New Zealand–United States relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the United States of America. According to the U.S. State Department, relations as of August 2011 are "the best they have been in decades." New Zealand is a major non-NATO ally of the United States.
Both the United States and New Zealand share some common ancestry and history (having both been British colonies). Both countries had native peoples who were at times dispossessed of their land by the process of colonization. Both states have also been part of a Western alliance of states in various wars. Together with three other Anglophone countries, they comprise the Five Eyes espionage and intelligence alliance.
|New Zealand–American relations|
The United States established consular representation in New Zealand in 1838 to represent and protect American shipping and whaling interests, appointing James Reddy Clendon as Consul, resident in Russell. In 1840, New Zealand became part of the British Empire with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Although it gradually grew more independent, for its first hundred years, New Zealand followed the United Kingdom's lead on foreign policy. In declaring war on Germany on 3 September 1939, Prime Minister Michael Joseph Savage proclaimed, "Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand".
During the war in the Pacific which lasted from 1941 to 1945, the United States, which had more than 400,000 American military personnel stationed in New Zealand to prepare for crucial battles such as Guadacanal and Tarawa exerted an increased influence on culture.
Relations became somewhat strained however, as experienced by the 1st Marine Division - due to the fact that the Wellington dock workers were on strike at the time so the Marines had to do all the load reconfiguration from administrative to combat configuration.
After the war, New Zealand joined with Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty in 1951, and later fought alongside the United States in both the Korean and Vietnam War, plus the Gulf War and the current Afghanistan conflict.
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to defence operations. While the ANZUS Treaty was once fully mutual between Australia, New Zealand and the United States, this is no longer the case as the United States suspended its treaty obligations to New Zealand following the refusal to allow the USS Buchanan into a New Zealand port in February 1985. New Zealand's ban of nuclear weapons meant that any ship thought to be carrying nuclear weapons was banned from New Zealand's ports, all American naval vessels were essentially denied access due to the American policy to ‘neither confirm nor deny’ the presence of nuclear weapons.
In suspending obligations to New Zealand through the ANZUS treaty, the US cut major military and diplomatic ties between Wellington and Washington, downgrading New Zealand from ‘ally’, to ‘friend’. This included removing New Zealand from military exercises and war games in the area, cutting major diplomatic ties, and limiting the intelligence sharing to New Zealand. New Zealand has not removed itself from ANZUS, arguing that allowing nuclear weapons into New Zealand was not part of the ANZUS treaty, and that New Zealand's position is not a pacifist or Anti-American decision, and would increase its conventional military cooperation with the US. The Americans felt personally betrayed by the New Zealanders and would not accept the anti-nuclear stance, stating that New Zealand will be welcome back in ANZUS if and when New Zealand accepted all US ship visits.
New Zealand's relationship with the United States further suffered when French agents sunk the Rainbow Warrior while it was docked in Auckland Harbour in July 1985. The United States, as well as other western countries aside from Australia failed to condemn the attack which was seen in New Zealand as state-sponsored terrorism by the French. This inaction furthered the breach between the two countries, with the State Department stating that it "deplored such acts, wherever they may occur" in September 1985, a few days after the French admission of guilt.
Although the ANZUS treaty has never been officially called on by the United States, New Zealand has continued to fight alongside the United States in multiple conflicts following the Second World War. Notably, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and Afghanistan.
In May 2006, US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Christopher R. Hill, described the New Zealand anti-nuclear issue as "a relic", and signalled that the US wanted a closer defence relationship with New Zealand. He also praised New Zealand's involvement in Afghanistan and reconstruction in Iraq. "Rather than trying to change each other's minds on the nuclear issue, which is a bit of a relic, I think we should focus on things we can make work"
While there have been signs of the nuclear dispute between the United States and New Zealand thawing out, pressure from the United States increased in 2006 with US trade officials linking the repeal of the ban of American nuclear ships from New Zealand's ports to a potential free trade agreement between the two countries.
On an official visit to New Zealand in July 2008, when questioned on the issue of New Zealand Nuclear-free policy Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated that "US and New Zealand have moved on. If there are remaining issues to be addressed then we should address them". She went on to say that: "New Zealand and the United States, Kiwis and Americans, have a long history of partnership. It is one that is grounded in common interests, but it is elevated by common ideals. And it is always defined by the warmth and the respect of two nations, but more importantly, of two peoples who are bound together by countless ties of friendship and family and shared experience."
On 21 September 2012, visiting U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said Royal New Zealand Navy ships would be allowed onto Defence Department or Coast guard facilities both within the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. "These changes make it easier for our militaries to engage in discussions on security issues and to hold co-operative engagements that increase our capacity to tackle common challenges. [We will work together despite] differences of opinion in some limited areas." At the same time, however, New Zealand had not changed its stance as a nuclear-free zone.
On 29 October 2013 it was announced that "The United States and New Zealand will resume bilateral military cooperation after a near-total 30-year interruption" by New Zealand Defence minister Jonathan Coleman and United States Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel.
New Zealand has fought in a number of conflicts on the same side as the United States, including World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the Afghanistan War; it has also sent a unit of army engineers to help rebuild Iraqi infrastructure for one year during the Iraq War. In 2013, the Provincial Reconstruction Team (New Zealand) withdrew from Afghanistan. As of 2017, a contingent of 10 New Zealand Defence Force personnel remain in Afghanistan to provide mentorship & support at the Afghan National Army Officer Academy in Kabul, in addition to support personnel.
New Zealand was among those who responded to the United Nations call for help. New Zealand joined 15 other nations including the United Kingdom and the United States in the anti-communist war. But the Korean War was also significant, as it marked New Zealand's first move towards association with the United States in supporting that country's stand against communism.
