualifying tournament for FIBA Asia at the Under-17 World Championship 2012 .The tournament was held in Nha Trang, Vietnam from October 18 to October 28. China defeated Korea in the championship to notch their second title, and both the finalists represented FIBA Asia in the 2012 FIBA Under-17 World Championship in Lithuania.Cam Ranh International Airport
Cam Ranh International Airport (IATA: CXR, ICAO: VVCR) (Vietnamese: Sân bay Quốc tế Cam Ranh) is located on Cam Ranh Bay in Cam Ranh, a town in Khánh Hòa Province in Vietnam. It serves the city of Nha Trang, which is 30 km (16 NM) from the airport.
This airport handled 4,858,362 passengers in 2016, 8,5 million passengers in 2018, and is estimated to handle 10 million passengers in 2019. This is the only airport in Vietnam that handles more international passengers than domestic passengers, with international passengers accounting for 70% in 2018 It is the fourth busiest airport in Vietnam.
Cam Ranh Terminal 1 is used for domestic flights and Cam Ranh Terminal 2 (managed by Cam Ranh International Terminal (CRTC) JSC) is used for international flights.InterContinental Nha Trang
The InterContinental Nha Trang is a beachfront hotel in Nha Trang, located between the Sheraton Nha Trang and the Havana hotel Nha Trang. Originally designed as a Crowne Plaza, the hotel underwent re-branding in 2013 and is now upgraded to an InterContinental hotel. The hotel is opened on March 17, 2014.Khatoco Khánh Hòa F.C.
Khatoco Khánh Hoà was a Vietnamese football club based in Nha Trang, Khánh Hòa. They played in the top division in Vietnamese football, V-League. Their home stadium is Nha Trang Stadium.Khánh Hòa Province
Khánh Hòa (listen) is a province of Vietnam located in the South Central Coast. It has a population of 1,066,300 and spans an area of 5,197 km². Its capital is Nha Trang. Khánh Hòa is the site of Bảo Đại's summer home, the Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang, the Institute of Oceanography, the Institute of Vaccines and Biological Substances, and was headquarters of the US Army's Special Forces ("the Green Berets") during the Vietnam War in the late 1950s and 1960s. Cam Ranh Bay port is on land closest to a deep sea drop in Vietnam - the best site for submarine bases in Vietnam. An ancient temple of Champa is on the north side of Nha Trang.List of tallest buildings in Vietnam
This list of tallest buildings in Vietnam ranks skyscrapers in Vietnam by height. The tallest building in Vietnam is the 81-storey Landmark 81 in Ho Chi Minh City, which was completed in 2018 at the height of 461.5 meters (1,514 ft). It is the fourteenth tallest building in the world.Skyscrapers of Ha Noi are scattered across the western and southern parts of the city, most notably in Nam Từ Liêm, Cầu Giấy, Thanh Xuân and Hoàng Mai districts. This is due to the fact that the city center around Hoàn Kiếm district has a height restriction to preserve the old traditional and French Colonial architecture. Skyscrapers of Ho Chi Minh City, on the other hand, mostly gather around the city center in District 1, District 7 and Bình Thạnh.Miss Universe 2008
Miss Universe 2008, the 57th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 14 July 2008 at the Crown Convention Center in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Dayana Mendoza of Venezuela was crowned by Riyo Mori of Japan as her successor at the end of the event. 80 contestants competed in this year which was broadcast and distributed globally via NBC in English and Telemundo in Spanish to TV outlets in more than 180 countries. The pageant was watched by a live audience of 7,500 and nearly a billion television viewers worldwide.This was the first major US-based television production to take place in Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War. This was also the first time that the Miss Universe pageant was broadcast in 1080i High-definition. This pageant was held in a contemporary Communist state for the first time as well.
The final presentation show was on 8 July, the dress rehearsal on 13 July, and the live telecast on 14 July. Most activities were held successively in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Danang, Hoi An, Ha Long and finally Nha Trang.
Jerry Springer, tabloid talk show host and host of NBC's America's Got Talent, and Melanie Brown, member of the UK pop group Spice Girls and host of TLC's The Singing Office, presented the competition.Miss Universe Vietnam
Miss Universe Vietnam (Vietnamese: Hoa hậu Hoàn vũ Việt Nam) is a two-year frequent national beauty pageant in Vietnam to select the country's representative to the Miss Universe, one of the Big Four major international beauty pageants.
The current Miss Universe Vietnam titleholder is H'Hen Niê from Đắk Lắk, who was crowned on January 6, 2018 in Nha Trang. She successfully cliched a Top 5 finisher at Miss Universe 2018 held on December 17 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand .Nha Trang Air Base
Nha Trang Air Base (IATA: NHA, ICAO: VVNT) (also known as Camp McDermott Airfield and Long Van Airfield) was a French Air Force, Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF), United States Air Force (USAF) and Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) (Khong Quan Nhan Dan Viet Nam) military airfield used during the Vietnam War. It is located on the southern edge of Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province.Nha Trang Airport
Nha Trang Airport may refer to the 2 airports serving Nha Trang, Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam.
