New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant[3] of the English language spoken and written by most English-speaking New Zealanders. Its language code in ISO and Internet standards is en-NZ.[4] English is one of New Zealand's three official languages (along with New Zealand Sign Language and the Māori language)[5] and is the first language of the majority of the population.

The English language was established in New Zealand by colonists during the 19th century. It is one of "the newest native-speaker variet[ies] of the English language in existence, a variety which has developed and become distinctive only in the last 150 years".[6] The most distinctive influences on New Zealand English have come from Australian English, English in southern England, Irish English, Scottish English, the prestige Received Pronunciation (RP), and Māori.[7] New Zealand English is most similar to Australian English in pronunciation, with some key differences.[8]

New Zealand English
RegionNew Zealand
EthnicityNew Zealanders
Native speakers
3.8 million in New Zealand (2013 census)[1]
150,000 L2 speakers of English in New Zealand (Crystal 2003)
Early forms
Latin (English alphabet)
Unified English Braille
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolognewz1240[2]
IETFen-NZ

Dictionaries

The first dictionary with entries documenting New Zealand English was probably the Heinemann New Zealand Dictionary, published in 1979.[9] Edited by Harry Orsman (1928–2002), it is a 1,337-page book, with information relating to the usage and pronunciation of terms that were widely accepted throughout the English-speaking world, and those peculiar to New Zealand. It includes a one-page list of the approximate date of entry into common parlance of the many terms found in New Zealand English but not elsewhere, such as "haka" (1827), "Boohai" (1920), and "bach" (1905). A second edition was published in 1989 with the cover subtitle "the first dictionary of New Zealand English and New Zealand pronunciation". A third edition, edited by Nelson Wattie, was published as The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand English by Reed Publishing in 2001.[10]

The first dictionary fully dedicated to the New Zealand variety of English was The New Zealand Dictionary, published by New House Publishers in 1994 and edited by Elizabeth and Harry Orsman.[11][12] A second edition was published in 1995, edited by Elizabeth Orsman.

In 1997, Oxford University Press produced the Harry Orsman-edited The Dictionary of New Zealand English: A Dictionary of New Zealandisms on Historical Principles, a 981-page book which it claimed was based on over 40 years of research. This research started with Orsman's 1951 thesis and continued with his editing this dictionary. To assist with and maintain this work, the New Zealand Dictionary Centre was founded in 1997. It has published several more dictionaries of New Zealand English, including The New Zealand Oxford Paperback Dictionary, edited by New Zealand lexicographer Tony Deverson in 1998, culminating in the 1,374-page The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary in 2004, by Tony Deverson and Graeme Kennedy.[13] A second, revised edition of The New Zealand Oxford Paperback Dictionary was published in 2006,[14] this time using standard lexicographical regional markers to identify the New Zealand content, which were absent from the first edition.

Another authoritative work is the Collins English Dictionary first published in 1979 by HarperCollins, which contains an abundance of well-cited New Zealand words and phrases, drawing from the 650 million word Bank of English, a British research facility set up at the University of Birmingham in 1980 and funded by Collins publishers.[15] Although this is a British dictionary of International English there has always been a credited New Zealand advisor for the New Zealand content, namely Professor Ian Gordon from 1979 until 2002 and Professor Elizabeth Gordon[16] from the University of Canterbury since 2003. New Zealand-specific dictionaries compiled from the Collins English Dictionary include the Collins New Zealand Concise English Dictionary (1982), Collins New Zealand School Dictionary (1999) and Collins New Zealand Paperback Dictionary (2009.)

Australia's Macquarie Dictionary was first published in 1981, and has since become the authority on Australian English. It has always included an abundance of New Zealand words and phrases additional to the mutually shared words and phrases of both countries.[17] Every edition has retained a New Zealander as advisor for the New Zealand content, the first being Harry Orsman[18] and the most recent being noted New Zealand lexicographer Laurie Bauer.

A more light-hearted look at English as spoken in New Zealand, A Personal Kiwi-Yankee Dictionary, was written by the American-born University of Otago psychology lecturer Louis Leland in 1980. This slim volume lists many of the potentially confusing and/or misleading terms for Americans visiting or emigrating to New Zealand. A second edition was published in 1990.

Historical development

From the 1790s, New Zealand was visited by British, French and American whaling, sealing and trading ships. Their crews traded European goods with the indigenous Māori.[19][20] The first settlers to New Zealand were mainly from Australia, many of them ex-convicts or escaped convicts. Sailors, explorers and traders from Australia and other parts of Europe also settled.

When in 1788 the colony of New South Wales was formed, most of New Zealand was nominally included, but no real legal authority or control was exercised. However, when the New Zealand Company announced in 1839 its plans to establish colonies in New Zealand this and the increased commercial interests of merchants in Sydney and London spurred the British to take stronger action. Captain William Hobson was sent to New Zealand to persuade Māori to cede their sovereignty to the British Crown and on 6 February 1840, Hobson and about forty Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands.[21] From this point onward there was considerable European settlement, primarily from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland; and to a lesser extent the United States, India, China, and various parts of continental Europe. Some 400,000 settlers came from Britain, of whom 300,000 stayed permanently. Most were young people and 250,000 babies were born. New Zealand ceased to be part of New South Wales and became a British colony on 1 July 1841.