New Zealand contributed six frigates, several smaller craft and a 1044 strong volunteer force (known as K-FORCE) to the Korean War. The ships were under the command of a British flag officer and formed part of the US Navy screening force during the Battle of Inchon, performing shore raids and inland bombardment. The last New Zealand soldiers did not leave until 1957 and a single liaison officer remained until 1971. A total of 3,794 New Zealand soldiers served in K-FORCE and 1300 in the Navy deployment. 33 were killed in action, 79 wounded and one soldier was taken prisoner. That prisoner was held in North Korea for eighteen months and repatriated after the armistices.
New Zealand's involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial, sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts. This conflict was also the first in which New Zealand did not fight alongside the United Kingdom, instead following the loyalties of the ANZUS Pact.
New Zealand's initial response was carefully considered and characterised by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake's cautiousness towards the entire Vietnam question. New Zealand non-military economic assistance would continue from 1966 onwards and averaged at US$347,500 annually. This funding went to several mobile health teams to support refugee camps, the training of village vocational experts, to medical and teaching equipment for Huế University, equipment for a technical high school and a contribution toward the construction of a science building at the University of Saigon. Private civilian funding was also donated for 80 Vietnamese students to take scholarships in New Zealand.
The government preferred minimal involvement, with other Southeast Asian deployments already having a strain on the New Zealand armed forces. From 1961, New Zealand came under pressure from the United States to contribute military and economic assistance to South Vietnam, but refused.
American pressure continued for New Zealand to contribute military assistance, as the United States would be deploying combat units (as opposed to merely advisors) itself soon, as would Australia. Holyoake justified New Zealand's lack of assistance by pointing to its military contribution to the Indonesia-Malaysian Confrontation, but eventually the government decided to contribute. It was seen as in the nation's best interests to do so—failure to contribute even a token force to the effort in Vietnam would have undermined New Zealand's position in ANZUS and could have had an adverse effect on the alliance itself. New Zealand had also established its post-Second World War security agenda around countering communism in South-East Asia and of sustaining a strategy of forward defence, and so needed to be seen to be acting upon these principles. On 27 May 1965 Holyoake, announced the government's decision to send 161 Battery, Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery to South Vietnam in a combat role. The Engineers were replaced by the Battery in July 1965.
In 1966, when Confrontation came to an end and Australia decided to expand the 1st Australian Task Force, New Zealand came under pressure to increase its commitment and did so.
In March 1968 they were integrated—forming the 2RAR/NZ (ANZAC) Battalion, with New Zealand personnel assuming various positions in the battalion, including that of second in command. The rifle companies were deployed on infantry operations in Phuoc Tuy Province and were replaced several times, usually after a 12-month tour of duty. Two more RNZAF pilots joined No. 9 Squadron in 1968 and from December 1968 two forward air controllers served with the Seventh Air Force, United States Air Force.
As American focus shifted to President Richard Nixon's 'Vietnamization'—a policy of slow disengagement from the war, by gradually building up the Army of the Republic of Vietnam so that it could fight the war on its own, New Zealand dispatched the 2nd New Zealand Army Training Team Vietnam in January 1971. Numbering 25 men, it assisted the United States Army Training Team in Chi Lang. In February 1972 a second training team, 18 strong (including two Royal New Zealand Navy personnel), was deployed to Vietnam and was based at Dong Ba Thin Base Camp, near Cam Ranh Bay. It assisted with the training of Cambodian infantry battalions. This team also provided first aid instruction and specialist medical instruction at Dong Ba Thin's 50-bed hospital.
Like veterans from many of the other allied nations, as well as Vietnamese civilians, New Zealand veterans of the Vietnam War claimed that they (as well as their children and grandchildren) had suffered serious harm as a result of exposure to Agent Orange, a herbicidal warfare program used by the British military during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. In 1984, Agent Orange manufacturers paid New Zealand, Australian and Canadian veterans in an out-of-court settlement, and in 2004 Prime Minister Helen Clark's government apologised to Vietnam War veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange or other toxic defoliants, following a health select committee's inquiry into the use of Agent Orange on New Zealand servicemen and its effects. In 2005, the New Zealand government confirmed that it supplied Agent Orange chemicals to the United States military during the conflict. Since the early 1960s, and up until 1987, it manufactured the 2,4,5T herbicide at a plant in New Plymouth which was then shipped to U.S. military bases in South East Asia
New Zealand has assisted the United States and Britain in many of their military activities in the Middle East. However New Zealand forces have fought only in Afghanistan; in other countries New Zealand support has been in the form of support and engineering. During the Iran–Iraq War two New Zealand frigates joined the Royal Navy in monitoring merchant shipping in the Persian Gulf. and in 1991, New Zealand contributed three transport aircraft and a medical team to assist coalition forces in the Gulf War.
New Zealand's heaviest military involvement in the Middle East in recent decades has been in Afghanistan following the United States-led invasion of that country after the September 11 attacks. A Squadron of New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) personnel were dispatched, and in March 2002 they took part in Operation Anaconda against about 500 to 1000 Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the Shah-i-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains southeast of Zorma, Afghanistan. New Zealand has also supplied two transport aircraft and a 122-strong tri-service Provincial Reconstruction Team, which has been located in Bamyan Province since 2003.
Starting in late 2001, the New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS) began operations assisting in the War on Terror in Afghanistan. Three six-month rotations of between 40 and 65 soldiers from the Special Air Service of New Zealand served in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom before the unit was withdrawn in November 2005. On 17 June 2004, two NZSAS soldiers were wounded in a predawn gun-battle in central Afghanistan.
