New York City draft riots

The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week,[3] were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of white working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots remain the largest civil and racially-charged insurrection in American history.[4]

U.S. President Abraham Lincoln diverted several regiments of militia and volunteer troops after the Battle of Gettysburg to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly white working-class men, mostly Irish or of Irish descent, who feared free black people competing for work and resented that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $9,200 in 2017[5]) commutation fee to hire a substitute, were spared from the draft.[6][7]

Initially intended to express anger at the draft, the protests turned into a race riot, with white rioters, predominantly Irish immigrants,[4] attacking black people throughout the city. The official death toll was listed at either 119 or 120 individuals. Conditions in the city were such that Major General John E. Wool, commander of the Department of the East, said on July 16 that, "Martial law ought to be proclaimed, but I have not a sufficient force to enforce it."[8]

The military did not reach the city until the second day of rioting, by which time the mobs had ransacked or destroyed numerous public buildings, two Protestant churches, the homes of various abolitionists or sympathizers, many black homes, and the Colored Orphan Asylum at 44th Street and Fifth Avenue, which was burned to the ground.[9] The area's demographics changed as a result of the riot. Many black residents left Manhattan permanently with many moving to Brooklyn. By 1865, the black population fell below 11,000 for the first time since 1820.[9]

New York City Draft Riots of 1863
Part of the American Civil War
New York Draft Riots - fighting
A drawing from a British newspaper showing armed rioters clashing with Union Army soldiers in New York City.
DateJuly 13, 1863 – July 16, 1863
Location
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Resulted inRiots ultimately suppressed
Casualties
Death(s)119–120[1][2]
Injuries2,000
New York enrollment poster june 23 1863
Recruiting poster for the Enrollment Act or Civil War Military Draft Act of the federal government for the conscription of troops for the Union Army in New York City on June 23, 1863

Background

New York's economy was tied to the South; by 1822 nearly half of its exports were cotton shipments.[10] In addition, upstate textile mills processed cotton in manufacturing. New York had such strong business connections to the South that on January 7, 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood, a Democrat, called on the city's Board of Aldermen to "declare the city's independence from Albany and from Washington"; he said it "would have the whole and united support of the Southern States."[11] When the Union entered the war, New York City had many sympathizers with the South.[12]

The city was also a continuing destination of immigrants. Since the 1840s, most were from Ireland and Germany. In 1860, nearly 25 percent of the New York City population was German-born, and many did not speak English. During the 1840s and 1850s, journalists had published sensational accounts, directed at the white working class, dramatizing the "evils" of interracial socializing, relationships, and marriages. Reformers joined the effort.[9] Newspapers carried derogatory portrayals of black people and ridiculed "black aspirations for equal rights in voting, education, and employment". Pseudo-scientific lectures on phrenology were popular, although countered by doctors.[citation needed], had mixed populations of residents.

The Democratic Party Tammany Hall political machine had been working to enroll immigrants as U.S. citizens so they could vote in local elections and had strongly recruited Irish, most of whom already spoke English. In March 1863, with the war continuing, Congress passed the Enrollment Act to establish a draft for the first time, as more troops were needed. In New York City and other locations, new citizens learned they were expected to register for the draft to fight for their new country. Black men were excluded from the draft as they were largely not considered citizens, and wealthier white men could pay for substitutes.[9]

New York political offices, including the mayor, were historically held by Democrats before the war, but the election of Abraham Lincoln as president had demonstrated the rise in Republican political power nationally. Newly-elected New York City Republican Mayor George Opdyke was mired in profiteering scandals in the months leading up to the riots. The Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 alarmed much of the white working class in New York, who feared that freed slaves would migrate to the city and add further competition to the labor market. There had already been tensions between black and white workers since the 1850s, particularly at the docks, with free blacks and immigrants competing for low-wage jobs in the city. In March 1863, white longshoremen refused to work with black laborers and rioted, attacking 200 black men.[9]

Riots

Monday

John Alexander Kennedy by Brady
John Alexander Kennedy, NYC police superintendent from 1860 to 1870

There were reports of rioting in Buffalo, New York, and certain other cities, but the first drawing of draft numbers—on July 11, 1863—occurred peaceably in Manhattan. The second drawing was held on Monday, July 13, 1863, ten days after the Union victory at Gettysburg. At 10 a.m., a furious crowd of around 500, led by the volunteer firemen of Engine Company 33 (known as the "Black Joke"), attacked the assistant Ninth District provost marshal's office, at Third Avenue and 47th Street, where the draft was taking place.[13]

The crowd threw large paving stones through windows, burst through the doors, and set the building ablaze.[14] When the fire department responded, rioters broke up their vehicles. Others killed horses that were pulling streetcars and smashed the cars. To prevent other parts of the city being notified of the riot, they cut telegraph lines.[13]

Since the New York State Militia had been sent to assist Union troops at Gettysburg, the local New York Metropolitan Police Department was the only force on hand to try to suppress the riots.[14] Police Superintendent John Kennedy arrived at the site on Monday to check on the situation. Although not in uniform, people in the mob recognized him and attacked him. Kennedy was left nearly unconscious, his face bruised and cut, his eye injured, his lips swollen, and his hand cut with a knife. He had been beaten to a mass of bruises and blood all over his body.[3]

Police drew their clubs and revolvers and charged the crowd but were overpowered.[15] The police were badly outnumbered and unable to quell the riots, but they kept the rioting out of Lower Manhattan below Union Square.[3] Immigrants and others in the "Bloody Sixth" Ward, around the South Street Seaport and Five Points areas, refrained from involvement in the rioting.[16]

NYRiot
Rioters attacking a building on Lexington Avenue.