Gold discoveries in Otago (1861) and Westland (1865), caused a worldwide gold rush that more than doubled the population from 71,000 in 1859 to 164,000 in 1863. Between 1864 and 1865, under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863, 13 ships carrying citizens of England, Ireland and South Africa arrived in New Zealand under the Waikato Immigration Scheme.[22][23] In the 1870s and 1880s, several thousand Chinese men, mostly from Guangdong province, migrated to New Zealand to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese migrants had been invited by the Otago Provincial government they quickly became a target of hostility from settlers and laws were enacted specifically to discourage them from coming to New Zealand thereafter. The European population of New Zealand grew explosively from fewer than 1000 in 1831 to 500,000 by 1881. By 1911 the number of European settlers had reached a million. This colourful history of unofficial and official settlement of peoples from all over Europe, Australia, South Africa, and Asia and the intermingling of the people with the indigenous Māori brought about what would eventually evolve into a "New Zealand accent" and a unique regional English lexicon.

A distinct New Zealand variant of the English language has been recognised since at least 1912, when Frank Arthur Swinnerton described it as a "carefully modulated murmur". From the beginning of the haphazard Australian and European settlements and latter official British migrations, a new dialect began to form by adopting Māori words to describe the different flora and fauna of New Zealand, for which English did not have words of its own.[24]

The New Zealand accent appeared first in towns with mixed populations of immigrants from Australia, England, Ireland, and Scotland. These included the militia towns of the North Island and the gold-mining towns of the South Island. In more homogeneous towns such as those in Otago and Southland, settled mainly by people from Scotland, the New Zealand accent took longer to appear.[25]

Since the latter 20th century New Zealand society has gradually divested itself of its fundamentally British roots[26] and has adopted influences from all over the world, especially in the early 21st century when New Zealand experienced an increase of non-British immigration which has since brought about a more prominent multi-national society. The Internet, television,[27] movies and popular music have all brought international influences into New Zealand society and the New Zealand lexicon. Americanization of New Zealand society and language has subtly and gradually been taking place since World War II and especially since the 1970s,[28] as has happened also in neighbouring Australia.

In February 2018, Clayton Mitchell MP from New Zealand First led a campaign for English to be recognised as an official language in New Zealand.[29][30]

Phonology

Variation in New Zealand vowels
Phoneme Phonetic realisation[31]
Lexical set Bauer et al. WP Cultivated Broad
KIT /ɘ/ /ɪ/ [ɪ̠] [ə]
COMMA /ə/ [ə]
DRESS /e/ /ɛ/ [] []
TRAP /ɛ/ /æ/ [æ] [ɛ̝]
FACE /æe/ /eɪ/ [æe̝] [ɐe]
PRICE /ɑe/ /aɪ/ [ɑ̟e] [ɒ̝ˑe], [ɔe]
MOUTH /æo/ /aʊ/ [aʊ] [e̞ə]
GOAT /ɐʉ/ /oʊ/ [ɵʊ] [ɐʉ]
NEAR /iə/ /ɪər/ [i̞ə], [e̝ə] [i̞ə]
SQUARE /eə/ /ɛər/ [e̞ə]

Not all New Zealanders have the same accent, as the level of cultivation (i.e. the closeness to Received Pronunciation) of every speaker's accent differs. The phonology in this section is of an educated speaker of New Zealand English, and uses a transcription system designed by Bauer et al. (2007) specifically to faithfully represent the New Zealand accent. It transcribes some of the vowels differently, whereas the approximant /r/ is transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɹ⟩ even in phonemic transcription.[32]

Vocabulary

New Zealand English has a number of dialectal words and phrases. These are mostly informal terms that are more common in casual speech. Numerous loanwords have been taken from the Māori language or from Australian English.

New Zealand adopted decimal currency in 1967 and the metric system in 1974. Despite this, several imperial measures are still widely encountered and usually understood, such as feet and inches for a person's height, pounds and ounces for an infant's birth weight, and in colloquial terms such as referring to drinks in pints.[33][34][35] In the food manufacturing industry in New Zealand both metric and non-metric systems of weight are used and usually understood owing to raw food products being imported from both metric and non-metric countries. However per the December 1976 Weights and Measures Amendment Act, all foodstuffs must be retailed using the metric system.[36] In general, the knowledge of non-metric units is lessening.

The word spud for potato, now common throughout the English-speaking world, originated in New Zealand English.[37]

As with Australian English, but in contrast to most other forms of the language, some speakers of New Zealand English use both the terms bath and bathe as verbs, with bath used as a transitive verb (e.g. I will bath the dog), and bathe used predominantly, but not exclusively, as an intransitive verb (e.g. Did you bathe?).

Both the words amongst and among are used, as in British English. The same is true for two other pairs, whilst and while and amidst and amid.

Australian English influences

NZE terms of Australian origin include bushed (lost or bewildered), chunder (to vomit), drongo (a foolish or stupid person), fossick (to search), jumbuck (sheep, from Australian pidgin), larrikin (mischievous person), Maccas (slang for McDonald's food), maimai (a duckshooter's hide; originally a makeshift shelter, from aboriginal mia-mia), paddock (field, or meadow), pom or pommy (an Englishman), skite (verb: to boast), station (for a very large farm), wowser (non-drinker of alcohol, or killjoy), and ute (pickup truck).

