Newburgh–Beacon Bridge

The Hamilton Fish Newburgh–Beacon Bridge is a cantilever toll bridge that spans the Hudson River in New York State. The bridge carries Interstate 84 (I-84) and New York State Route 52 (NY 52) between Newburgh and Beacon. Consisting of two separate spans, the original northern span which carries westbound traffic, was opened on November 2, 1963, as a two-lane (one in each direction) bridge.[1] A second span completed in 1980, now carries all eastbound traffic. Still often referred to by its original name, the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, in 1997 the bridge was rededicated in honor of Hamilton Fish who was a Governor of New York, Lieutenant Governor, United States Senator from New York, U.S. Secretary of State, a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 6th congressional district, and a patriarch of the prominent Fish family.

Newburgh-Beacon Bridge
Newburgh-Beacon Bridge 2
Newburgh-Beacon Bridge from Beacon, NY
Coordinates41°31′09″N 73°59′39″W / 41.519246°N 73.994293°WCoordinates: 41°31′09″N 73°59′39″W / 41.519246°N 73.994293°W
Carries6 lanes of I-84 / NY 52
CrossesHudson River
LocaleNewburgh, New York and Beacon, New York
Official nameHamilton Fish Newburgh-Beacon Bridge
Maintained byNew York State Bridge Authority
DesignTwin span Continuous truss bridges
Total length7,789 feet (2,374 m)
7,855 feet (2,394 m)
Longest span1,000 feet (300 m)
Clearance below135 feet (41 m)
OpenedNovember 2, 1963 (westbound)
November 1, 1980 (eastbound)
Daily traffic65,000
TollCars $1.50 (eastbound only), $1.25 EZpass


Although original plans called for a four-lane bridge, funding difficulties resulted in the reduction in lanes. This span was designed by Modjeski & Masters and constructed by Frederick Snare, Drave, and Bethlehem Steel.

The bridge originally carried NY 52 traffic, which was light, but the construction of Interstate 84 pushed the bridge over capacity,[2] and planning for additional capacity began in 1972. After considering double-decking (which the original bridge was not designed for) the decision was taken by NYSBA to add a second parallel span south of the original.

The original span is made of steel that requires regular painting, however, the newer span is made of "rusting" steel (believed to be COR-TEN or a similar material although sources are not clear), which surface corrodes to a brown color and does not need painting since the corrosion is only on the surface.

On November 1, 1980, this second, parallel span, also designed by Modjeski & Masters but constructed by the American Bridge Company, was opened to traffic.[3] The original span was closed for renovation, to add a lane and to paint it brown to match the color of the new span, from December 1980 to June 1984. In 1997, the bridge was officially renamed the Hamilton Fish Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, although it is commonly referred to by its original name.

Road dimensions:

  • The westbound (northern) bridge opened in 1963, carrying one lane of traffic in each direction. Today it accommodates three 12-foot (3.7 m) travel lanes and has no permanent shoulders. Variable lane-use signs allow the right lane to be designated as a breakdown lane at night and off-peak travel times. When the right lane is being used as a shoulder, a red X appears on the signs above it, while a green arrow illuminates when the lane is used for travel during peak times.
  • The newer eastbound span was built with three 12-foot (3.7 m) travel lanes, a 10-foot (3.0 m) right shoulder, a 6-foot (1.8 m) left shoulder and a pedestrian sidewalk separated from the roadway by a concrete barrier. Because the eastbound span was built with shoulders, there is no need to reduce the travel lanes to two during off-peak times.

The span provides connections to the New York State Thruway (I-87) and U.S. Route 9W (US 9W) in Newburgh and US 9 in Fishkill. The bridges includes a 2,204-foot-long (672 m) cantilever span, with a main span of 1,000 feet (300 m) and side spans of 602 feet (183 m). The total length of all spans and approaches is 7,855 feet (2,394 m) for the north span and 7,789 feet (2,374 m) for the south span.

