New York Herald

The New York Herald was a large-distribution newspaper based in New York City that existed between 1835 and 1924, when it merged with the New-York Tribune to form the New York Herald Tribune.

New York Herald
New-York-Herald-June-20-1861
Cover of New York Herald on June 20, 1861, covering news of the American Civil War
TypeDaily newspaper
FormatBroadsheet
PublisherJames Gordon Bennett, Sr.
James Gordon Bennett, Jr.
Founded1835
Ceased publication1924
HeadquartersManhattan
Circulation84,000 (1861)
New York Herald Building c1895; demolished 1921
New York Herald Building (1908) by architect Stanford White. It was demolished in 1921

History

"The New York Herald"
"The New York Herald," December 8, 1862

The first issue of the paper was published by James Gordon Bennett, Sr., on May 6, 1835. By 1845, it was the most popular and profitable daily newspaper in the United States.[1] In 1861, it circulated 84,000 copies and called itself "the most largely circulated journal in the world." [2] Bennett stated that the function of a newspaper "is not to instruct but to startle and amuse."[3][4] His politics tended to be anti-Catholic and he had tended to favor the Know-Nothing faction, though he was not particularly anti-immigrant as the Know-Nothing party were. During the American Civil War, his policy as expressed by the newspaper was to staunchly support the Democratic Party. Frederic Hudson served as managing editor of the paper from 1846–1866.

Bennett turned over control of the paper to his son James Gordon Bennett, Jr. in 1866. Under Gordon Bennett Jr., the paper financed Henry Morton Stanley's expeditions into Africa to find David Livingstone, where they met on November 10, 1871.[5] The paper also supported Stanley's trans-Africa exploration, and in 1879 supported the ill-fated expedition of George W. DeLong to the arctic region.

In 1874, the Herald ran the infamous New York Zoo hoax, where the front page of the newspaper was devoted entirely to a fabricated story of wild animals getting loose at the Central Park Zoo and attacking numerous people.

On October 4, 1887, Bennett Jr. sent Julius Chambers to Paris, France to launch a European edition. Bennett himself later moved to Paris, but the New York Herald suffered from his attempt to manage its operation in New York by telegram. In 1916 a Saturday issue pf the paper reported that a major financier was found dead poisoned, and then added that in 1901 he was "mysteriously poisoned and narrowly escaped death."[6]

In 1924, after Bennett Jr.'s death, the New York Herald was acquired by its smaller rival the New York Tribune, to form the New York Herald Tribune. In 1959, the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition were sold to John Hay Whitney, then the U.S. ambassador to Britain. In 1966, the New York paper ceased publication. The Washington Post and The New York Times acquired joint control of the European edition, renaming it the International Herald Tribune. Today, the IHT, renamed The New York Times International Edition, is owned entirely by The New York Times and remains an English language paper, printed at 35 sites around the world and for sale in more than 180 countries.

When the Herald was still under the authority of its original publisher Bennett, it was considered to be the most invasive and sensationalist of the leading New York papers. Its ability to entertain the public with timely daily news made it the leading circulation paper of its time.

Evening Telegram

The New York Evening Telegram was founded in 1867 by the junior Bennett, and was considered by many to be an evening edition of the Herald. Frank Munsey acquired the Telegram in 1920, which ceased its connection to the Herald.[7]

Commemorated

Statue of Minerva, the Bell Ringers, and Owls
Minerva, the Bellringers, and Owls by Antonin Carles

New York's Herald Square is named after the New York Herald newspaper; in the north side of the square there is a sculpture commemorating the Bennetts. The statue of Minerva, the Bellringers, and Owls by Antonin Carles originally graced the New York Herald building and rang every hour until it was moved to Herald Square. The chorus of Give My Regards to Broadway includes the phrase, "[R]emember me to Herald Square." North of Herald Square is Times Square, which is named after rival The New York Times.

See also

References

  1. ^ Crouthamel, James (1989). Bennett's New York Herald and the Rise of the Popular Press. Syracuse University Press. The finished four-page Herald with its circulation of twelve thousand was in 1845 the most popular and profitable daily newspaper in the United States. Its niche was so secure that its success seemed almost inevitable. But Bennett was fifty years old, and his success had come very late, after many years of apparent failure. ...
  2. ^ Sandburg, Carl (1942). Storm Over the Land. Harcourt, Brace and Company. p. 87.
  3. ^ Katherine Roeder (25 March 2014). Wide Awake in Slumberland: Fantasy, Mass Culture, and Modernism in the Art of Winsor McCay. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-62674-117-1.
  4. ^ New Outlook. Outlook Publishing Company, Incorporated. 1892. pp. 489–.
  5. ^ Carey, John (March 18, 2007). "A good man in Africa ?". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 2007-11-15. His quest to find David Livingstone was financed by his paper, the New York Herald. Nothing had been heard of the great explorer since the previous year, when he was somewhere on Lake Tanganyika.
  6. ^ "Jacques S. Halle dies". New York Herald. December 2, 1916. p. 5.
  7. ^ "The Telegram Sold to Scripps-Howard". The New York Times. 12 February 1927.