American English influences

Advancing from its British and Australian English origins, New Zealand English has developed to include many Americanisms and American vocabulary in preference over British terms as well as directly borrowed American vocabulary. Some examples of American words used instead of British words in New Zealand English are bobby pin for British hair pin, muffler for the British silencer, truck for the British lorry, station wagon for the British estate car, stove over cooker, creek[38] over brook, hope chest over bottom drawer, eggplant instead of aubergine, hardware store instead of ironmonger, median strip for central reservation, stroller for pushchair, pushup for press-up, potato chip instead of potato crisp, licence plate for registration plate, cellphone or cell for British and Australian mobile phone and mobile, and ice block instead of British ice lolly (or Australian icy pole).[39]

Directly borrowed American vocabulary include the boonies, bucks (dollars), bushwhack (fell timber), butt (replacing British/Australian arse although arse can still be used), ding (dent), dude, duplex, faggot and fag (interchangeable with the British poof and poofter), figure[40] (to think or conclude; consider), hightail it, homeboy, hooker, lagoon, lube (oil change), man (in place of mate or bro in direct address), major (to study or qualify in a subject), to be over [some situation] (be fed up), rig (large truck), sheltered workshop (workplace for disabled persons), spat[41] (a small argument), subdivision, and tavern.[42]

New Zealandisms

In addition to word and phrase borrowings from Australian, British and American English, New Zealand has its own unique words and phrases[43] derived entirely in New Zealand. Not considering slang, some of these New Zealandisms are:

  • ... and that (phrase) – a substitution for unnamed other(s), activity(ies), thing(s). e.g. "We had a beer with Darryl and that." "I picked up the tools and that."
  • Aussie (noun) – Australia.[44] This extension of the term to mean the country is unique to New Zealand. In Australia and internationally, Aussie means Australian (person or thing), as opposed to Australia (the country.) The normal adjectival usage is also used in New Zealand
  • cheerio (noun) – a small cocktail sausage, about 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long, dyed red and made of mixed processed meats[45]
  • choice! (interj) – one-word rejoinder expressing satisfaction[46]
  • chur (interj) – many uses, the most common being a form of greeting, or a contraction of "cheers" most commonly heard in "chur, bro". It is also used as an alternative to "good on you"
  • dairy (noun) – corner shop; convenience store
  • dunny (noun) – toilet.
  • fang it (phrase) – to go fast.[47][48]
  • Gib board, Gibraltar board (noun) – the common NZ term for drywall, plasterboard interior wall lining (a genericised trademark; Gib™ is a trademark of Winstone Wallboards Ltd)
  • Good as gold (phrase) – All is well (found in other forms of English as well)
  • handle (noun) – the 'pint' (actually 425 – 500 mL) glass of beer with a handle, as sold in pubs
  • hardout/hard – used to show agreement, or used to show emphasis/intensity. Examples: Agreement: "Yeah hard/hardout". "He was running hardout."
  • heaps (adjective, adverb) – abundant, plenty, plentifully. Examples: "There are heaps of cops surrounding the house." "I love you heaps." "Give it heaps!" – Give it your best effort!
  • hokey pokey (noun) – the New Zealand term for honeycomb toffee; also a flavour of ice cream consisting of plain vanilla ice cream with small, solid lumps of honeycomb toffee.[49][50][51][52]
  • jandals (noun) – the NZ term for flip-flops. Originally a trademarked name derived from 'Japanese sandals'.[53]
  • Kiwi (adj) – Not only does Kiwi mean 'a New Zealand person', but it is sometimes used to replace the word New Zealand in NZ businesses or titles, such as KiwiRail and Kiwibank or New Zealand-related nouns, e.g. "Kiwi-ism". It is also used to address something that is particularly related to New Zealand, e.g. "that house is pretty kiwi"
  • luncheon sausage (noun) – devon sausage (also called "fritz" or "belgium" in some parts of New Zealand)
  • metal road (noun) – a dirt road overlaid with gravel to assist drainage and keep dust down, typically found in rural settings
  • pooped (adj) – tired, exhausted (found in other forms of English as well)
  • puckerood (adj) – broken; busted; wrecked.[54] From Māori "pakaru" – to shatter
  • ranchslider, ranch slider, (noun) – the universal NZ term for a sliding door, usually of aluminium frame and containing glass panels (a genericised trademark; Ranchslider™ is a registered trademark of Fletcher Window & Door Systems).[55][56][57]
  • rark up (verb) – to criticise, confront or hurry along
  • rattle your dags! (phrase) – hurry up! Dags are faeces stuck to the wool of a sheep, which rattle if dry
  • rough as guts (phrase) – of machinery, not working properly; of behaviour uncouth or unacceptable (this also in UK)
  • scroggin – a nutritious snack taken along on hikes by trampers
  • scull (verb) – to drink a glass or handle (see above) of beer in one go
  • She'll be right (phrase) – it will be fine
  • shingle (noun) – gravel. A shingle road is an un-sealed road
  • shot – (acknowledgement or interj)
    • thank you
    • to express joy
    • give praise; well done!
  • stoked (adv) – very pleased; delighted
  • sweet as! (interj) – Cool! Awesome![46]
  • tar seal road (noun) – chipseal road
  • tiki tour (noun) – a guided tour; exploration; a meandering route taken in order to waste time
  • togs (noun) – informal term for swimsuit (either gender)[58][59]
  • town house (noun) – a small self-contained, free standing house with little or no back yard, often with a shared driveway with neighbouring houses.[60] The NZ meaning is unique and differs from the American, Asian, Australian and European meaning of townhouse (typically terraced houses) as well as the older UK meaning (city houses of nobility)
  • tramping (noun) tramp (verb) – Bushwalking, hiking. Usage is exclusive to New Zealand
  • tucker (noun) – food
  • up the boohai / up the Puhoi [River] / in the wop wops – to be lost or stranded, of unknown whereabouts or when unwilling to divulge whereabouts. In the outback, or in the boondocks
  • wee (adjective) – 1) a short time, a little bit, as in "my chicken was a wee bit overcooked." 2) small, little, as in "he was a wee boy." This is directly from Scottish English and is in common formal use throughout New Zealand whereas in other English speaking countries, apart from Scotland and Northern Ireland, this usage is uncommon or used only informally. It is not part of Australian English, for example. Often used redundantly e.g. "it was a little wee house."
  • whiteware – major kitchen appliances (white goods in UK)