Newburgh-Beacon Bridge
Newburgh-Beacon Bridge from Newburgh, NY

The bridges, owned by the New York State Bridge Authority, carry six lanes of traffic and approximately 65,000 vehicles per day.

Eastbound passenger vehicles are charged a toll of $1.50 to cross the span. The toll plaza is located on the eastern (Beacon) shore. Originally, tolls were collected in both directions. In August 1970, the toll was abolished for westbound drivers, and at the same time, eastbound drivers saw their tolls doubled. The tolls of eleven other New York–New Jersey and Hudson River crossings along a 130-mile (210 km) stretch, from the Outerbridge Crossing in the south to the Rip Van Winkle Bridge in the north, were also changed to eastbound-only at that time.[4]

Awards, records, and trivia

Newburgh-Beacon Bridge Eastbound
Crossing the bridge heading eastbound
Newburgh–Beacon Bridge underside 2017
Underside of the bridge viewed from the Adirondack Amtrak train
  • The original bridge won the 1965 American Institute of Steel Construction "most beautiful bridge" award for long-span bridges. Modjeski & Masters used a curved cantilever, not the more typical peaked cantilever used by the Tappan Zee Bridge and others.
  • The newer bridge was claimed to be the longest bridge constructed of COR-TEN material when opened.
  • As of late 2005, the bridge spans are the 19th-longest cantilever spans in the world.
  • The bridge is named after Hamilton Fish, former Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State.
  • Suicide attempts have become more frequent in the last decade, so officials installed call boxes along the bridge in hopes of reducing them.
  • The western terminus of the bridge is not in the City of Newburgh, but in the Town of Newburgh. The boundary of the City of Newburgh is less than a hundred yards to the south.
  • The eastern terminus is within the Limits of the City of Beacon, by a few feet. By the time eastbound motorists have reached the first exit on the east shore, Exit 11, they have passed into the Town of Fishkill.
  • The pedestrian walkway, open dawn to dusk, is popular with local hikers, joggers, and bicyclists. The Bridge Authority provided two parking lots, just north of the overpass on either side of Grand Avenue on the west side of the bridge. New York State Bicycle Route 17 crosses the Hudson River on the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Stengren, Bernard (November 3, 1963). "Ceremony Opens Newburgh Span; New Bridge is Formally Opened". New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  2. ^ "Newburgh-Beacon Bridge". New York State Bridge Authority. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  3. ^ "A New Bridge Is Added to an Old One Between Two Hudson Cities". New York Times. November 1, 1980. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  4. ^ Moran, Nancy (August 13, 1970). "One‐Way Tolls Confusing Some Drivers". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  5. ^ "State Bicycle Route 17 Maps". New York State Department of Transportation. Retrieved February 2, 2011.

External links

Balmville, New York

Balmville is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Orange County, New York, United States. It is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. It is located in the southeastern part of the Town of Newburgh. The population was 3,178 at the 2010 census. Many wealthy, influential, and upper income families live in Balmville on roads such as River Road, Sloane Road, Commonwealth Avenue, Susan Drive, and Grand Avenue. Susan Drive is accredited for housing the former Delano Family Estate (Algonac). The Delano family was the family of the mother of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and she in fact was born and raised at Algonac. Many homes in Balmville are incredibly expensive due to their pristine views of the Hudson River. Balmville is also the site of the Powelton Club Country Club. It currently ranks as the highest income hamlet in the greater Newburgh area.

Balmville is immediately north of, and adjoins, the city of Newburgh.

Balmville was home to the Balmville Tree, New York's smallest state forest. The tree was one of three federally protected trees in the nation. It was called a "miracle tree" due to its age (over 300 years) for its species. On August 5, 2015, because of safety concerns caused by the rapid deterioration of the tree, it was cut down and removed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Beacon station

The Beacon station is a commuter rail stop on the Metro-North Railroad's Hudson Line, serving Beacon, New York. Trains leave for New York City every hour during off peak hours, and about every 15–25 minutes during rush hour. It is 59 miles (95 km) from Grand Central Terminal, the travel time from which varies depending on run, ranging from 1 hour and 10 minutes (super-express runs) to 1 hour and 15–18 minutes (trains making all local stops north of Croton-Harmon and 1 hour and 25–30 minutes (trains making all local stops north of Croton-Harmon and some lower Hudson stops, such as Ossining and Tarrytown). This station is heavily used by residents of Orange and Rockland Counties who drive to the station.

