The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.
See below for the conversion factors.
Newton  

Visualization of one newton of force  
General information  
Unit system  SI derived unit 
Unit of  Force 
Symbol  N 
Named after  Sir Isaac Newton 
Conversions  
1 N in ...  ... is equal to ... 
SI base units  1 kg⋅m⋅s^{−2} 
British Gravitational System  0.2248089 lb_{f} 
One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in the direction of the applied force.
In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. In 1948, the 9th CGPM Resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force. The MKS system then became the blueprint for today's SI system of units. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in the Système international d'unités (SI), or International System of Units.
This SI unit is named after Isaac Newton. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case (N). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it is treated as a common noun and should always begin with a lower case letter (newton)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case.
In more formal terms, Newton's second law of motion states that the force exerted by an object is directly proportional to the acceleration of that object, namely:^{[1]}
where the proportionality constant, , represents the mass of the object undergoing an acceleration, . As a result, the newton may be defined in terms of kilograms (), metres (), and seconds () by
At average gravity on Earth (conventionally, g = 9.80665 m/s^{2}), a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An averagesized apple exerts about one newton of force, which we measure as the apple's weight.^{[2]}
The weight of an average adult exerts a force of about 608 N.
It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons (kN) where 1 kN = 1000 N. For example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train locomotive and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN.
One kilonewton, 1 kN, is 102.0 kgf, or about 100 kg of load.
So for example, a platform that shows it is rated at 321 kilonewtons (72,000 lb_{f}), will safely support a 32,100 kilograms (70,800 lb) load.
Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for:
newton (SI unit) 
dyne  kilogramforce, kilopond 
poundforce  poundal  

1 N  ≡ 1 kg⋅m/s^{2}  = 10^{5} dyn  ≈ 0.10197 kp  ≈ 0.22481 lbf  ≈ 7.2330 pdl 
1 dyn  = 10^{−5} N  ≡ 1 g⋅cm/s^{2}  ≈ 1.0197 × 10^{−6} kp  ≈ 2.2481 × 10^{−6} lbf  ≈ 7.2330 × 10^{−5} pdl 
1 kp  = 9.80665 N  = 980665 dyn  ≡ g_{n} ⋅ (1 kg)  ≈ 2.2046 lbf  ≈ 70.932 pdl 
1 lbf  ≈ 4.448222 N  ≈ 444822 dyn  ≈ 0.45359 kp  ≡ g_{n} ⋅ (1 lb)  ≈ 32.174 pdl 
1 pdl  ≈ 0.138255 N  ≈ 13825 dyn  ≈ 0.014098 kp  ≈ 0.031081 lbf  ≡ 1 lb⋅ft/s^{2} 
The value of g_{n} as used in the official definition of the kilogramforce is used here for all gravitational units. 
Base  Force  Weight  Mass  

2nd law of motion  m = F/a  F = W ⋅ a/g  F = m ⋅ a  
System  BG  GM  EE  M  AE  CGS  MTS  SI 
Acceleration (a)  ft/s^{2}  m/s^{2}  ft/s^{2}  m/s^{2}  ft/s^{2}  Gal  m/s^{2}  m/s^{2} 
Mass (m)  slug  hyl  poundmass  kilogram  pound  gram  tonne  kilogram 
Force (F), weight (W) 
pound  kilopond  poundforce  kilopond  poundal  dyne  sthène  newton 
Pressure (p)  pound per square inch  technical atmosphere  poundforce per square inch  atmosphere  poundal per square foot  barye  pieze  pascal 
Multiples  Prefix name  deca  hecto  kilo  mega  giga  tera  peta  exa  zetta  yotta  

Prefix symbol  da  h  k  M  G  T  P  E  Z  Y  
Factor  10^{0}  10^{1}  10^{2}  10^{3}  10^{6}  10^{9}  10^{12}  10^{15}  10^{18}  10^{21}  10^{24}  
Submultiples  Prefix name  deci  centi  milli  micro  nano  pico  femto  atto  zepto  yocto  
Prefix symbol  d  c  m  μ  n  p  f  a  z  y  
Factor  10^{0}  10^{−1}  10^{−2}  10^{−3}  10^{−6}  10^{−9}  10^{−12}  10^{−15}  10^{−18}  10^{−21}  10^{−24} 
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Early life of Isaac NewtonThe following article is part of a biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and scientist, author of the Principia. It portrays the years after Newton's birth in 1642, his education, as well as his early scientific contributions, before the writing of his main work, the Principia Mathematica, in 1685.
Fluent (mathematics)A fluent is a timevarying quantity or variable. The term was used by Isaac Newton in his early calculus to describe his form of a function. The concept was introduced by Newton in 1665 and detailed in his mathematical treatise, Method of Fluxions. Newton described any variable that changed its value as a fluent – for example, the velocity of a ball thrown in the air. The derivative of a fluent is known as a fluxion, the main focus of Newton's calculus. A fluent can be found from its corresponding fluxion through integration.
FluxionThe fluxion of a "fluent" (a timevarying quantity, or function) is its instantaneous rate of change, or gradient, at a given point. Fluxions were introduced by Isaac Newton to describe his form of a time derivative (a derivative with respect to time). Newton introduced the concept in 1665 and detailed them in his mathematical treatise, Method of Fluxions. Fluxions and fluents made up Newton's early calculus.
Glossary of aerospace engineeringMost of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, glossaries like this one are useful for looking up, comparing and reviewing large numbers of terms together. You can help enhance this page by adding new terms or writing definitions for existing ones.
This glossary of aerospace engineering terms pertains specifically to aerospace engineering and its subdisciplines. For a broad overview of engineering, see glossary of engineering.
Index of aerospace engineering articlesThis is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to aerospace engineering. For a broad overview of engineering, see List of engineering topics. For biographies, see List of engineers.
Index of physics articles (N)The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.
Isaac Newton Group of TelescopesThe Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes or ING consists of three optical telescopes: the William Herschel Telescope, the Isaac Newton Telescope, and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, operated by a collaboration between the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Dutch NWO and the Spanish IAC. The telescopes are located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands.
These telescopes were formerly under the control of the Royal Greenwich Observatory before UK government cutbacks in 1998.
Isaac Newton TelescopeThe Isaac Newton Telescope or INT is a 2.54 m (100 in.) optical telescope run by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands since 1984.
Originally the INT was situated at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex, England, which was the site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory after it moved away from Greenwich due to light pollution. It was inaugurated in 1967 by Queen Elizabeth II.Herstmonceux suffered from poor weather, and the advent of mass air travel made it plausible for UK astronomers to run an overseas observatory. In 1979, the INT was shipped to La Palma, where it has remained ever since. It saw its second first light in 1984, with a video camera.Today, it is used mostly with the Wide Field Camera (WFC), a four CCD instrument with a field of view of 0.56x0.56 square degrees which was commissioned in 1997. The other main instrument available at the INT is the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS), recently reintroduced having been unavailable for a period of several years.
List of things named after Isaac NewtonThis is a list of things named after Isaac Newton.
Base units  

Derived units with special names  
Other accepted units  
See also  

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