Differences from Australian English

Many of these relate to words used to refer to common items, often based on which major brands become eponyms.

NZ Australia Translation to US/UK English
cellphone[note 1]
cell
mobile phone
mobile
mobile phone
(mobile)
a portable telephone. Note: "Cell" and "cellphone" are predominantly US. "Mobile" and "mobile phone" are predominantly UK. New Zealand uses the terms "cell" and "cellphone" predominantly. Australia uses the terms "mobile" and "mobile phone" exclusively. The term "cell" is only used in Australia as in cellular tower. The US and New Zealand term Cellular Network is called Mobile Network in Australia.[61]
chilly bin Esky[note 2] an insulated box used to keep food or drink cool
bach
crib[note 3]
shack[62] a small, often very modest holiday property, often at the seaside
dairy[note 4] milk bar
deli
convenience store, a small store selling mainly food
duvet Doona[note 2] Doona is an Australian trade mark for a brand of duvet/quilt.
ice block
popsicle
ice block
Icy Pole[note 2]
Ice pop
jandals
sandals
thongs flip-flops
thong (clothing) G-string thong (clothing)
candy floss fairy floss Candy floss in the UK, cotton candy in the US
cattle stop
cattle grid
cattle grid a device for preventing cattle wandering onto country roads
sallies salvos Followers of the Salvation Army church
speed bump
judder bar[63][note 5]
speed bump
speed hump[note 6]
a raised section of road used to deter excessive speed
drinking fountain bubbler[64]
drinking fountain
a device designed to provide drinking water. This term is also used in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin.
shrimp prawn NZ usage follows general international usage whereby shrimp refers to smaller sized species (such as in a "shrimp cocktail") and prawn to larger varieties whereas in Australia prawn is the sole term for both.
no exit no through road signage for a road with a dead end, a cul-de-sac
togs swimming costume[note 7]
cossy
bathers
swimmers
Speedos
togs
budgie smugglers[note 8]
swimwear, swimming costumes, or other clothes designed to be worn in water
Twink[note 2] Liquid Paper[note 2]
Wite-Out[note 2]
Correction fluid. Note that Twink is a New Zealand brand name which has entered the vernacular as a generic term, being the first product of its kind introduced in the 1980s. The common Australian general term is white-out.[65] Liquid Paper is also a brand name which is sometimes used as a generic term in Australia or New Zealand. As with other countries (but not Australia) the European brand Tipp-Ex is also available in New Zealand and is sometimes used as a generic term as well.
Motorway Freeway In Australia, Controlled-access highways can be named as either Freeway (a term not used in NZ) or Motorway, depending on the state.
"Howdy"
"G'day"
"G'day"
"hello" (etc.)
Although the greeting "G'day" is as common in New Zealand as it is in Australia, the term "Howdy" can be heard throughout New Zealand[66][67] but not frequently in Australia. This contraction of "how do you do?" is actually of English origin (South English dialect ca. 1860), however is contemporarily associated with Southern American English, particularly Texan where it is a common greeting. It is possible the NZ origin is from the earlier British usage. In present day, Howdy is not commonly used and is generally replaced by "Hello".
marker pen
felt tips
highlighter
Texta[note 2]
highlighter[note 9]
a marker pen
tramping
trekking
bushwalking
(or less commonly) hiking
travel through open or (more often) forested areas on foot
Notes
  1. ^ The terms mobile(phone) and cell(phone) are used interchangeably, with cell being the predominant term, compared with preferring a single term (as occurs in Australia, the UK and the US).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g a genericised trademark
  3. ^ Crib is mainly used in the southern part of the South Island, bach in the rest of New Zealand.
  4. ^ In larger cities in New Zealand convenience store is used due to immigration (and to current NZ law forbidding a dairy from selling alcohol), though dairy is used commonly in conversation. In New Zealand in the 1950s and 1960s milk bar referred to a soda shop. In some states of Australia "milk bar" is used; other states use "deli". "Deli" is used in New Zealand to refer to a store selling high quality meats.
  5. ^ The term judder bar is regional in its usage in New Zealand, and is rarely encountered in some parts of the country.
  6. ^ used in New South Wales and Victoria
  7. ^ Australian English terms for swimwear vary from region to region.
  8. ^ refers to swim briefs
  9. ^ The term highlighter is also widely used in New Zealand to refer to a wide-tipped pen of this sort.
  1. ^ The terms mobile(phone) and cell(phone) are used interchangeably, with cell being the predominant term, compared with preferring a single term (as occurs in Australia, the UK and the US).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g a genericised trademark
  3. ^ Crib is mainly used in the southern part of the South Island, bach in the rest of New Zealand.
  4. ^ In larger cities in New Zealand convenience store is used due to immigration (and to current NZ law forbidding a dairy from selling alcohol), though dairy is used commonly in conversation. In New Zealand in the 1950s and 1960s milk bar referred to a soda shop. In some states of Australia "milk bar" is used; other states use "deli". "Deli" is used in New Zealand to refer to a store selling high quality meats.
  5. ^ The term judder bar is regional in its usage in New Zealand, and is rarely encountered in some parts of the country.
  6. ^ used in New South Wales and Victoria
  7. ^ Australian English terms for swimwear vary from region to region.
  8. ^ refers to swim briefs
  9. ^ The term highlighter is also widely used in New Zealand to refer to a wide-tipped pen of this sort.