It is a wheelchair accessible station, featuring wheelchair ramps, an elevator to the train platform, and a high-level island platform which is level with the doors on the train (for many years, most Upper Hudson Line stations had platforms that were lower than the train doors). It also boasts a small newsstand on the platform itself, open daily. It is not fully ADA accessible.

Paid parking is provided. There are spaces that require permits and others which can be paid for on a daily basis. Parking is free on weekends and holidays.

Recent renovations by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority reflect the station's increasing traffic and importance as a destination. The Dia:Beacon art museum, a short walk from the station, has drawn regular visitors from the city since its 2003 opening to see its collection of large installations which could not be shown in the more limited spaces available in Manhattan. Many signs in and around the station point the way. The heavy Dia traffic on weekends is complemented by visitors to prisoners at Fishkill or Downstate correctional facilities, who take many of the taxis available from the station to the prisons just outside town. Inmates being released are sometimes dropped off here as well to catch trains back to the city.

The station complex also has long housed an upper Hudson Line station of the MTA Police. Unruly passengers are often put off here to be taken into custody.

Cohoes Falls

Cohoes Falls [Kahon:ios, Mohawk for "Canoe Falls"] is a waterfall on the Mohawk River shared by the city of Cohoes and the town of Waterford, New York, United States. Discovered by the indigenous people, the falls were called Ga-ha-oose or Ga-ho'n'-yoos by the Mohawks, which is believed to mean "The Place of the Falling Canoe." Cohoes historian Arthur Masten wrote in his 1880 history that the phrase might mean "Potholes in the River," referring to the potholes that appear in the riverbed when it is dry. In the oral tradition of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the Cohoes Falls are the site where The Great Peacemaker, performed a feat of supernatural strength, convincing the Mohawk people to become the founders of the Iroquois League of Nations or Confederacy. Some historians believe the Mohawks launched the Confederacy as early as 1142 CE, though other experts report dates ranging from 1450-1650.

Celebrated by 18th-century travelers in letters and journals, the Cohoes Falls, also called The Great Falls of the Mohawk, were regarded as the second-most beautiful cataract in New York State after Niagara. In 1804, the national poet of Ireland, Thomas Moore, visited Cohoes and wrote a paean to the waterfall's beauty: "Lines Written at the Cohos, or Falls of the Mohawk River."

In 1831, town leaders built a dam across the Mohawk River to harness the power of the falls to fuel the turbines of the city's burgeoning textile industry. Over the next several decades, the predominant company, Harmony Mills, became the largest manufacturer of cotton in the United States, thanks to its control of local water rights. When all the mills closed in the wake of the Great Depression, city leaders neglected the potential of the falls for tourism. They leased the flow rights to a series of power companies, including Niagara Mohawk and Orion Power.

The Erie Canal was planned to overcome the navigational barrier of the Cohoes Falls. The original "Clinton's Ditch", the Erie Canal of 1825, was built through the city of Cohoes. The later Enlarged Canal was realigned, yet still went through the City of Cohoes. The Barge Canal, which opened in 1918, bypasses Cohoes and runs though the Village of Waterford via the Waterford Flight of Locks.

The Cohoes Falls is 90 feet (28 m) high and 1,000 feet (305 m) wide. Its flow is most impressive in springtime, sometimes running at 90,000 cubic feet (2,500 m3) of water per second, but as the season changes, there is less water for the falls because so much of the flow is diverted at the Crescent Dam to the Barge Canal through Lock 6. Most of the water is still diverted for power generation; some is diverted for the Cohoes water supply. During the summer, the falls are virtually dry, revealing shale rock formations that have their own distinctive beauty. The 87-year average flow of the Mohawk River at Cohoes is 34,638 cubic feet per second, but this includes water diverted to the power plant and Erie Canal locks.