External links

1874 Central Park Zoo Escape

The 1874 Central Park Zoo Escape was a hoax perpetrated in the New York Herald on November 9, 1874.The Herald's cover story claimed that there had been a mass escape of animals from the Central Park Zoo, and several people had been killed by the free-roaming beasts. A rhinoceros was said to be the first to escape, goring his keeper to death and setting into motion the escape of other animals, including a polar bear, a panther, a Numidian lion, several hyenas, and a Bengal tiger. At the end of the lengthy article, the following notice was the only indication that the story horrifying readers across the city was a hoax: “Of course, the entire story given above is a pure fabrication. Not one word of it is true.” That was not enough to assuage critics, however, who accused James Gordon Bennett, Jr., the owner of the paper, of inciting panic when the extent of the hoax became widely known.Joseph Ignatius Constantine Clarke was the primary writer of the hoax, under the direction and inspiration of the Herald's managing editor Thomas B. Connery, who often walked through the zoo and had witnessed a near-escape of a leopard.

1875 Princeton Tigers football team

The 1875 Princeton Tigers football team represented the College of New Jersey, then more commonly known as Princeton College, in the 1875 college football season. The team finished with a 2–0 record. Collins Denny, who later became a notable clergyman and professor of philosophy, was captain of the 1875 team.On November 13, Princeton defeated Columbia by a 6–2 score. The New York Herald wrote: "The contest was short, sharp and decisive and attracted a considerable crowd."The team was retroactively named national champion by the Billingsley Report and as co-national champion (along with Harvard and Columbia) by Parke H. Davis.This season marked the last of four consecutive national championships, and one of 11 in a 13-year period between 1869 and 1881.

Bert Andrews (journalist)

Bert Andrews (1901–1953) was a Washington-based reporter for the New York Herald Tribune who won the Pulitzer Prize in 1948 for his article "A State Department Security Case."

Grantland Rice

Henry Grantland Rice (November 1, 1880 – July 13, 1954) was an early 20th-century American sportswriter known for his elegant prose. His writing was published in newspapers around the country and broadcast on the radio.

Herald Square

Herald Square is formed by the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue (officially named Avenue of the Americas), and 34th Street in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Named for the New York Herald, a now-defunct newspaper formerly headquartered there, it also gives its name to the surrounding area. The intersection is a typical Manhattan bow-tie square that consists of two named sections: Herald Square to the north (uptown) and Greeley Square to the south (downtown).

Homer Bigart

Homer William Bigart (October 25, 1907 – April 16, 1991) was an American reporter who worked for the New York Herald Tribune from 1929 to 1955 and for The New York Times from 1955 to his retirement in 1972. He was considered a "reporter's reporter" and an "enduring role model." He won two Pulitzer Prizes as a war correspondent, as well as most of the other major journalism awards.

James Gordon Bennett Sr.

James Gordon Bennett Sr. (September 1, 1795 – June 1, 1872) was the founder, editor and publisher of the New York Herald and a major figure in the history of American newspapers.

Lucius Beebe

Lucius Morris Beebe (December 9, 1902 – February 4, 1966) was an American author, gourmand, photographer, railroad historian, journalist, and syndicated columnist.

Lunch atop a Skyscraper

Lunch atop a Skyscraper (New York Construction Workers Lunching on a Crossbeam) is a photograph taken atop the steelwork of 30 Rockefeller Plaza, during the construction of the Rockefeller Center, in Manhattan, New York City, United States.

New-York Tribune

The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley. Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name New-York Daily Tribune. From the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party and then Republican newspaper in the United States. The paper achieved a circulation of approximately 200,000 in the 1850s, making it the largest daily paper then in New York City. The Tribune's editorials were widely read, shared, and copied in other city newspapers, helping to shape national American opinion. It was one of the first papers in the north to send reporters, correspondents, and illustrators to cover the campaigns of the American Civil War.

In 1924, after 83 years of independent existence, the New-York Tribune merged with another major daily newspaper in New York City, the New York Herald, to form the New York Herald Tribune. The "Trib", as it was known, ceased publication in 1966.

New York Herald Tribune

The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966. It was created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. It was widely regarded as a "writer's newspaper" and competed with The New York Times in the daily morning market. The paper won at least nine Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime.A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city", the Tribune generally did not match the comprehensiveness of The New York Times' coverage, but its national, international and business coverage was generally viewed as among the best in the industry, as was its overall style. At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Roger Kahn, Richard Watts, Jr., Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, St. Clair McKelway, Judith Crist, Dick Schaap, Tom Wolfe, John Steinbeck, and Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans, later referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, and espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint.

The paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and rarely generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements; the Reids subsidized the Herald Tribune through the paper's early years. However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue. A series of disastrous business decisions, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival.

In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney, a multimillionaire Wall Street investor who was serving as ambassador to the United Kingdom at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, and made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s. The paper steadily revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions, particularly the local chapter of the International Typographical Union. Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966; the proposed merger led to another lengthy strike, and on August 15, 1966, Whitney announced the closure of the Herald Tribune. Combined with investments in the World Journal Tribune, Whitney spent $39.5 million (equivalent to $304,835,696 in 2018 dollars) in his attempts to keep the newspaper alive.After the New York Herald Tribune closed, the Times and The Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication. The International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013 and is now named The New York Times International Edition. New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963, was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, and continues to publish today.

New York Herald Tribune Syndicate

The New York Herald Tribune Syndicate was the syndication service of the New York Herald Tribune. Syndicating comic strips and newspaper columns, it operated from c. 1914 to 1966. The syndicate's most notable strips were Mr. and Mrs., Our Bill, Penny, Miss Peach, and B.C. Syndicated columns included Walter Lippmann's Today and Tomorrow (c. 1933–1967), Weare Holbrook's Soundings, George Fielding Eliot's military affairs column, and John Crosby's radio and television column. Irita Bradford Van Doren was book review editor for a time.

New York World-Telegram

The New York World-Telegram, later known as the New York World-Telegram and Sun, was a New York City newspaper from 1867 to 1966.

Peter Braestrup

Peter Braestrup (1929 – August 10, 1997) was a correspondent for The New York Times and The Washington Post, founding editor of the Wilson Quarterly, and later senior editor and director of communications for the Library of Congress. Retiring from journalism in 1973, he founded the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars' Wilson Quarterly, and in 1989 moved to the Library of Congress.

Braestrup's 1977 Freedom House-sponsored book, the two-volume Big Story, criticized US media coverage of the Vietnam War's 1968 Tet Offensive. The book, which argued that the media coverage of the offensive was excessively negative and helped lose the war, "is regularly cited by historians, without qualification, as the standard work on media reporting of the Tet offensive".

Red Smith (sportswriter)

Walter Wellesley "Red" Smith (September 25, 1905 – January 15, 1982) was an American sportswriter. Smith’s journalistic career spans over five decades and his work influenced an entire generation of writers. Smith became the second sports columnist ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for distinguished commentary in 1976. Writing in 1989, sportswriter David Halberstam called Smith "the greatest sportswriter of the two eras."

The New York Times International Edition

The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories. Founded under the title Paris Herald in 1887 in Paris as the European edition of the New York Herald, it changed owners and was renamed several times: it became the Paris Herald Tribune, global edition of the New York Herald Tribune in 1924, then the International Herald Tribune in 1967, with The Washington Post and The New York Times as joint parent newspapers.

In 2002, The New York Times Company took control of the International Herald Tribune, which was subtitled since then The Global Edition of the New York Times. On October 15, 2013, the paper was renamed The International New York Times, and in October 2016, it was fully integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition. Autumn that year also saw the closing of editing and preproduction operations in the Paris newsroom, where the paper, under its various names, had been headquartered since 1887.

The Sun (New York City)

The Sun was a New York newspaper published from 1833 until 1950. It was considered a serious paper, like the city's two more successful broadsheets, The New York Times and the New York Herald Tribune. The Sun was the most politically conservative of the three.

This Week (magazine)

This Week was a nationally syndicated Sunday magazine supplement that was included in American newspapers between 1935 and 1969. In the early 1950s, it accompanied 37 Sunday newspapers. A decade later, at its peak in 1963, This Week was distributed with the Sunday editions of 42 newspapers for a total circulation of 14.6 million.

When it went out of business in 1969 it was the oldest syndicated newspaper supplement in the United States. The newspapers it was distributed with included the Los Angeles Times, The Dallas Morning News, The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio) and the Boston Herald. Magazine historian Phil Stephensen-Payne noted, "It grew from a circulation of four million in 1935 to nearly 12 million in 1957, far outstripping other fiction-carrying weeklies such as Collier's, Liberty and even The Saturday Evening Post (all of which eventually folded)."

Virgil Thomson

Virgil Thomson (November 25, 1896 – September 30, 1989) was an American composer and critic. He was instrumental in the development of the "American Sound" in classical music. He has been described as a modernist, a neoromantic, a neoclassicist, and a composer of "an Olympian blend of humanity and detachment" whose "expressive voice was always carefully muted" until his late opera Lord Byron which, in contrast to all his previous work, exhibited an emotional content that rises to "moments of real passion".

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