Usage

Some New Zealanders often reply to a question with a statement spoken with a rising intonation at the end. This often has the effect of making their statement sound like another question. There is enough awareness of this that it is seen in exaggerated form in comedy parody of New Zealanders, such as in the 1970s comedy character Lyn Of Tawa.[68] This rising intonation can also be heard at the end of statements that are not in response to a question but to which the speaker wishes to add emphasis. High rising terminals are also heard in Australia.[69]

In informal speech, some New Zealanders use the third person feminine she in place of the third person neuter it as the subject of a sentence, especially when the subject is the first word of the sentence. The most common use of this is in the phrase "She'll be right" meaning either "It will be okay" or "It is close enough to what is required". Similar to Australian English are uses such as "she was great car" or "she's a real beauty, this [object]".

Another specific New Zealand usage is the way in which New Zealanders refer to the country's two main islands. They are always (except on maps) referred to as "the North Island" and "the South Island". And because of their size, New Zealanders tend to think of these two islands as being 'places', rather than 'pieces of land', so the preposition "in" (rather than "on") is usually used – for example, "my mother lives in the North Island", "Christchurch is in the South Island". This is true only for the two main islands; for smaller islands, the usual preposition "on" is used – for example, "on Stewart Island" (the third largest), or "on Waiheke Island" (the third most populous).

Māori influence

Many local everyday words have been borrowed from the Māori language, including words for local flora, fauna, place names and the natural environment.

The dominant influence of Māori on New Zealand English is lexical. A 1999 estimate based on the Wellington corpora of written and spoken New Zealand English put the proportion of words of Māori origin at approximately 0.6%, mostly place and personal names.[70]

The everyday use of Māori words, usually colloquial, occurs most prominently among youth, young adults and Māori populations. Examples are kia ora ("hello"), nau mai ("welcome"), and kai ("food").[71]

Māori is ever present and has a significant conceptual influence in the legislature, government, and community agencies (e.g. health and education), where legislation requires that proceedings and documents be translated into Māori (under certain circumstances, and when requested). Political discussion and analysis of issues of sovereignty, environmental management, health, and social well-being thus rely on Māori at least in part. Māori as a spoken language is particularly important wherever community consultation occurs.

Dialects and accents

Recognisable regional variations are slight, with the exception of Southland and the southern part of neighbouring Otago, where the "Southland burr" is heard. This southern area formed a traditional repository of immigration from Scotland (see Dunedin). Several words and phrases common in Scots or Scottish English persist in this area: examples include the use of wee to mean "small", and phrases such as to do the messages meaning "to go shopping". Other Southland features that have been identified and which may also relate to early Scottish settlement are the use of the TRAP in a set of BATH words (dance, castle), which is also found in some Australia English regions, and in the maintenance of the /ʍ/ ~ /w/ distinction (e.g. which and witch are not homophonous for such speakers).[72]

Recent research (2012) suggests that postvocalic /r/ is not restricted to Southland, but is found also in the central North Island where there may be a Pasifika influence, but also a possible influence from modern New Zealand hip‐hop music, which has been shown to have high levels of non‐prevocalic /r/ after the NURSE vowel.[72]

Taranaki has been said to have a minor regional accent, possibly due to the high number of immigrants from the South-West of England. However, this is becoming less pronounced.[73]

Some Māori have an accent distinct from the general New Zealand accent; and also tend to include Māori words more frequently. Comedian Billy T. James and the bro'Town TV programme were notable for featuring exaggerated versions of this.[74] Linguists recognise this as "Māori English", and describe it as strongly influenced by syllable-timed Māori speech patterns.[75] Linguists count "Pākehā English" as the other main accent, and note that it is beginning to adopt similar rhythms, distinguishing it from other stress-timed English accents.[76]