Interstate 84 (Pennsylvania–Massachusetts)

Interstate 84 (I-84) is an Interstate Highway in the northeastern United States that extends from Dunmore, Pennsylvania, (near Scranton) at an interchange with I-81 east to Sturbridge, Massachusetts, at an interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90). Among the major cities that the road passes through is Hartford, Connecticut. Another highway named I-84 is located in the northwestern United States.

Interstate 84 in New York

Interstate 84 (I-84) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Dunmore, Pennsylvania, to Sturbridge, Massachusetts, in the eastern United States. In New York, I-84 extends 71.46 miles (115.00 km) from the Pennsylvania state line at Port Jervis to the Connecticut state line east of Brewster. As it heads east–west across the mid Hudson Valley, it goes over two mountain ranges and crosses the Hudson River at the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge.

It is the only limited-access road to cross New York from west to east between New York City and the Capital District. As such it is the main vehicular route between southern New England and Pennsylvania and points west. It is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), which resumed full control in 2010 after two decades in which routine maintenance was performed by the New York State Thruway Authority under yearly contract from DOT. The New York State Bridge Authority charges eastbound traffic a $1.50 toll for cars to maintain the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge.

Construction of the highway began later than other interstates in New York as legal hurdles to the construction of the bridge had to be removed, and federal funding was more limited when it finally began in 1960. It was completed 12 years later, becoming a major commercial artery and mainstay of the Hudson Valley economy and offering travelers a view of some of the state's scenic areas in the Shawangunks and Hudson Highlands.

Kingston–Rhinecliff Bridge

The Kingston–Rhinecliff Bridge or George Clinton Memorial Bridge is a continuous under-deck truss bridge that carries NY 199 across the Hudson River in New York State north of the City of Kingston and the hamlet of Rhinecliff. It was opened to traffic on February 2, 1957 as a two-lane (one in each direction) bridge, although it was not actually complete. Formal opening was May 11, 1957. The original cost was $17.5 million.

The bridge, owned by the New York State Bridge Authority (NYSBA), carries two lanes of traffic and approximately 17,000 vehicles per day. It was designed by David B. Steinman and the builders were Harris Structural Steel and Merritt-Chapman & Scott Corporation, and is the second northernmost, and second newest, of the 5 bridges that NYSBA owns and operates. The bridge has two main spans, since there is an east and west channel in the Hudson River at this point.

List of cantilever bridges

Alexandra Bridge

Astoria–Megler Bridge

Battersea Bridge

Bolte Bridge

Bridge of the Gods (modern structure)

Carquinez Bridge

Champlain Bridge

Commodore Barry Bridge - 1,644 feet (501 m)

Conde McCullough Memorial Bridge

Crescent City Connection - 1,575 feet (480 m)

Forth Bridge - 520 metres (1,710 ft) cantilever span

George Washington Memorial Bridge

Gramercy Bridge

Hawk Street Viaduct - 996 feet (304 m) demolished in 1970

Huey P. Long Bridge (Baton Rouge)

Huey P. Long Bridge (Jefferson Parish)

Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Bridge - collapsed in 1958

Jacques Cartier Bridge

Lewis and Clark Bridge

Marquam Bridge

Million Dollar Bridge

Newburgh-Beacon Bridge - 2,204 feet (672 m) cantilever span

Pulaski Skyway

Quebec Bridge - 549 metres (1,801 ft) cantilever span

Queensboro Bridge

Rainbow Bridge (Texas) - 680 feet (210 m) main span

Richmond–San Rafael Bridge

San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge

Sea Cliff Bridge

Seongsu Bridge - collapsed in 1994

Sunshine Skyway Bridge (old bridge)

Tappan Zee Bridge - 369 metres (1,211 ft) cantilever span - replaced in 2017

List of crossings of the Hudson River

This is a list of bridges and other crossings of the Hudson River, from its mouth at the Upper New York Bay upstream to its cartographic beginning at Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York.