According to a New Zealand government fact sheet released in July 2007, the SAS soldiers routinely patrolled enemy territory for three weeks or more at a time, often on foot, after being inserted by helicopter.
There were "casualties on both sides" during gun battles. Corporal Douglas Hughes, known as "Dougie", died on 3 April 2012. He was the first New Zealand soldier to die in Afghanistan since Special Air Service Lance Corporal Leon Smith was killed after being struck by a Taliban bullet in Kabul on 28 September 2011. SAS soldier Corporal Doug Grant was also killed by the Taleban gunfire in Kabul on 19 August 2011.Stuff.co
In December 2004, the United States Navy Presidential Unit Citation was awarded to those units that comprised the Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-SOUTH/Task Force K-BAR between 17 October 2001 and 30 March 2002 for "extraordinary heroism" in action. One of these units was the New Zealand Special Air Service.
The citation said NZSAS helped "neutralise" Taliban and al-Qaeda in "extremely high risk missions, including search and rescue, special reconnaissance, sensitive site exploitation, direct action missions, destruction of multiple cave and tunnel complexes, identification and destruction of several known al-Qaeda training camps, explosions of thousands of pounds of enemy ordnance."
"They established benchmark standards of professionalism, tenacity, courage, tactical brilliance and operational excellence while demonstrating superb esprit de corps and maintaining the highest measures of combat readiness."
In accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 New Zealand contributed a small engineering and support force to assist in post-war reconstruction and provision of humanitarian aid. The engineers returned home in October 2004 and New Zealand is still represented in Iraq by liaison and staff officers working with coalition forces.
On 30 August 2005 NZST (29 August UTC−6/-5) Prime Minister Helen Clark sent condolences by phone and in a letter with an offer of help to United States President George W. Bush and Foreign Affairs Minister Phil Goff also sent a message of sympathy to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. This offer included an official pledge by the Government of New Zealand to the Red Cross of $2 million for aid and disaster relief.
After the New Zealand government's initial pledge of money, they offered further contributions to the recovery effort including Urban search and rescue Teams, a Disaster Victim Identification team and post disaster recovery personnel. Those offers were gratefully received by the United States. A senior member of the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, John Titmus went to Denton, Texas, to lead an official United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team to assess the damage from Hurricane Katrina. The US Embassy in Wellington said it deeply appreciated the $2 million donation and gratefully acknowledged the offer of disaster management personnel.
New Zealand and the United States maintain good working relations on a broad array of issues and share an excellent system of communication. The former President of the United States George W. Bush and Prime Minister of New Zealand Helen Clark have been able to improve the two nations relations and work around New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy and focus on working together on more important issues, although the United States is still interested in changing New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy.
After Helen Clark's visit to Washington and talks with President Bush, The New Zealand Herald reported, on 23 March 2007, that the United States "no longer seeks to change" New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy, and that this constituted "a turning point in the US-NZ relationship".
In July 2008, Condoleezza Rice, the United States Secretary of State, visited New Zealand, which she referred to as "a friend and an ally". The New Zealand Herald reported that the use of the word "ally" was unexpected, as United States officials had avoided it since the ANZUS crisis. Rice stated that the relationship between the two countries was a "deepening" one, "by no means [...] harnessed to or constrained by the past", which prompted the Herald to write of a "thaw in US-NZ relations".
The United States is New Zealand's third-largest individual trading partner (behind China and Australia), while New Zealand is the United States' 47th-largest partner. In 2017-18, bilateral trade between the two countries was valued at NZ$17.6 billion (approximately US$12.3 billion). New Zealand's main exports to the United States are meat, wine, dairy products, machinery and medical equipment. The United States' main exports to New Zealand are machinery, aircraft, vehicles and parts, medical equipment, and electronics.
In addition to trade, there is a high level of corporate and individual investment between the two countries and the US is a major source of tourists coming to New Zealand. In March 2012, the United States had a total of $44 billion invested in New Zealand.
The government of New Zealand had indicated its desire for a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and New Zealand. Such an agreement would presumably be pursued alongside, or together with, an FTA between the United States and Australia since New Zealand and Australia have had their own FTA for almost twenty years and their economies are now closely integrated. Fifty House members wrote to President Bush in January 2003 advocating the initiation of negotiations, as did 19 Senators in March 2003. However, Administration officials had enumerated several political and security impediments to a potential FTA, including New Zealand's longstanding refusal to allow nuclear-powered ships into its harbors and its refusal to support the United States in the Iraq War.
New Zealand's economy is small compared with that of the United States, so the economic impact of an FTA would be modest for the United States and considerably larger for New Zealand. However, US merchandise exports to New Zealand would rise by about 25 percent and virtually every US sector would benefit. The inclusion of Australia would increase the magnitude of these results substantially; US exports would rise by about $3 billion. The adjustment costs for the United States would be minimal: production in the most impacted sector, dairy products, would decline by only 0.5 percent and any adverse effect on jobs would be very small. It would also contribute toward the accomplishment of APEC's goals of achieving "free and open trade and investment in the (Asia Pacific) region by 2010,"
On 4 February 2008, U.S. Trade Representative Susan Schwab announced that the United States will join negotiations 4 Asia-Pacific countries: Brunei, Chile, New Zealand & Singapore to be known as the "P-4". These nations already have an FTA called the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership and the United States will be looking to become involved in the "vitally important emerging Asia-Pacific region" A number of U.S. organizations support the negotiations including, but not limited to: the United States Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers, National Foreign Trade Council, Emergency Committee for American Trade and Coalition of Service Industries.