Spelling

  • Where there is a difference between British and US spelling (such as cancelling/canceling and jewellery/jewelry), the British spelling of double-L is universally used. The British use of single-L is also universally used in words such as enrol.
  • New Zealanders use tyres, not tires, except for trademarks such as Cooper Tires.[77]
  • The Commonwealth spelling of kerb (at roadside) is used over US curb.[78]
  • New Zealand spelling of -re words such as centre, mitre, litre, and theatre have always officially followed the British spelling as opposed to American center, miter, liter, and theater, although in practice American spellings are often used such as in real estate listings,[79] buy-and-sell websites such as Trade Me,[80] AutoTrader,[81] and others.
  • Words with the -ce suffix such as defence and pretence are usually spelt with -ce as opposed to the American defense and pretense.
  • With -our words like colour/color or behaviour/behavior the spelling of -our is always used[82] unless a Trademark, such as Colorsteel[83] or The Color Run,[84] etc. Foreign official awards such as the FBI Medal Of Valor always retain their US spelling in New Zealand texts. Additionally the online version of The New Zealand Herald newspaper republishes articles with US spelling when the original article is written with US spelling, such as articles from the Associated Press. Since the advent of Word Processors with spell-checkers, in modern assignment writing in New Zealand universities the rule is to use either 100% British spelling or 100% American spelling, the emphasis being consistency.[85]
  • For words ending in -(e)ment, the e is always included.
  • New Zealand English retains the distinctions between program ("computer heuristic") and programme ("schedule", "broadcast show"), disk ("information storage device") and disc ("flat circular object"), and analog (as in analog stick) and analogue (all other senses) as found in British and often in Australian[86] English.
  • It is usual to form past tenses and past participles of certain verbs with -t and not -ed in New Zealand English. For example, learn becomes learnt, spoil becomes spoilt, burn becomes burnt, dream becomes dreamt /dɹemt/, and lean becomes leant /lent/. These verb forms are pronounced with a final unvoiced /t/ sound, meaning spoilt is pronounced /spoelt/ not /spoeld/. This contrasts with American English, where -ed is far more common and is pronounced /d/ (e.g. dwelled /dweld/ is an American form of dwelt /dwelt/). Learned, the adjective meaning "wise", is universally spelt thus and pronounced as two syllables (/ˈlɵːnɘd/). The past tenses and past participles of earn and boil are earned and boiled respectively, though they may be pronounced ending with a /t/ sound.
  • Words with the digraphs ae and oe in British English are usually spelt as such in New Zealand English (e.g. faeces not feces) rather than with just e as with American English. There are some exceptions where certain words are becoming universally spelt with e such as encyclopaedia, chamaeleon, hyaena, and homoeopathy which are now spelt encyclopedia, chameleon, hyena, and homeopathy respectively. Coincidentally, this is also occurring in British English in these cases too.
  • In hyperbolic statements, the spellings of ton and tons are commonly used (e.g. I have tons of friends and I feel tons better), despite the metric system with its tonne having been introduced in the 1970s.
  • In words that may be spelt with either an -ise or an -ize suffix (such as organise/organize) New Zealand English, like Australian English, mainly prefers -ise. This contrasts with American English, where -ize is generally preferred, and British English, where -ise is also generally preferred but by some, including the Oxford Dictionary, -ize is preferred. In New Zealand it is not wrong to use either spelling.
  • New Zealand favours fiord over fjord, unlike most other English-speaking countries. The fiord spelling was the normal one in English until the early 1920s,[87] and is preserved in many place names worldwide. In New Zealand it is used in Fiordland, a rugged region in the south-west.
  • When spelling words borrowed from Māori, New Zealand English can either spell them with macrons or without (e.g. Maori and Māori are both accepted spellings). In informal writing, macrons are not usually kept.
  • New Zealand always uses jail over British and Australian gaol.[88][89][90]
  • Gram, the unit of mass, is commonly spelt as such and not gramme, which is somewhat found in British English. The same holds true for the word's derivates (e.g. kilogram is more common than kilogramme).
  • All abbreviations of words where the last letter of the abbreviation corresponds to the last letter of the full-length word are abbreviated without a full stop in New Zealand English. Thus the abbreviation of Doctor is Dr and the abbreviation of Mister is Mr do not have full stops after them, as opposed to Dr. and Mr. in American English. Initialisms and acronyms such as USA and NASA (or Nasa), are also abbreviated without full stops in New Zealand English. This practice has been in place in New Zealand since the late 1970s.

See also

References

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Bibliography

  • Bartlett, Christopher (1992), "Regional variation in New Zealand English: the case of Southland", New Zealand English Newsletter, 6: 5–15
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Cryer, Max (2002). Curious Kiwi Words. Auckland: HarperCollins Publishers (NZ) Ltd.
  • Crystal, David (2003), The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press
  • Deverson, Tony, and Graeme Kennedy (eds.) (2005). The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  • Gordon, Elizabeth; Maclagan, Margaret (2004), "Regional and social differences in New Zealand: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 603–613, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Grant, L.E., and Devlin, G.A. (eds.) (1999). In other words: A dictionary of expressions used in New Zealand. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.
  • Leland, Louis S., jr. (1980). A personal Kiwi-Yankee dictionary. Dunedin: John McIndoe Ltd.
  • Orsman, H.W., (ed.) (1997). The Dictionary of New Zealand English: a dictionary of New Zealandisms on historical principles. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-558380-9.
  • Orsman, H.W., (ed.) (1979). Heinemann New Zealand dictionary. Auckland: Heinemann Educational Books (NZ) Ltd.
  • Trudgill, Peter; Hannah, Jean (2002), International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English (4th ed.), London: Arnold

Further reading

  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008). New Zealand English. Dialects of English. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1.

External links

Anna Paquin

Anna Hélène Paquin ( PAK-win; born 24 July 1982) is a New Zealand-Canadian actress. She was born in Manitoba and brought up in Wellington, New Zealand, before moving to Los Angeles during her youth. She completed a year at Columbia University, before leaving to focus on her acting career. As a child, she played the role of Flora McGrath in Jane Campion's romantic drama film The Piano (1993), despite having had little acting experience. For her performance, she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress at the age of 11, making her the second-youngest winner in Oscar history.Paquin was a successful child actress, receiving multiple Young Artist Award nominations for her roles in Fly Away Home (1996), The Member of the Wedding (1997), and A Walk on the Moon (1999), and was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture for appearing in Cameron Crowe's comedy-drama film Almost Famous (2000). She played mutant superheroine Rogue in multiple films of the X-Men franchise and was nominated for a Saturn Award for her performance in the first installment.

Paquin played the lead role of Sookie Stackhouse in the HBO vampire drama television series True Blood (2008–2014). For her performance in the series, Paquin won the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series – Drama in 2009, and was nominated for an additional Golden Globe Award in 2010, as well as three Saturn Awards and a Screen Actors Guild Award in 2010. Among other accolades, Paquin has been nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her work on the 2007 television film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee and a Golden Globe Award for her work on the 2009 television film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler.

Bruce McLaren

Bruce Leslie McLaren (30 August 1937 – 2 June 1970) was a New Zealand race-car designer, driver, engineer and inventor.

His name lives on in the McLaren team which has been one of the most successful in Formula One championship history, winning a total of 8 World Constructors' Championships and 12 World Drivers' Championships. McLaren cars dominated CanAm sports car racing with 56 wins, a considerable number of them with him behind the wheel, between 1967 and 1972 (and five constructors' championships), and have won three Indianapolis 500 races, as well as the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring.

Dictionary of New Zealand Biography

The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (DNZB) is an encyclopedia or biographical dictionary containing biographies of over 3,000 deceased New Zealanders. It was first published as a series of print volumes from 1990 to 2000, and then on a website from 2002. The dictionary superseded An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand of 1966, which had 900 biographies. The dictionary is managed by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the Government of New Zealand. An earlier work of the same name in two volumes, published in 1940 by Guy Scholefield with government assistance, is unrelated.

English Park

English Park is a football stadium in Christchurch, New Zealand. It is the home stadium of Canterbury United, which competes in the ASB Premiership, as well as Western AFC which currently compete in the Mainland Premier League. The stadium has a capacity of approximately 3,000 people.

English Park was used for cycle racing. For example, races were held in December 1927 and February 1928 to raise funds for Harry Watson so that he could compete in the 1928 Tour de France as part of the Australasian Ravat-Wonder-Dunlop cycling team; Watson was the first New Zealander to compete in the Tour de France. In 1929, English Park was used for motorcycle speedway meetings until a competing organiser in Woolston bought out the interests in that sport.English Park is the headquarters for Mainland Football, the largest of the seven football federations within New Zealand. From 2010 to 2011 the playing surface was changed from natural grass to FIFA approved artificial turf, new lighting was also installed to enable night matches, and trainings. In 2013 a café stall was installed. The park also features four team changing rooms, one officials changing room, one lounge with a bar, one kitchen, and a number of offices which are occupied by Mainland Football

The park also hosts a number of early season Mainland Premier League games, and during the winter season where grass pitches are unplayable. Currently, most English, and Reta Fitzpatrick Cup games are played during the midweek in the evenings at the ground. The finals for both competitions are played over one day, during early September.

Iwi

Iwi (Māori pronunciation: [ˈiwi]) are the largest social units in Aotearoa Māori society. The Māori-language word iwi means "people" or "nation", and is often translated as "tribe", or "a confederation of tribes". The word is both singular and plural in Māori.

Iwi groups trace their ancestry to the original Polynesian migrants who, according to tradition, arrived from Hawaiki. Some iwi cluster into larger groupings that are based on whakapapa (genealogical tradition) and known as waka (literally "canoes", with reference to the original migration voyages). These super-groupings generally serve symbolic rather than practical functions. In pre-European times, most Māori were allied to relatively small groups in the form of hapū ("sub-tribes") and whānau ("family"). Each iwi contains a number of hapū; among the hapū of the Ngāti Whātua iwi, for example, are Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taoū, and Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei.

In modern-day New Zealand, iwi can exercise significant political power in the recovery and management of land and of other assets. (Note for example the 1997 Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the New Zealand Government and Ngāi Tahu, compensating that iwi for various losses of the rights guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840.) Iwi affairs can have a real impact on New Zealand politics and society. A 2004 attempt by some iwi to test in court their ownership of the seabed and foreshore areas polarised public opinion (see New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy).

Jemaine Clement

Jemaine Atea Mahana Clement (born 10 January 1974) is a New Zealand musical comedian and actor. With Bret McKenzie, as the comedy duo Flight of the Conchords, he has released several albums and created comedy series for both the BBC and HBO.