List of longest cantilever bridge spans

This list of cantilever bridges ranks the world's cantilever bridges by the length of their main span. A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers: structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end.

Mid-Hudson Bridge

The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Mid-Hudson Bridge is a toll suspension bridge which carries US 44 and NY 55 across the Hudson River between Poughkeepsie and Highland in the state of New York. Governor and local resident Franklin D. Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor attended the opening ceremony on August 25, 1930. The bridge was renamed the "Franklin D. Roosevelt Mid-Hudson Bridge" in 1994 though the span is rarely referred to by its official name.

The bridge is 3,000 feet (910 m) long with a clearance of 135 feet (41 m) above the Hudson. At opening, it was the sixth-longest suspension bridge in the world. The chief engineer was Polish immigrant Ralph Modjeski, who had previously engineered the strengthening of the nearby Poughkeepsie Railroad bridge. Primary contractor was the American Bridge Company of Ambridge, Pennsylvania with steel from Carnegie. The span is unusual in that stiffening trusses were intentionally constructed on top of, not below, the deck.

The toll for passenger vehicles is $1.50 (cash) and $1.25 (E-ZPass) for eastbound traffic only.

New York State Bridge Authority

The New York State Bridge Authority (or NYSBA) is a public benefit corporation in New York State, United States. The NYSBA was born out of the necessity to build a bridge over the Hudson River to link the city of Hudson and the village of Catskill. It owns, operates, and maintains five Hudson River bridge crossings in the Mid-Hudson River Valley of New York State. It also owns and maintains the Walkway over the Hudson, but that structure is operated by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation.

New York State Route 52

New York State Route 52 (NY 52) is a 108.72-mile (174.97 km) state highway in the southeastern part of the state. It generally runs from west to east, beginning at the Pennsylvania state line in the Delaware River near Narrowsburg, crossing the Hudson River on the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, and ending in Carmel. NY 52 and NY 55, both major east–west routes of the Mid-Hudson Region, run parallel to each other, intersecting in downtown Liberty.

With the exception of the section overlapping Interstate 84 (I-84), most of Route 52 is a two-lane road through lightly developed rural areas. The road west of the Hudson River serves a number of small communities in the southern Catskills, while it closely parallels I-84 east of the Hudson.

Newburgh, New York

Newburgh () is a city in Orange County, New York, United States, 60 miles (97 km) north of New York City, and 90 miles (140 km) south of Albany, on the Hudson River. Newburgh is a part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown Metropolitan Statistical Area, which belongs to the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area.

The Newburgh area was first settled in the early 18th century by the Germans and British. During the American Revolution, Newburgh served as the headquarters of the Continental Army. Prior to its chartering in 1865, the city of Newburgh was part of the town of Newburgh; the town now borders the city to the north and west. East of the city is the Hudson River; the city of Beacon, New York is across the river; and it is connected to Newburgh via the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge. The entire southern boundary of the city is with the town of New Windsor. Most of this boundary is formed by Quassaick Creek.

In May 2016, the city requested help for its PFOS contaminated water supply under Superfund.

Newburgh Bay

Newburgh Bay is a feature of the Hudson River's west bank, located approximately 60 miles (105 km) north of New York City. It takes its name from the city of Newburgh, New York, for many years the major port on this section of the river. Towns on the bay are Newburgh (town), New York; New Windsor, New York and Cornwall, New York, all in Orange County. The Roseton and Danskammer power plants are located at the north end of the bay, in the town of Newburgh.