On 23 September 2008, an official announcement was made from Washington, D.C. that the United States was to begin negotiations with the P-4 countries ASAP, with the first round of talks scheduled for March 2009 with New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark stating "I think the value to New Zealand of the United States coming into a transpacific agreement as a partner would be of the same value as we would hope to get from a bilateral FTA.... It's very, very big news." Although the outcome of the FTA could become largely dependent on the results of the 2008 United States Presidential election as it is believed the Democratic Party are less friendly towards free trade than their Republican counterparts, despite this, Helen Clark said "I believe that to Democrats, New Zealand offers very few problems because we are very keen on environment and labour agreements as part of an overall approach to an FTA".
After the inauguration of Barack Obama, talks about an FTA between the two nations were postponed since Obama had not appointed a US Trade Representative as his nominee, Ron Kirk, had not been approved by the Senate. "The government is deeply disappointed" that the United States is postponing trade talks involving New Zealand that were scheduled to get underway at the end of the month, Prime Minister John Key says and that "New Zealand will continue to advocate very strongly for a trade deal." 
At the APEC meeting in Singapore in 2009, President Barack Obama announced a free trade deal with New Zealand would go ahead.
The Friends of New Zealand Congressional Caucus Member numbers now stand at 62.
On 4 November 2010, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton began her three-day visit to New Zealand and at 4:23 pm, she co-signed the Wellington Declaration with New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully. The agreement signals closer relations between New Zealand and the United States, with an increase in the strategic partnership between the two nations. In doing so, the agreement stresses the continued pledge for the United States and New Zealand to work together, explicitly saying that: "The United States-New Zealand strategic partnership is to have two fundamental elements: a new focus on practical cooperation in the Pacific region; and enhanced political and subject-matter dialogue - including regular Foreign Ministers' meetings and political-military discussions." The agreement also stresses the continued need for New Zealand and the United States to work together on issues like nuclear proliferation, climate change and terrorism.
The Washington Declaration between the United States and New Zealand, signed on 19 June 2012, establishes a framework for strengthening and building the basis for defense cooperation. The agreement was signed by New Zealand Defence Minister Jonathan Coleman and US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta. Defense ties between New Zealand and the United States were strained following the New Zealand government's decision in 1985 to refuse entry to New Zealand of the USS Buchanan (DDG-14). As a result of this decision the US suspended its ANZUS treaty obligations with New Zealand.
The Washington Declaration, while non-binding and not renewing ANZUS treaty obligations between the US and New Zealand nonetheless establishes the basis for increased defense cooperation between the two states.
The two countries share much in common:
New Zealand and the United States have historically had little connection over sports. Sport in New Zealand largely reflects its British colonial heritage. Some of the most popular sports in New Zealand, namely rugby, cricket and netball, are primarily played in Commonwealth countries, whereas America is predominantly stronger in Baseball, Basketball and American Football. But in recent years there has been much more cooperation in the area of sports between both countries, particularly in Rugby and Soccer. In January 2008 during the New Zealand Stage of the 2007-08 IRB Sevens World Series the United States national team participated in the finals of the knockout round, beating Kenya to win the shield and New Zealand beating Samoa in the finals to win the Cup.
Soccer is still a smaller sport in both New Zealand and the United States and is far less publicised in both nations, but ties to teams in both countries have been growing, particularly when on 1 December 2007, Wellington Phoenix played a friendly match against United States MLS club Los Angeles Galaxy. In the contract to secure the friendly, David Beckham will play a minimum of 55 minutes on the pitch. Wellington was beaten by a 1-4 scoreline. David Beckham played the entire match and scored from the penalty spot in the second half. The attendance of 31,853 was a record for any football match in New Zealand. David Beckham played the full 90 minutes with a broken rib which he sustained in a tackle in the previous match.
Probably the most well-known former New Zealand Tall Black player in the National Basketball Association is Brooklyn Nets General Manager, and former New Orleans Hornets forward, Sean Marks. Steven Adams has also increased the profile of New Zealand basketball, creating a profile throughout his two seasons with the Oklahoma City Thunder. Another New Zealand player, former University of Wisconsin–Madison star Kirk Penney, signed in 2005 with two-time defending Euroleague champions Maccabi Tel Aviv and in 2010 signed with the Sioux Falls Skyforce in the NBA Development League.
The 2005 U.S. Open Golf Championship was the second major win by a New Zealand golfer and earned winner Michael Campbell much recognition in his sport for beating out golfing legend Tiger Woods to win the $1.17 million prize in the final round.
The 92nd Indianapolis 500-Mile Race was run on Sunday, 25 May 2008 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It was won by Scott Dixon of New Zealand, the first New Zealander ever to do so.
New Zealand is one of five countries who share intelligence under the UKUSA agreement. New Zealand has two (known) listening posts run by the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) as part of the ECHELON spy network. The partnership gives "a direct line into the inner circles of power in London and Washington," gives New Zealand a distinct partnership with the United States not just on economic policies but domestic security agreements and operations as well, and is a familiar platform for further deals involving both countries.
The UKUSA community allows member countries to cooperate in multilateral military exercises, more recently focussing on terrorism after 9/11.
The Strategic Alliance Cyber Crime Working Group is a new initiative by Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and headed by the United States as a "formal partnership between these nations dedicated to tackling larger global crime issues, particularly organized crime". The cooperation consists of "five countries from three continents banding together to fight cyber crime in a synergistic way by sharing intelligence, swapping tools and best practices, and strengthening and even synchronizing their respective laws." This means that there will be increased information sharing between the New Zealand Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation on matters relating to serious fraud or cyber crime.
There are many official contacts between New Zealand and the United States, which provide the opportunity for high-level discussions and the continued development of bilateral relations. Many ministers meet with their US counterparts at international meetings and events.
New Zealand Ministerial Visits to the United States
|June 2012||Defence Jonathan Coleman||Washington, D.C.||Visited The Pentagon to sign the Washington Declaration with Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta.|
|July 2011||Prime Minister John Key||Washington, D.C.||Visited the White House to meet with President Barack Obama, Cabinet officials, and lawmakers.|
|July 2007||Gerry Brownlee and Shane Jones, chairman and deputy chairman of the New Zealand United States Parliamentary Friendship Group||Washington, D.C.||Visited Washington for a series of meetings, including calls on their counterparts, co-chairs of the Friends of New Zealand Congressional Caucus, Representatives Ellen Tauscher and Kevin Brady amongst others. They were accompanied by NZUS Council Executive Director Stephen Jacobi who stayed on in Washington to further plan for the upcoming Partnership Forum.|
|May 2007||Minister of Trade, Defence, and Disarmament and Arms Control, Phil Goff||Washington, D.C.||Mr Goff met with senior Administration officials including USTR Susan Schwab; Secretary of Defense Robert Gates; National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley; Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns; Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne; then Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, Frank Lavin; and Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Chris Hill.|
|May 2007||Minister of Trade, Defence, and Disarmament and Arms Control, Phil Goff||Washington, D.C.||The Minister delivered an address on the outlook for the Doha Round at a well attended US Chamber/US NZ Council luncheon. The Minister also witnessed the signing of an agreement for New Zealand's third contribution to the G8 Global Partnership for the disposal of Weapons of Mass Destruction.|
|May 2007||Economic Development Minister, Trevor Mallard||Boston||To attend BIO 2007 which was attended by more than 40 New Zealand biotechnology companies|
|May 2007||Economic Development Minister, Trevor Mallard||Boston and New York City||To promote New Zealand to US financial and investment contacts and to discuss international economic trends.|
|19–24 March 2007||The Prime Minister, Helen Clark||Washington, D.C., Chicago and Seattle||Her two-day visit to Washington D.C. included a meeting and lunch at the White House with President George W Bush (as well as other senior Bush Administration officials), and meetings with the Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, the Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, the US Trade Representative, Susan Schwab, and the Director of National Intelligence, Admiral Mike McConnell. She also made calls on the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi, and Senator Barbara Boxer, Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs.|
|January 2007||Prime Minister and Sir Edmund Hillary||Antarctica||To celebrate 50 years of Antarctica cooperation between New Zealand and the United States.|
|Early January 2007||Hon Chris Carter, Minister of Conservation||Washington, D.C.||Represented New Zealand at the funeral of former President Gerald Ford|
|October 2006||Minister of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, Hon Rick Barker||Boston and Washington, D.C.||Official Visit|
|July 2006||Minister of Foreign Affairs Rt Hon Winston Peters||Washington, D.C.||Official visit|
|April 2006||Minister of Defence and Minister of Trade, Hon Phil Goff, and Minister of Immigration Hon David Cunliffe||Washington, D.C.||Official visit|
|January and March 2006||Minister Phil Goff and Economic Development Minister Mallard||California||Official visit|
|May 2005||Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister Goff, Customs Minister Barker and Economic Development and Forestry Minister Anderton||Various||Separate official visits|
|April 2005||Speaker of the House of Representatives, Hon Margaret Wilson||Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia||Led a parliamentary delegation to the US|
|April 2005||Associate Minister of Finance, Hon Trevor Mallard||Washington, D.C.||International Monetary Fund/World Bank Spring Meetings|
|September 2004||Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Michael Cullen||Washington, D.C.||Official Visit|
|Other Ministerial visits in 2004||Minister of Health, Hon Annette King; Minister for Trade Negotiations, Hon Jim Sutton; Minister of Energy, Hon Pete Hodgson; and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Hon Phil Goff.||Various||Separate Official Visits|
|Visits in 2003||Minister of Police, George Warren Hawkins; Associate Minister of Agriculture, Damien O'Connor; Minister of State, David Cunliffe; The Minister of Education and Associate Minister of Finance, Trevor Mallard; Minister for Research, Science and Technology, Pete Hodgson and The Minister of Health, Annette King.||Various||Various|
|Visits in 2002||Prime Minister, Helen Clark||Various||Made two official visits to the United States in 2002|
|2002||Other Ministerial visits included Deputy Prime Minister Dr Michael Cullen, Minister for Foreign Affairs Phil Goff and Minister for Trade Negotiations Jim Sutton.||Various||Official Visits|
United States delegations to New Zealand
|June 2017||Secretary of State Rex Tillerson||Wellington||Official visit to meet Prime minister Bill English and Minister of Foreign Affairs Gerry Brownlee|
|November 2016||Secretary of State John Kerry||Christchurch||Official Visit to meet with Prime Minister John Key and Minister of Foreign Affairs Murray McCully to discuss bilateral and global issues|
|November 2010||Secretary of State Hillary Clinton||Wellington||Official Visit to meet with Prime Minister John Key and Minister of Foreign Affairs Murray McCully and to sign the Wellington Declaration.|
|July 2008||Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice||Government House, Auckland||Official Visit to meet with Minister of Foreign Affairs Winston Peters and Prime Minister Helen Clark. Held a joint press conference with the Prime Minister.|
|August 2006||Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs Glyn Davies||Wellington||Official Visit|
|May 2006||Washington State Governor Christine Gregoire||Auckland||Official Visit|
|April 2006||Secretary of Veterans Affairs Jim Nicholson||Auckland||Official Visit|
|March 2006||Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Christopher R. Hill||Wellington||Official Visit|
|January 2006||General John Abizaid, Commander US Central Command & William J. Fallon, Commander, US Pacific Command||Various||Official Visit|
|January 2006||Senators John McCain (R-Arizona), Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Susan Collins (R-Maine), and John E. Sununu (R-New Hampshire)||Various||Official Visit|
|January 2006||Congressman Sherwood Boehlert (R-New York)||Various||Led a House Science Committee delegation –The delegation included: Lincoln Davis (D-Tennessee), Bob Inglis (R-North Carolina), Brad Miller (D-North Carolina), Ben Chandler (D-Kentucky), R (Bud) Cramer (D-Alabama), Phil Gingery (R-Georgia), Darlene Hooley (D-Oregon), Jim Costa (D-California), and Roscoe Bartlett (R-Maryland)|
|September 2005||Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns||Various||Official Visit|
|2005||Congressman Jim Kolbe (Republican, Arizona)||Various||Is the co-Chair of the Friends of New Zealand Caucus in the United States House of Representatives|
|December 2004||US Senator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) and Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio)||Wellington||High-level visits to attend Parliamentarians for Global Action Conference|
|November 2004||US Senator Max Baucus (D-Montana)||Various||Led a business delegation from Montana|
|November 2004||Delegation of Californian State Senators||Various||Official Visit|
|August 2004||US Senator Richard Shelby (R-Alabama) and Congressman Robert E. Cramer (D-Alabama)||Various||Official Visit|
|March 2004||Governor of Iowa, Thomas Vilsack||Various||Led a biotechnology trade delegation from his state to New Zealand.|
|January 2004||Led by Senator Don Nickles (R-Oklahoma)||Various||A Congressional Delegation of six Republican Senators|
|Visits in 2003||Under-Secretary for Regulatory Programs, Bill Hawks, Under-Secretary for Commerce Grant Aldonas and Under-Secretary of State for International Security and Arms Control, John R. Bolton.||Auckland||US delegation also visited Auckland for the 34th Pacific Islands Forum, where the US was a dialogue partner.|
Dating back to 1986, the United States – New Zealand Council has played a prominent role in US-NZ bilateral relations. The Council provides information on a range of economic, political, and security issues affecting the two countries and on their increasing collaboration, historical links and shared values, outlooks, and approaches on economic, political, and legal systems.
As well as working with the New Zealand United States Council to organise the widely lauded Partnership Forums, the US-NZ Council periodically honours distinguished individuals with the Torchbearer Award for promoting bilateral exchanges. Past recipients have included Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Christopher Hill; Three-term NZ Prime Minister and Ambassador to the United States, Jim Bolger; California Congressman, Calvin Dooley; NZ Prime Minister and Director of WTO, Mike Moore; Agriculture Secretary and US Trade Representative, Clayton Yeutter.
Currently the Council's efforts are focused on the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement, which the United States has signaled they will engage in discussion. The Asia-Pacific region is important for both the United States and New Zealand, the Council spreads awareness of its importance both in the business community and on the Hill.
The United States – New Zealand Council is a non-profit, nonpartisan, organisation.
Founded in 2001, the New Zealand United States Council is committed to fostering and developing a strong and mutually beneficial relationship between New Zealand and the United States. The Council is an advocate for the expansion of trade and economic links between the two countries including a possible free trade agreement.
The Council works closely with its counterpart in Washington, D.C., the US NZ Council, with business groups in New Zealand and with government agencies, especially the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the New Zealand Embassy in Washington.
The council has been working tirelessly towards an improvement in NZ-US relations with New Zealand MPs (Members of Parliament) and their American counterparts in Congress. Such things as verbal and face-to-face discussions about political and domestic issues involving either countries. Their work has not been in vain: United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has begun regular communication with New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Winston Peters about issues such as nuclear tests in North Korea, and other issues of politics, trade and business affairs of both New Zealand and the United States.
The 2010 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of New Zealand, on the advice of the New Zealand government, to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders, and to celebrate the passing of 2009 and the beginning of 2010. They were announced on 31 December 2009.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.2012 New Year Honours (New Zealand)
The 2012 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of New Zealand, on the advice of the New Zealand government, to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders, and to celebrate the passing of 2011 and the beginning of 2012. They were announced on 31 December 2011.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.2013 New Year Honours (New Zealand)
The 2013 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of New Zealand, on the advice of the New Zealand government, to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders, and to celebrate the passing of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. They were announced on 31 December 2012.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.2014 New Year Honours (New Zealand)
The 2014 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of New Zealand, on the advice of the New Zealand government, to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders, and to celebrate the passing of 2013 and the beginning of 2014. They were announced on 31 December 2013.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.2015 New Year Honours (New Zealand)
The 2015 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II in her right as Queen of New Zealand, on the advice of the New Zealand government, to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders, and to celebrate the passing of 2014 and the beginning of 2015. They were announced on 31 December 2014.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (EAP, originally the Office of Chinese Affairs) is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with countries in that area. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, who reports to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs.Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak (New Zealand)
Content from the United States diplomatic cables leak has depicted New Zealand and related subjects extensively. The leak, which began on 28 November 2010, occurred when the website of WikiLeaks – an international new media non-profit organisation that publishes submissions of otherwise unavailable documents from anonymous news sources and news leaks – started to publish classified documents of detailed correspondence – diplomatic cables – between the United States Department of State and its diplomatic missions around the world. Since the initial release date, WikiLeaks is releasing further documents every day.Embassy of New Zealand, Washington, D.C.
The Embassy of New Zealand in Washington, D.C., United States (in Māori: Te Kāinga o te Māngai o Aotearoa i Washington D.C.) is located at 37 Observatory Circle, Northwest, Washington, D.C. in the Embassy Row neighborhood.The embassy also operates consulates general in Los Angeles, New York City, and Honolulu and honorary consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, and Tamuning, which provide assistance to New Zealand citizens and issue travel visas to foreign nationals who wish to visit New Zealand.
New Zealand opened a legation in Washington, D.C. in October 1941. The legation was upgraded to an embassy in 1948.
The current New Zealand Ambassador to the United States is Rosemary Banks, who was appointed on 12 November 2018.Embassy of the United States, Wellington
The Embassy of the United States in Wellington, New Zealand along with the consulate general in Auckland provides assistance to American citizens and issues travel visas to foreign nationals who wish to visit the United States.
There have been many United States Ambassadors to New Zealand since the post was created on 12 October 1838. The current U.S. Ambassador is Scott Brown, who was confirmed to the post on 8 June 2017 but has yet to present his credentials.
Following the September 11 attacks, members of the Diplomatic Protection Squad, Armed Offenders Squad and the Special Tactics Group were involved in operations for two months at the embassy. It was the first time armed New Zealand police have been on U.S. Embassy soil. In 2017, an embassy staff member with diplomatic immunity was expelled from NZ but no name or alleged crime details were released.List of ambassadors of the United States to New Zealand
The United States has maintained a consular presence in New Zealand since 1838. The first consul was James Reddy Clendon. Born in England, Clendon was a ship owner and merchant who bought land and settled in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. In 1838 he was appointed by the federal government of the United States as consul for New Zealand. He was based at his property at Okiato, which in 1840 became the capital and was renamed Russell (not to be confused with present-day Russell). He held this position until 1841.
The Ambassador to New Zealand is also accredited to Samoa though resident in Wellington.Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). While the status does not automatically include a mutual defense pact with the United States, it still confers a variety of military and financial advantages that otherwise are not obtainable by non-NATO countries.Megaupload legal case
The Megaupload legal case concerns a number of related criminal indictments and enforcement actions taken against Megaupload owner Kim Dotcom in various jurisdictions. On 19 January 2012 the United States Department of Justice seized and shut down the file-hosting site Megaupload.com and commenced criminal cases against its owners and others. On 20 January 2012 Hong Kong Customs froze more than 300 million Hong Kong dollars (US$39 million) in assets belonging to the company.Operation Weasel
Operation Weasel is the name given to an alleged secret operation involving the governments of Nauru, New Zealand and the United States. The exact nature of the operation, if it did indeed exist, is subject to disagreement — most accounts link it to investigations into the sale of Nauruan passports, the defection of North Korean scientists to the West, or both. This was a classic example of what is known as a Barium Meal - a spy tactic of feeding sufficiently important intelligence (traceable but false) to suspects to find leaks.
The first public mentions of Operation Weasel were made in March 2003, when The Australian printed a story claiming that the Nauruan embassy in Beijing was a front by which North Korean defectors could be assisted in escaping to the West. According to the report, Nauru had been approached by individuals claiming to represent the governments of New Zealand and the United States, who wished to smuggle North Korean defectors through the embassies of a third, neutral party. According to the paper, Nauru would receive cash compensation for participating, and the Nauruan embassy in Beijing would be paid for and staffed by New Zealand and United States personnel. New Zealand and United States officials were reported as denying the story.
The embassy, when it was established, was run by chargé d'affaires Jack Sanders, a New Zealander. (The Herald also said that Sanders was wanted by police, although this has been labelled a smear campaign following an investigation by Scoop reporter Selwyn Manning. He later came to public attention as a source for a controversial news story about the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, which was later retracted). According to the original reports in The Australian, at least twenty defectors were successfully smuggled out.
Nauru's embassies in Beijing and Washington were closed in August 2003, with the Nauruan government having been sent documents claiming that they were selling diplomatic passports. President Ludwig Scotty stated at the time that staff were "not serving their intended purpose". Trans-Pacific Development Corporation was involved in the sale of Nauruan passports, allowing passports to fall into the hands of terrorists — according to their claims, Operation Weasel was originally a project by various agencies in New Zealand and the United States (including the US Central Intelligence Agency) to stop these activities, and only later became a front for North Korean defections.Southern Cross Cable
The Southern Cross Cable, operated by Bermuda company Southern Cross Cables Limited, is a trans-Pacific network of telecommunications cables commissioned in 2000.
The network has 28,900 km of submarine and 1,600 km of terrestrial fiber optic cables, operated in a triple-ring configuration. Initially, each cable had a bandwidth capacity of 120 gigabit/s, but was doubled in an upgrade in April 2008, with a further upgrade to 860 gigabit/s at the end of 2008. Southern Cross upgraded the existing system to 1.2 Tbit/s in May 2010. After successful trials of 40G technology the first 400G of a planned 800G upgrade has been completed in February 2012, with the remaining 400G completed in December 2012. An additional 400G was deployed utilising 100G coherent wavelength technology in July 2013, taking total system capacity to 2.6Tbit/s, with an additional 500Gbit/s to be deployed per segment by Q2 2014, increasing total system capacity to 3.6Tbit/s.