He has had featured parts in films such as Gentlemen Broncos (2009), Rio (2011), Men in Black 3 (2012) and Moana (2016). In 2014, he made his feature film directorial debut with the horror comedy mockumentary What We Do in the Shadows, which he wrote, starred in and directed with Taika Waititi. He currently portrays Oliver Bird on the FX series Legion (2017–present).

Land Information New Zealand

Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) (Māori: Toitū Te Whenua) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with geographical information and surveying functions as well as handling land titles, and managing Crown land and property.

The Minister for Land Information (formerly the Minister of Survey and Land Information) is Eugenie Sage.Andrew Crisp has been the Chief Executive of Land Information New Zealand since 2016.The New Zealand Geographic Board secretariat is part of LINZ and provides the Board with administrative and research assistance and advice.

List of airlines of New Zealand

This is a list of airlines that have an Air Operator Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand.

Lists of schools in New Zealand

New Zealand has over 2,500 primary and secondary schools.

State schools and state integrated schools are primarily funded by the central government. Private schools receive a lower level of state funding (about 25% of their costs). See Secondary education in New Zealand for more details.

Population decline in rural and some urban areas has led to school closures in recent decades. This was a much debated topic in 2003–2004.

Maria Folau

Solonaima Maria Folau (née Tuta'ia; born 18 February 1987 in Tokoroa, New Zealand) is a New Zealand international netball player.

Ministry for Culture and Heritage

The Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatū Taonga (MCH) is the public-service department of the New Zealand government charged with advising the government on policies and issues involving the arts, culture, built heritage, sport and recreation, and broadcasting sectors, and participating in functions that advance or promote those sectors.

New Zealand Listener

The New Zealand Listener is a New Zealand magazine which covers a variety of general topics, including current affairs, politics and entertainment.

New Zealand national football team

The New Zealand national football team represents New Zealand in international association football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in New Zealand New Zealand Football (NZF), which is currently a member of the Oceania Football Confederation (OFC). The team's official nickname is the All Whites. New Zealand is a five-time OFC champion. The team represented New Zealand at the FIFA World Cup tournaments in 1982 and 2010, and the FIFA Confederations Cup tournaments in 1999, 2003, 2009 and 2017. Because most New Zealand football clubs are semi-professional rather than fully professional, most professional New Zealand footballers play for clubs in English-speaking countries such as England, the United States and Australia.

Recorded Music NZ

Recorded Music NZ (formerly Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ)) is a non-profit trade association of record producers, distributors and recording artists who sell music in New Zealand. Membership of Recorded Music NZ is open to any recorded music rights owner operating in New Zealand, inclusive of major labels (Sony, Universal and Warner Music Group), independent labels and self-released artists. Recorded Music NZ has over 2000 rights holders.

Prior to June 2013, the association was known as the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ). RIANZ and PPNZ Music Licensing were merged and renamed Recorded Music NZ.Recorded Music NZ offers services under three areas: Member Services (the New Zealand Music Awards, The Official NZ Music Charts, Music Grants and direct services to artists and labels), Music Licensing (undertaken independently or in most cases, via OneMusic, a joint licensing venture between Recorded Music NZ and APRA) and Pro Music services regarding copyright protection and corporate affairs. Recorded Music NZ is also a joint trustee (with APRA) of the NZ Music Hall of Fame.

Stuff.co.nz

Stuff.co.nz is a New Zealand news website published by Stuff Limited, a subsidiary of Australian company Fairfax Media Ltd. Stuff hosts the websites for Fairfax's New Zealand newspapers, including the country's second- and third-highest circulation daily newspapers, The Dominion Post and The Press, and the highest circulation weekly, The Sunday Star-Times. It is also a web portal to other Fairfax websites. As of March 2019, the website had an Alexa rank in New Zealand of 7.

Taika Waititi

Taika David Waititi ( (listen); born 16 August 1975) is a New Zealand filmmaker, actor, and comedian. He was nominated for an Academy Award for his 2004 short film Two Cars, One Night.

His feature films Boy (2010) and Hunt for the Wilderpeople (2016) have each been the top-grossing New Zealand film, with the latter still holding that title as of 2018. He co-directed the horror comedy film What We Do in the Shadows (2014) with Jemaine Clement, Waititi later directed the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero film Thor: Ragnarok (2017).

The New Zealand Herald

The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily Herald had declined to 115,213 copies on average by December 2017. Its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is also delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland, Waikato and King Country.

Wairarapa

Wairarapa (; Māori pronunciation: [ˈwaiɾaɾapa]), is a geographical region of New Zealand. It occupies the south-eastern corner of the North Island, east of metropolitan Wellington and south-west of the Hawke's Bay region. It is lightly populated, having several rural service towns, with Masterton being the largest. It is named after its largest lake, Lake Wairarapa.

The region is commonly referred to as The Wairarapa, particularly when used after a preposition (e.g., locals will say they live in the Wairarapa, and travel to and from the Wairarapa).

Yvette Williams

Yvette Winifred Corlett (née Williams, 25 April 1929 – 13 April 2019) was a New Zealand track-and-field athlete who was the first woman from her country to win an Olympic gold medal and to hold the world record in the women's long jump. Williams was named "Athlete of the Century" on the 100th anniversary of Athletics New Zealand, in 1987.

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