Cam Ranh International Airport (IATA: CXR, ICAO: VVCR) - for civil use
Nha Trang Air Base (IATA: NHA, ICAO: VVNT) - previously used for both civil and military purposes, but civil use has been transferred to Cam Ranh Airport.Nha Trang Stadium
The Nha Trang Stadium, or officially Sân vận động 19 tháng 8, is a multi-use stadium in Nha Trang, Vietnam. It is currently used mostly for football matches and are the home stadium of Sanna Khánh Hòa BVN F.C. and 2016 Asian Beach Games. The stadium holds 25,000 people.Nha Trang University
Nha Trang University is a university in Nha Trang, Khánh Hòa Province, in Vietnam's South Central Coast. It is a multidisciplinary university with 29 specialities from vocational training to doctor's degrees.Nha Trang railway station
Nha Trang railway station is one of the main railway stations on the North-South Railway (Reunification Express) in Vietnam. It serves the city of Nha Trang.North–South expressway (Vietnam)
The North–South expressway (labelled CT.01) is a planned, in-construction Vietnamese expressway located very close to National Highway, running from Hanoi to Cần Thơ. The express way will be 1,941 km long, running from Hanoi to Cần Thơ with total cost estimate of VND 350 trillion (equivalent to US$18.5 billion). This expressway is being build with 16 sections with major milestones: Pháp Vân, Cầu Giẽ, Ninh Bình, Thanh Hóa, Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Trị, Đà Nẵng, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Nha Trang, Phan Thiết, Dầu Giây, Long Thành, Bến Lức, Trung Lương and Mỹ Thuận (Cần Thơ).
According to the approved master plan, 4 sections would be completed by 2010: Cầu Giẽ – Ninh Bình, TP Hồ Chí Minh – Trung Lương, Long Thành – Dầu Giây, Trung Lương – Mỹ Thuận – Cần Thơ, with the total length of 222 km, estimated cost of VND 53,135 billion.During 2011–2020, the following sections will be built: Ninh Bình – Thanh Hóa, Thanh Hóa – Vinh, Vinh – Hà Tĩnh, Cam Lộ – Đà Nẵng, Đà Nẵng – Quang Ngãi, Quảng Ngãi – Quy Nhơn, Nha Trang – Dầu Giây, Long Thành – Bến Lức, with a total length of 1,082 km, cost estimate of VND 185.046 billion (US$1 was equivalent to VND 22,700 as of November 2017).
After 2020, the Pháp Vân – Cầu Giẽ section will be expanded, the remaining sections of Hà Tĩnh – Quảng Trị, and Quy Nhơn – Nha Trang, with a total length of 507 km, cost estimate of VND 312,862 billion.Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang
The Pasteur Institute of Nha Trang (French: Institut Pasteur de Nha Trang, Vietnamese: Viện Pasteur Nha Trang) is one of two Institut Pasteur in Vietnam. Located in Nha Trang, it was established during the French colonization of Vietnam. It operates directly under the authority of the Vietnamese Ministry of Health.Roman Catholic Diocese of Nha Trang
The diocese of Nha Trang (Latin: Dioecesis Nhatrangensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese of Vietnam. The current bishop is Joseph Võ Đức Minh, since December 4, 2009.
The creation of the diocese in present form was declared November 24, 1960.
The diocese covers an area of 9,486 km², and is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Huế.
By 2013, the diocese of Nha Trang had about 200,385 Catholics (11.2% of the population), 191 priests and 90 parishes.Christ the King Cathedral in Nha Trang has been assigned as the Cathedral of the diocese.Scotty Nguyen
Thuận B. "Scotty" Nguyễn (born October 28, 1962) is a Vietnamese American professional poker player who is a five-time World Series of Poker (WSOP) bracelet winner, most notably as the winner of the 1998 World Series of Poker Main Event and the 2008 World Series of Poker $50,000 H.O.R.S.E. World Championship. He is the first and currently only player to win both the WSOP Main Event and $50,000 Players' Championship.USS Jerome County (LST-848)
USS Jerome County (LST-848) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after Jerome County, Idaho, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.
USS LST-848 was laid down on 6 November 1944 at Ambridge, Pennsylvania by the American Bridge Company; launched on 21 December 1944, sponsored by Mrs. F. D. Porter; and commissioned on 20 January 1945 with Lieutenant R. P. Bentley, USNR, in command.Vietnam Airlines Flight 474
Vietnam Airlines Flight 474 crashed on approach to Nha Trang Airport on 14 November 1992 during Cyclone Forrest. The aircraft was a Yakovlev Yak-40 registered VN-A449. One passenger survived, while the other 24 passengers and six crew were killed.
|Climate data for Nha Trang|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.9
|Average high °C (°F)||26.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||23.9
|Average low °C (°F)||21.3
|Record low °C (°F)||14.6
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||38
|Average rainy days||7.8||4.0||3.3||4.3||8.5||9.2||8.4||9.6||15.2||17.7||17.6||14.0||119.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||78.0||78.8||79.7||80.5||79.3||77.8||77.2||77.4||80.4||83.2||81.8||79.5||79.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||185||208||261||258||255||230||242||233||202||183||142||142||2,540|
|Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology|