News presenter

A news presenter – also known as a newsreader, newscaster (short for "news broadcaster"), anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or simply an anchor – is a person who presents news during a news program on the television, on the radio or on the Internet. They may also be a working journalist, assisting in the collection of news material and may, in addition, provide commentary during the program. News presenters most often work from a television studio or radio studio, but may also present the news from remote locations in the field related to a particular major news event.

Overview

The role of the news presenter developed over time. Classically, the presenter would read the news from news "copy" which he may or may not have helped write with a or news writer. This was often taken almost directly from wire services and then rewritten. Prior to the television era, radio-news broadcasts often mixed news with opinion and each presenter strove for a distinctive style. These presenters were referred to as commentators. The last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the United States was Paul Harvey.[1]

With the development of the 24-hour news cycle and dedicated cable news channels, the role of the anchor evolved. Anchors would still present material prepared for a news program, but they also interviewed experts about various aspects of breaking news stories, and themselves provided improvised commentary, all under the supervision of the producer, who coordinated the broadcast by communicating with the anchor through an earphone. Many anchors also write or edit news for their programs, although modern news formats often distinguish between anchor and commentator in an attempt to establish the "character" of a news anchor. The mix of "straight" news and commentary varies depending on the type of program and the skills and knowledge of the particular anchor.[2]

Etymology of "anchor"

WHIO-TV News Set Kettering OH USA
News set for WHIO-TV in Dayton, Ohio. News anchors often report from sets such as this, located in or near the newsroom.

The terms anchor and anchorman are derived from the usage common in relay racing,[3] specifically the anchor leg,[4] where the position is typically given to the fastest or most experienced competitor on a team. In 1948, "anchor man" was used in the game show "Who Said That?" to refer to John Cameron Swayze, who was a permanent panel member of the show, in what may be the first usage of this term on television.[5] The anchor term then became commonly used by 1952 to describe the most prominent member of a panel of reporters or experts. The term "anchorman" also was used to describe Walter Cronkite's role at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, where he coordinated switches between news points and reporters.[3]

The widespread claim that news anchors were called "cronkiters" in Swedish[6] has been debunked by linguist Ben Zimmer.[7]

Criticisms

Brian Williams interviews Mitt Romney, July 25, 2012
Brian Williams interviews Mitt Romney on July 25, 2012, during Romney's presidential campaign.

Anchors occupy a contestable role in news broadcasts. Some argue anchors have become sensationalized characters whose identities overshadow the news itself,[8] while others cite anchors as necessary figureheads of "wisdom and truth"[9] in the news broadcast. The role of the anchor has changed in recent years following the advent of satirical journalism and citizen journalism, both of which relocate the interpretation of truth outside traditional professional journalism, but the place anchormen and anchorwomen hold in American media remains consistent. "Just about every single major news anchor since the dawn of the medium after World War II has been aligned with show business," says Frank Rich, writer-at-large for New York Magazine, in a polemic against commoditized news reporting, "reading headlines to a camera in an appealing way is incentivized over actual reporting".[9] Brian Williams, an anchor for NBC Nightly News, evidences this lapse in credibility generated by the celebration of the role of the anchor. In early 2015, Williams apologized to his viewers for fabricating stories of his experiences on the scene of major news events, an indiscretion resulting in a loss of 700,000 viewers for NBC Nightly News.[10] David Folkenflik of NPR asserted that the scandal "corrodes trust in the anchor, in NBC and in the greater profession",[8] exhibiting the way in which the credibility of the anchor extends beyond his or her literal place behind the news desk and into the expectation of the news medium at large. CBS's long-running nighttime news broadcast 60 Minutes displays this purported superfluousness of anchors, insofar as it has no central figurehead in favor of many correspondents with similarly important roles. Up-and-coming news networks like Vice Magazine's documentary-style reporting also eschew traditional news broadcast formatting in this way, suggesting an emphasis on on-site reporting and deemphasizing the importance of the solitary anchor in the news medium. In her essay, "News as Performance", Margaret Morse posits this connection between anchor persona newsroom as an interconnected identity fusing many aspects of the newsroom dynamic:

For the anchor represents not merely the news per se, or a particular network or corporate conglomerate that owns the network, or television as an institution, or the public interest; rather, he represents the complex nexus of all of them. In this way, the network anchor position is a "symbolic representation of the institutional order as an integrated totality" (Berger and Luckmann 1967, p. 76), an institutional role on par with that of the president or of a Supreme Court justice, although the role originates in corporate practices rather than political or judicial processes. [...][11]

