Ngoni is a Bantu language of Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Malawi. It is one of several languages of the Ngoni people, who descend from the Nguni people of southern Africa, and the language is a member of the Nguni subgroup, with the variety spoken in Malawi sometimes referred to as a dialect of Zulu. Other languages spoken by the Ngoni may also be referred to as "Chingoni"; many Ngoni in Malawi, for instance, speak Chewa, and other Ngoni speak Tumbuka or Nsenga.
|Native to||Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, Malawi|
Tsonga () or Xitsonga (Tsonga: Xitsonga) is a Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people. It is mutually intelligible with Tswa and Ronga, and the name "Tsonga" is often used as a cover term for all three, also sometimes referred to as Tswa-Ronga. The Xitsonga language has been standardized for both academic and home use, making it the base language for the Tsonga people. Like with many other languages, there are various dialects within the Tsonga language group.Tumbuka people
The Tumbuka, ŵaTumbuka, Batumbuka, Kamanga and sometimes Henga although this is strictly speaking the name of a subdivision, is an ethnic group found in Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia and Southern Tanzania. Tumbuka is classified as a part of the Bantu language family, and with origins in a geographic region between the Dwangwa River to the south, the North Rukuru River to the north, Lake Malawi to the east, and the Luangwa River. They are found in the valleys near the rivers, lake as well as the highlands of Nyika Plateau.The Tumbuka people were a victim of invasion and raiding by the Ngoni tribe, which originated in South Africa, of socio-politics behind the ivory trade, and by slave trading controlled by the so-called Arabs, a group including Swahili and non-Muslim Africans. but subsequently prospered in the colonial period as the result of the educational opportunities they benefited from. The Tumbuka have had a subsistence farming culture, with many adult men leaving their families to seekg migrant work.W. A. Elmslie
Rev. Walter Angus Elmslie (1856-1935) was a Scottish missionary of the Livingstonia Mission in Malawi and associate of Robert Laws.
Note: The Guthrie classification is geographic and its groupings do not imply a relationship between the languages within them.