The latest augmentation will also deploy Ciena FlexiGrid technology, increase Southern Cross potential capacity to 12 Tbit/s. Southern Cross offers capacity services from STM-1 to 100Gbit/s OTU-4, including 1G, 10G and 40G Ethernet Private Line services.Treaty of Tokehega
The Treaty of Tokehega is a 1980 treaty between New Zealand and the United States that delineates the maritime boundary between Tokelau and American Samoa.The treaty was signed in Atafu on 2 December 1980. It specifies the ownership of certain islands and creates a boundary of seven straight-line maritime segments defined by eight individual coordinate points. The treaty was signed shortly after the United States resolved its boundary dispute with the Cook Islands by agreeing to the Cook Islands – United States Maritime Boundary Treaty.
The treaty states that the United States has sovereignty over Swains Island. This island, known to many in Tokelau as Olohega, gives its name to the second half, "hega," of the treaty's name. The first half, "Toke," comes from Tokelau.
The treaty came into effect on 3 September 1983 after it was ratified by both states.UKUSA Agreement
The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA, yoo-koo-SAH)
is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The alliance of intelligence operations is also known as the Five Eyes. In classification markings this is abbreviated as FVEY, with the individual countries being abbreviated as AUS, CAN, NZL, GBR, and USA, respectively.Emerging from an informal agreement related to the 1941 Atlantic Charter, the secret treaty was renewed with the passage of the 1943 BRUSA Agreement, before being officially enacted on 5 March 1946 by the United Kingdom and the United States. In the following years, it was extended to encompass Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Other countries, known as "third parties", such as West Germany, the Philippines, and several Nordic countries also joined the UKUSA community in associate capacities, although they are not part of mechanism for automatic sharing of intelligence that exists between the Five Eyes.Much of the sharing of information is performed via the ultra-sensitive STONEGHOST network, which has been claimed to contain "some of the Western world's most closely guarded secrets". Besides laying down rules for intelligence sharing, the agreement formalized and cemented the "Special Relationship" between the UK and the US.Due to its status as a secret treaty, its existence was not known to the Prime Minister of Australia until 1973, and it was not disclosed to the public until 2005. On 25 June 2010, for the first time in history, the full text of the agreement was publicly released by the United Kingdom and the United States, and can now be viewed online. Shortly after its release, the seven-page UKUSA Agreement was recognized by Time magazine as one of the Cold War's most important documents, with immense historical significance.The global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden has shown that the intelligence-sharing activities between the First World allies of the Cold War are rapidly shifting into the digital realm of the Internet.United Kingdom–United States relations
United Kingdom–United States relations, also referred to as British–American relations or Anglo-American relations, refers to the bilateral relations between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. Relations encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets. Since 1940 they have been close military allies enjoying the Special Relationship built as wartime allies and NATO partners.
The two nations are bound together by shared history, an overlap in religion and a common language and legal system, and kinship ties that reach back hundreds of years, including kindred, ancestral lines among English Americans, Scottish Americans, Welsh Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Irish Americans, and American Britons, respectively. Today, large numbers of expatriates live in both countries.
Through times of war and rebellion, peace and estrangement, as well as becoming friends and allies, Britain and the US cemented these deeply rooted links during World War II into what is known as the "Special Relationship". In long-term perspective, the historian Paul Johnson has called it the "cornerstone of the modern, democratic world order".In the early 20th century, the United Kingdom affirmed its relationship with the United States as its "most important bilateral partnership" in the current British foreign policy, and the American foreign policy also affirms its relationship with Britain as its most important relationship, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out between the United States Armed Forces and the British Armed Forces. Canada has historically been the largest importer of U.S. goods and the principal exporter of goods to the United States. As of January 2015 the UK was fifth in terms of exports and seventh in terms of import of goods.The two countries also have had a significant impact of the cultures of many other countries. They are the two main nodes of the Anglosphere, with a combined population of just under 400 million in 2019. Together, they have given the English language a dominant role in many sectors of the modern world.United States presidential visits to Australia and New Zealand
Several United States presidents have made presidential visits to Australia and New Zealand. The first visit by an incumbent to these Australasian nations was made in 1966 by Lyndon B. Johnson. His three-day five-city visit to Australia was intended as a show of gratitude to the Australian nation for its then emphatic support for the Vietnam War. Four presidents have traveled there since. Prior to arriving in Australia, Johnson visited New Zealand. He went primarily to shore up support for the war in Vietnam. Only one sitting president has visited since.United States – New Zealand Council
The United States – New Zealand Council (US–NZ Council) is an independent non-profit, non-partisan organisation dedicated to promoting a strong bilateral relationship between the United States and New Zealand. It is the premier private organisation in the United States engaged in encouraging the expansion of trade, investment and commercial ties between the two countries and in the Asia-Pacific region and is a well-recognised source of information and support for American companies seeking business opportunities there.
|New Zealand||United States|
|Coat of Arms|
|Area||268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi)||9,629,091 km2 (3,717,813 sq mi)|
|Population density||17.9/km2 (46.4/sq mi)||34.2/km2 (13.2/sq mi)|
|Capital city||Wellington||Washington, D.C.|
|Largest city||Auckland – 1,534,700 (1,657,200 Metro)||New York City – 8,491,079 (20,092,883 Metro)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|Current leader||Elizabeth II (Monarch)
Jacinda Ardern (Prime Minister)
|Donald Trump (President)
Mike Pence (Vice President)
|Main religions||48% Christian
|GDP (nominal)||US$169.9 billion||US$18.569 trillion|
|GDP (nominal) per capita||US$36,254||US$57,436|
|GDP (PPP)||US$173.2 billion||US$17.528 trillion|
|GDP (PPP) per capita||US$36,950||US$57,436|
|Real GDP growth rate||4.00%||1.80%|