Despite the anchor's construction of a commodified, aestheticized version of the news, some critics defend the role of the anchor in society, claiming that he or she functions as a necessary conduit of credibility. The news anchor's position as an omnipotent arbiter of information results from his or her place behind a typically elevated desk, wherefrom he or she interacts with reporters through a screen-within-screen spatial setup. A criticism levied against the role of anchor stems from this dynamic, insofar as anchors simply "... regurgitat[e] or reproduc[e] the report of others...", differentiating them from the productive occupations of journalists and on-site reporters.[9] However, journalism professor Elly Alboim articulates the pro-anchor position by characterizing the anchor's nightly presence as a necessary way to build familiarity and trust between the network and its viewers: "People tend to want to believe and trust in television new and start, really, from the anchor".[8] Beneficial or not, the anchor fits snugly into the "personality cult" engendered within American society that encourages celebrity that demands a hierarchy of authority, evidenced by the negligible change in ratings following implementation of new anchors in broadcast lineups.[8] The identity of a particular anchor seems to influence viewer perception less than the presence of an anchor in general.

Finally, the role of the anchor correlates with the analogous, authority- and information-bearing positions already well-established in American politics, and the benefits it confers upon the political realm elucidate the compatibility between these two systems of information. Once again, Morse outlines this relationship between the anchor and the larger context in which they operate: "[s]ince there are few other organs for inclusive and substantial discourse on social and cultural values in American life, the responsibility for interpreting the world and posing a political course of action and a social agenda falls on a very limited number of public personas, including such news personalities and the president".[11] She levies a criticism against the anchor in this case, claiming that by decreasing the number of people responsible for delivering the news, American viewers receive a bottlenecked stream of information about their surroundings. The choreography and performativity involved in the construction of the news broadcast dramatizes political processes, but in doing so, exposes its flattening of subjectivity and insistence upon itself as the final word of truth. More specifically, "the news media may do 'an important social good when using the techniques of dramaturgy to make governance more interesting to people than would be the case otherwise.' At the same time, however, 'there is an important difference between drama and democracy, with the former requiring spectators and the latter participants.'"[12] In contrast to perceptions of the news as a one-sided relationship with its viewers, some believe that the news works in conjunction with its audience to produce the most efficient picture possible of the world. Tom Brokaw, in speaking about his experiences as a news anchor for NBC, explained how news stories for the length of their duration tend to feed off viewers' demands, and that news is inherently a "populist medium", and that "[p]eople are not going to turn to television networks for a historically accurate and detailed description of what happened."[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Dunning, John. "The Encyclopedia of Old Time Radio."
  2. ^ News broadcasting#United States
  3. ^ a b Zimmer, Ben (July 18, 2009). "Was CronkiteReally the First "Anchorman"? How we came to use the term". Slate.
  4. ^ Hewitt, Don (2002). Tell Me A Story: 50 Years and 60 Minutes in Television. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 55. ... everybody who did what Walter Cronkite did would be called an "anchorman" ... And just as the fastest man on a relay team runs the anchor leg, Cronkite would run the anchor leg for us
  5. ^ "If Cronkite wasn't TV's first anchorman, who was?". Futurity. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
  6. ^ Walter Cronkite dies, a July 17, 2009 article from the Philadelphia Inquirer
  7. ^ Zimmer, Ben. "The Mystery of "Cronkiters" : Word Routes : Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus". Visualthesaurus.com. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d "Brian Williams Case Raises Fundamental Questions About An Anchor's Role" (Radio broadcast). National Public Radio. February 12, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c "Should the TV news anchor go the way of the dodo?". the q (radio broadcast). April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015 – via http://www.cbc.ca.
  10. ^ Starr, Michael (February 18, 2015). "'NBC Nightly News' loses 700K viewers after Brian Williams scandal". The New York Post. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  11. ^ a b Morse, Margaret (2004). Robert C. Allan & Annette Hill, ed. The Television Studies Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 213. ISBN 9780415283243.
  12. ^ Hart, Roderick (2000). Campaign Talk: Why Elections Are Good for Us. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 182. ISBN 1-4008-0354-3.
  13. ^ Brokaw, Tom (Spring 1993). "Broadcast News: Television Coverage and Public Opinion". Harvard International Review: 37. JSTOR 42761120.(subscription required)
Alicia Loxley

Alicia Loxley (née Gorey) is an Australian journalist and news presenter.

Loxley is currently weekend news presenter on Nine News Melbourne and Nine Afternoon News Melbourne.

Amber Sherlock

Amber Simone Sherlock (née Higlett) is an Australian journalist, television news presenter and reporter. She currently presents the weather on Nine News Sydney and hosts the daily national one hour news bulletin Nine News Now.

Ann Sanders

Ann Sanders is an Australian television journalist and news presenter.

Sanders is currently the presenter of Seven Morning News and Seven Afternoon News Sydney.

Deborah Knight

Deborah Knight (born 23 November 1972) is an Australian journalist, television presenter and news presenter.

