News Industry Text Format (NITF) is an XML specification designed to standardize the content and structure of individual text news articles.
The NITF specification defines a standard way to mark up an article's content and structure, as well as a wide variety of metadata that different organizations may choose to use.
Additionally, multimedia can be associated with articles, although NITF does not allow for layout of multimedia within article text. Since NITF files are XML, they can be easily parsed, as well as transformed via XSLT to other formats.
The format is widely used across the news industry. Newspapers such as The New York Times, amongst others, news agencies such as Associated Press and Agence France-Presse, and archival services such as LexisNexis use NITF for inter-agency transmission of news as well as internal transmission and storage.
NITF was developed jointly by the International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) and the Newspaper Association of America, the two major standards organizations of the global and the US American news industry. It started out as a SGML specification prior to its XML incarnation.
ANPA-1312 is a 7-bit news agency text markup specification published by the Newspaper Association of America, designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles.
It was last modified in 1989 and is still the most common method of transmitting news to newspapers, web sites and broadcasters from news agencies in North and South America. Although the specification provides for 1200 bit-per-second transmission speeds, modern transmission technology removes any speed limitations.
Using fixed metadata fields and a series of control and other special characters, ANPA 1312 was designed to feed text stories to both teleprinters and computer-based news editing systems.
Although the specification was based upon the 7-bit ASCII character set, some characters were declared to be replaced by traditional newspaper characters, e.g. small fractions and typesetting code. As such, it was a bridge between older typesetting methods, newspaper traditions and newer technology.
Perhaps the best known part of ANPA-1312 was the category code system, which allowed articles to be categorized by a single letter. For example, sports articles were assigned category S, and articles about politics were assigned P. Many newspapers found the system convenient and sorted both incoming news agency and staff articles by ANPA-1312 categories.
Superseded in the early 1990s by IPTC Information Interchange Model and later by the XML-based News Industry Text Format, ANPA-1312's popularity in North America remains strong due, in part, to its widespread support by The Associated Press and the reluctance of newspapers to invest in new computers or software modifications.
A modified version — but with the same name — was implemented by several news agencies after the vendor of some early computer systems modified the specification for its own purposes.
An international standard, IPTC 7901, is widely used in Europe and is closely related to ANPA-1312.Associated Press
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.
The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.
The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.
Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.IPTC 7901
IPTC 7901 is a news service text markup specification published by the International Press Telecommunications Council that was designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles. It was formally approved in 1979, and is still the world’s most common way of transmitting news articles to newspapers, web sites and broadcasters from news services.
Using fixed metadata fields and a series of control and other special characters, IPTC 7901 was designed to feed text stories to both teleprinters and computer-based news editing systems. Stories can be assigned to broad categories (such as sports or culture) and be given a higher or lower priority based upon importance.
Although superseded in the early 1990s by IPTC Information Interchange Model and later by the XML-based News Industry Text Format, 7901's huge existing user base has persisted.
IPTC 7901 is closely related to ANPA-1312 (also known as ANPA 84-2 and later 89-3) of the Newspaper Association of America.International Press Telecommunications Council
The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), based in London, United Kingdom, is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, other news providers and news industry vendors and acts as the global standards body of the news media.
Currently more than 50 companies and organizations from the news industry are members of the IPTC, including global players like Associated Press (AP), Agence France-Presse (AFP), Deutsche Presse-Agentur (dpa), BBC, Getty Images, Press Association (PA), Reuters and The New York Times.
IPTC aims at simplifying the distribution of information. To achieve this technical standards are developed to improve the management and exchange of information between content providers, intermediaries and consumers.
IPTC is committed to open standards and makes all standards freely available to its members and the wider community.
The IPTC was established in 1965 by a group of news organisations including the Alliance Européenne des Agences de Presse (EANA), American Newspaper Publishers Association (then ANPA, now NAA), Fédération Internationale des Editeurs de Journaux (now WAN-IFRA) and the North American News Agencies (a joint committee of Associated Press, Canadian Press and United Press International) to safeguard the telecommunications interests of the world's press.NITF
NITF may refer to:
National Imagery Transmission Format
News Industry Text FormatNewsML-G2
NewsML-G2 is an XML multimedia news exchange format standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.
As part of the IPTC G2-Standards family, NewsML-G2 acts as an envelope for one or more news items (such as a text article, a photo, or a video clip) or a structured package of links to news items, and contains metadata to describe the relationships between the items. NewsML-G2 is a business-to-business standard that is intended to help news agencies create complex packages of multimedia news into a single cohesive bundle.
Unlike its predecessor, NewsML 1.x, NewsML-G2 uses standardized XML building blocks and metadata. These building blocks are used in other IPTC G2-Standards, so that system programmers can reuse their code.
Like NewsML, NewsML-G2 is not a text or image mark-up format; it has no way to mark paragraphs or headlines, for example. Instead, it is an envelope and organizer for one or more files of almost any type. For text article formatting, IPTC mentions News Industry Text Format (NITF) or XHTML as common examples.NewsML-G2 is used by several large international news agencies, including Agence France-Presse, Associated Press, Austria Presse Agentur, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, Thomson Reuters, and others.NewsML 1
NewsML 1 is an XML standard designed to provide a media-independent, structural framework for multimedia news. It was formerly known as NewsML.
NewsML 1 was developed by — and is a registered trademark of — the IPTC.
It has also been adopted as Japanese Industry Standard (JIS) X7201:2005 under the original NewsML name.
Although superseded in 2008 by NewsML-G2, NewsML 1 remains popular outside North America (especially in Asia) and is still supported by the IPTC.
NewsML 1 is not a text or image format; it has no way to mark paragraphs or headlines, for example. Instead, it is an envelope and organizer for one or more files (or links to files) of almost any type. For text formatting, IPTC recommends the News Industry Text Format (NITF).