The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.
See below for the conversion factors.
Visualization of one newton of force
|Unit system||SI derived unit|
|Named after||Sir Isaac Newton|
|1 N in ...||... is equal to ...|
|SI base units||1 kg⋅m⋅s−2|
|British Gravitational System||0.2248089 lbf|
In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. In 1948, the 9th CGPM Resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force. The MKS system then became the blueprint for today's SI system of units. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in the Système international d'unités (SI), or International System of Units.
This SI unit is named after Isaac Newton. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case (N). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it is treated as a common noun and should always begin with a lower case letter (newton)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case.
At average gravity on Earth (conventionally, g = 9.80665 m/s2), a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An average-sized apple exerts about one newton of force, which we measure as the apple's weight.
The weight of an average adult exerts a force of about 608 N.
It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons (kN) where 1 kN = 1000 N. For example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train locomotive and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN.
One kilonewton, 1 kN, is 102.0 kgf, or about 100 kg of load.
So for example, a platform that shows it is rated at 321 kilonewtons (72,000 lbf), will safely support a 32,100 kilograms (70,800 lb) load.
Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for:
|1 N||≡ 1 kg⋅m/s2||= 105 dyn||≈ 0.10197 kp||≈ 0.22481 lbf||≈ 7.2330 pdl|
|1 dyn||= 10−5 N||≡ 1 g⋅cm/s2||≈ 1.0197 × 10−6 kp||≈ 2.2481 × 10−6 lbf||≈ 7.2330 × 10−5 pdl|
|1 kp||= 9.80665 N||= 980665 dyn||≡ gn ⋅ (1 kg)||≈ 2.2046 lbf||≈ 70.932 pdl|
|1 lbf||≈ 4.448222 N||≈ 444822 dyn||≈ 0.45359 kp||≡ gn ⋅ (1 lb)||≈ 32.174 pdl|
|1 pdl||≈ 0.138255 N||≈ 13825 dyn||≈ 0.014098 kp||≈ 0.031081 lbf||≡ 1 lb⋅ft/s2|
|The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all gravitational units.|
|2nd law of motion||m = F/||F = W ⋅ a/||F = m ⋅ a|
|Pressure (p)||pound per square inch||technical atmosphere||pound-force per square inch||atmosphere||poundal per square foot||barye||pieze||pascal|
Cite error: A list-defined reference named "ISU1977" is not used in the content (see the help page).Early life of Isaac Newton
The following article is part of a biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and scientist, author of the Principia. It portrays the years after Newton's birth in 1642, his education, as well as his early scientific contributions, before the writing of his main work, the Principia Mathematica, in 1685.Fluent (mathematics)
A fluent is a time-varying quantity or variable. The term was used by Isaac Newton in his early calculus to describe his form of a function. The concept was introduced by Newton in 1665 and detailed in his mathematical treatise, Method of Fluxions. Newton described any variable that changed its value as a fluent – for example, the velocity of a ball thrown in the air. The derivative of a fluent is known as a fluxion, the main focus of Newton's calculus. A fluent can be found from its corresponding fluxion through integration.Fluxion
The fluxion of a "fluent" (a time-varying quantity, or function) is its instantaneous rate of change, or gradient, at a given point. Fluxions were introduced by Isaac Newton to describe his form of a time derivative (a derivative with respect to time). Newton introduced the concept in 1665 and detailed them in his mathematical treatise, Method of Fluxions. Fluxions and fluents made up Newton's early calculus.Glossary of aerospace engineering
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, glossaries like this one are useful for looking up, comparing and reviewing large numbers of terms together. You can help enhance this page by adding new terms or writing definitions for existing ones.
This glossary of aerospace engineering terms pertains specifically to aerospace engineering and its sub-disciplines. For a broad overview of engineering, see glossary of engineering.Index of aerospace engineering articles
This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to aerospace engineering. For a broad overview of engineering, see List of engineering topics. For biographies, see List of engineers.Index of physics articles (N)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes
The Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes or ING consists of three optical telescopes: the William Herschel Telescope, the Isaac Newton Telescope, and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope, operated by a collaboration between the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Dutch NWO and the Spanish IAC. The telescopes are located at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands.
These telescopes were formerly under the control of the Royal Greenwich Observatory before UK government cutbacks in 1998.Isaac Newton Telescope
The Isaac Newton Telescope or INT is a 2.54 m (100 in.) optical telescope run by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands since 1984.
Originally the INT was situated at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex, England, which was the site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory after it moved away from Greenwich due to light pollution. It was inaugurated in 1967 by Queen Elizabeth II.Herstmonceux suffered from poor weather, and the advent of mass air travel made it plausible for UK astronomers to run an overseas observatory. In 1979, the INT was shipped to La Palma, where it has remained ever since. It saw its second first light in 1984, with a video camera.Today, it is used mostly with the Wide Field Camera (WFC), a four CCD instrument with a field of view of 0.56x0.56 square degrees which was commissioned in 1997. The other main instrument available at the INT is the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS), recently re-introduced having been unavailable for a period of several years.List of things named after Isaac Newton
This is a list of things named after Isaac Newton.
|Derived units |
with special names
|Other accepted units|