The bay is not a protected inlet, but rather a widening of the river with a maximum depth of 80 feet (24 M). It begins roughly at the Hudson Highlands near the village of Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, and extends some 10 miles north to Danskammer Point. Between the city of Newburgh, Orange County on the west bank and Beacon, Dutchess County on the east, the river is almost 2 miles (3.2 km) in width

While not as wide as Haverstraw Bay to the south, the bay makes the river wide enough that it was the last section of the Hudson to be bridged. The Newburgh-Beacon Bridge opened in November 1963. The recently restored Newburgh-Beacon Ferry makes passenger-only trips between the two cities during commuting hours in the morning and evening for riders on the Metro North Hudson Line's Beacon station.

Newburgh–Beacon Ferry

The Newburgh–Beacon Ferry is a ferry service crossing the Hudson River that connects Newburgh with Beacon, New York.

It carries passengers between the two cities during rush hour, primarily transporting commuters from the west side of the river at Newburgh to the commuter train station on the east side at Beacon where they can catch Metro North Hudson Line service to Grand Central Terminal and other points in New York City.

NY Waterway operates the ferry under contract from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, along with the Haverstraw–Ossining Ferry downstream. Service began in 2005 after the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge had, 42 years earlier, rendered over two centuries of ferry service obsolete.

The Beacon terminal is at a dock immediately adjacent to the station; the Newburgh terminal is at the south end of Front Street. The fare is $1.75 per person; the trip across the river takes approximately 10 minutes.

Powelton Club

Powelton Club is located between US 9W, Interstate 84, Balmville Road and Chestnut Lane in the hamlet of Balmville, New York, United States, just north of the city of Newburgh, in the Town of Newburgh. Originally established as an archery club, it is one of the five oldest golf courses in the state, and the ten oldest in the U.S. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1999.

Storm King Mountain (New York)

Storm King Mountain is a mountain on the west bank of the Hudson River just south of Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Together with Breakneck Ridge on the opposite bank of the river it forms "Wey-Gat" or Wind Gate, the picturesque northern narrows of the Hudson Highlands. Its distinctive curved ridge is the most prominent aspect of the view south down Newburgh Bay, from Newburgh, Beacon, and the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge. It can also be seen by southbound travelers on nearby sections of the New York State Thruway. This view was a popular subject for early artists of the Hudson River School.

While thought of as the highest point in the area, its summit reaching approximately 1,340 feet (410 m) above sea level, the eastern summit known officially as Butter Hill is actually higher, with an elevation of 1,380 feet (420 m).

The Palisades (Hudson River)

The Palisades, also called the New Jersey Palisades or the Hudson River Palisades, are a line of steep cliffs along the west side of the lower Hudson River in Northeastern New Jersey and Southeastern New York in the United States. The cliffs stretch north from Jersey City about 20 miles (32 km) to near Nyack, New York, and visible at Haverstraw, New York. They rise nearly vertically from near the edge of the river, and are about 300 feet (90 m) high at Weehawken, increasing gradually to 540 feet (160 m) high near their northern terminus. North of Fort Lee, the Palisades are part of Palisades Interstate Park and are a National Natural Landmark.The Palisades are among the most dramatic geologic features in the vicinity of New York City, forming a canyon of the Hudson north of the George Washington Bridge, as well as providing a vista of the Manhattan skyline. They sit in the Newark Basin, a rift basin located mostly in New Jersey.

Palisade is derived from the same root as the word pale, ultimately from the Latin word palus, meaning stake. A "palisade" is, in general, a defensive fence or wall made up of wooden stakes or tree trunks. The Lenape called the cliffs "rocks that look like rows of trees", a phrase that became "Weehawken", the name of a town in New Jersey that sits at the top of the cliffs across from Midtown Manhattan.

Weathering steel

Weathering steel, often referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance after several years' exposure to weather.

U.S. Steel holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN. The name COR-TEN refers to the two distinguishing properties of this type of steel: corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group (now Arcelor-Mittal) in 2003, it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms.

The original COR-TEN received the standard designation A242 (COR-TEN A) from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A588 (COR-TEN B) and A606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common production and use.

The surface oxidation of weathering steel takes six months, but surface treatments can accelerate the oxidation to as little as two hours.

Crossings of the Hudson River
Hudson River watershed


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