Knight is currently a co-host of the Nine Network's breakfast program Today alongside Georgie Gardner and presents Nine News Sydney on Friday and Saturdays.

Greg Pearce (news presenter)

Greg Pearce is an Australian journalist.

Jennifer Keyte

Jennifer Anne Keyte (born 21 January 1960) is an Australian journalist and news presenter.

Keyte currently presents 10 News First in Melbourne. She was previously a weekend news presenter on Seven News in Melbourne.

Juanita Phillips

Juanita Phillips (born 11 October 1963 in Brisbane) is an Australian journalist and news presenter. Phillips is currently weeknight presenter of ABC News NSW in Sydney.

List of New Zealand television personalities

This is a list of New Zealand television personalities, including presenters and journalists. It includes those who left the profession, retired, or died.

Lukwesa Burak

Lukwesa Burak (; born 1974) is a news and weather presenter for BBC News. Previously, she was a presenter and interviewer for Al Jazeera, Sky News and before that Africa Edition on eNCA (formerly known as eNews Channel), based in South Africa. She was formerly a weather forecaster and then news presenter in the United Kingdom, for East Midlands Today, a regional television news programme covering the Midlands area of Central England, followed by news presenter for Sky News, the 24-hour television news service operated by Sky Television, part of British Sky Broadcasting, based in London. She became a news presenter for eNCA in August 2012. She is a regular presenter of World News Today on BBC Four, BBC World News and the BBC News Channel on as well as afternoons and evenings on Saturdays and Sundays.

Mark Ferguson (news presenter)

Mark Ferguson (born 22 February 1966) is a news presenter.

Ferguson is currently weeknight presenter for Seven News in Sydney.

He was previously a senior news presenter with Nine News Sydney, presenting the weeknight news bulletin.

Michael Rowland (news presenter)

Michael Rowland (born 8 July 1968) is an Australian television news presenter and journalist. He is currently co-host of the ABC's News Breakfast alongside Virginia Trioli.

Natalie Barr

Natalie Anne Barr (born 19 March 1968) is an Australian journalist, news and television presenter.

Barr is currently news presenter on the Seven Network's Sunrise.

Peter Hitchener

Peter Donald Beauchamp Hitchener OAM (born 21 February 1946) is an Australian television presenter. He has been the chief news presenter for GTV-9 of their flagship bulletin Nine News Melbourne since 1998, and prior to that was the weekend news presenter.

Pia Dijkstra

Pietje Aafke (Pia) Dijkstra (born 9 December 1954 in Franeker) is a Dutch politician and chair of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Dutch House of Representatives. Ms Dijkstra is a member of Democrats 66 (D66) and has been an MP since 17 June 2010.

Before she was elected to parliament, she was a television (news) presenter. From 1988 to 2000 she was news anchor of the main Dutch public news broadcaster NOS Journaal.

Ray Kennedy (journalist)

Ray Kennedy is an Irish news journalist who works with RTÉ, Irish national television and radio.

He has been Ireland correspondent for Sky News in Dublin. He was one of the Sky News Ireland's two anchors for its weeknightly programmes with colleague Brian Daly, following the departure of previous Sky News Ireland anchor Gráinne Seoige.

Ross Symonds

Ross Symonds (born 1942) is an Australian former news presenter and reporter, television and radio personality and spokesperson, best known for his association with the ABC and later the Seven Network in Sydney from the 1980s until the early 2000s.

Sharyn Ghidella

Sharyn Ghidella (born 1966) is an Australian journalist and news presenter.

Ghidella currently presents Seven News Brisbane with Max Futcher from Monday to Friday.

Star Awards for Best News Presenter

The Best News Presenter is an award presented annually at the Star Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1994.

The category was introduced in 2010, at the 16th Star Awards ceremony. It was introduced as a result of the discontinuation of the Best News/Current Affairs Presenter award to create distinctions news and current affairs presenters.

The award is given in honour of a Mediacorp presenter who has delivered an outstanding performance in a news programme. The nominees are determined by a team of judges employed by Mediacorp; winners are selected by a majority vote from the entire judging panel.

Since its inception, the award has been given to four presenters. Zhao Wenbei is the inaugural and most recent winner in this category, and also the only presenter to win in this category twice since the ceremony held in 2013. In addition, Lin Chi Yuan, Tung Soo Hua, Zhang Haijie, and Zhao have been nominated on four occasions, more than any other presenter. Wang Zheng holds the record for the most nominations without a win, with two.

The award is currently being suspended and have not been presented since 2014 due to the lack of eligible nominees.

Wendy Kingston

Wendy Kingston (born 25 June 1981) is an Australian journalist and television news presenter.

Kingston currently presents the Queensland edition of Nine’s Afternoon News.

Roles
Profession
Areas
Genres
Social impact
News media

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.