The Bull's Head hotel on 44th Street, which refused to provide alcohol to the mob, was burned. The mayor's residence on Fifth Avenue, the Eighth and Fifth District police stations, and other buildings were attacked and set on fire. Other targets included the office of the New York Times. The mob was turned back at the Times office by staff manning Gatling guns, including Times founder Henry Jarvis Raymond.[17] Fire engine companies responded, but some firefighters were sympathetic to the rioters because they had also been drafted on Saturday.[15] Later in the afternoon, authorities shot and killed a man as a crowd attacked the armory at Second Avenue and 21st Street. The mob broke all the windows with paving stones ripped from the street.[13] The mob beat, tortured and/or killed numerous black people, including one man who was attacked by a crowd of 400 with clubs and paving stones, then lynched, hanged from a tree and set alight.[13]

HEADLEY(1882) -p170 New York - the attack on the Tribune building
Attack on the Tribune building

The Colored Orphan Asylum at 43rd Street and Fifth Avenue, a "symbol of white charity to blacks and of black upward mobility"[9] that provided shelter for 233 children, was attacked by a mob at around 4 p.m. A mob of several thousand, including many women and children, looted the building of its food and supplies. However, the police were able to secure the orphanage for enough time to allow the orphans to escape before the building burned down.[18] Throughout the areas of rioting, mobs attacked and killed at least 120 black people and destroyed their known homes and businesses, such as James McCune Smith's pharmacy at 93 West Broadway, believed to be the first owned by a black man in the United States.[9]

Near the midtown docks, tensions brewing since the mid-1850s boiled over. As recently as March 1863, white employers had hired black longshoremen, with whom Irish men refused to work. Rioters went into the streets in search of "all the negro porters, cartmen and laborers ..." to attempt to remove all evidence of a black and interracial social life from the area near the docks. White dockworkers attacked and destroyed brothels, dance halls, boarding houses, and tenements that catered to black people. Mobs stripped the clothing off the white owners of these businesses.[9]

Tuesday

Heavy rain fell on Monday night, helping to abate the fires and sending rioters home, but the crowds returned the next day. Rioters burned down the home of Abby Gibbons, a prison reformer and the daughter of abolitionist Isaac Hopper. They also attacked white "amalgamationists", such as Ann Derrickson and Ann Martin, two white women who were married to black men, and Mary Burke, a white prostitute who catered to black men.[9][19]

Governor Horatio Seymour arrived on Tuesday and spoke at City Hall, where he attempted to assuage the crowd by proclaiming that the Conscription Act was unconstitutional. General John E. Wool, commander of the Eastern District, brought approximately 800 soldiers and Marines in from forts in New York Harbor, West Point, and the Brooklyn Navy Yard. He ordered the militias to return to New York.[15]

Wednesday and Thursday: order restored

The situation improved on Wednesday, when assistant provost-marshal-general Robert Nugent received word from his superior officer, Colonel James Barnet Fry, to postpone the draft. As this news appeared in newspapers, some rioters stayed home. But some of the militias began to return and used harsh measures against the remaining mobs.[15]

Order began to be restored on Thursday. The New York State Militia and some federal troops were returned to New York, including the 152nd New York Volunteers, the 26th Michigan Volunteers, the 27th Indiana Volunteers and the 7th Regiment New York State Militia from Frederick, Maryland, after a forced march. In addition, the governor sent in the 74th and 65th regiments of the New York State Militia, which had not been in federal service, and a section of the 20th Independent Battery, New York Volunteer Artillery from Fort Schuyler in Throggs Neck. The New York State Militia units were the first to arrive. By July 16, there were several thousand Federal troops in the city.[8]

A final confrontation occurred on Thursday evening near Gramercy Park. According to Adrian Cook, twelve people died on the last day of the riots in skirmishes between rioters, the police, and the Army, including one African American, two soldiers, a bystander, and two women.[20]

The New York Times reported on Thursday that Plug Uglies and Blood Tubs gang members from Baltimore, as well as "Scuykill Rangers [sic] and other rowdies of Philadelphia", had come to New York during the unrest to participate in the riots alongside the Dead Rabbits and "Mackerelvillers". The Times editorialized that "the scoundrels cannot afford to miss this golden opportunity of indulging their brutal natures, and at the same time serving their colleagues the Copperheads and secesh [secessionist] sympathizers."[21]

Aftermath

Bullsheadhotelnyc
Bull's Head Hotel, depicted in 1830, was burned in the riot.

The exact death toll during the New York draft riots is unknown, but according to historian James M. McPherson, 119 or 120 people were killed; most of them were black. Violence by longshoremen against black men was especially fierce in the docks area.[9]

"West of Broadway, below Twenty-sixth, all was quiet at 9 o'clock last night. A crowd was at the corner of Seventh avenue and Twenty-seventh Street at that time. This was the scene of the hanging of a negro in the morning, and another at 6 o'clock in the evening. The body of the one hung in the morning presented a shocking appearance at the Station-House. His fingers and toes had been sliced off, and there was scarcely an inch of his flesh which was not gashed. Late in the afternoon, a negro was dragged out of his house in West Twenty-seventh street, beaten down on the sidewalk, pounded in a horrible manner, and then hanged to a tree."[22]

In all, eleven black men were hanged over five days.[23] Among the murdered blacks was the seven-year-old nephew of Bermudian First Sergeant Robert John Simmons of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, whose account of fighting in South Carolina, written on the approach to Fort Wagner July 18, 1863, was to be published in the New York Tribune on December 23, 1863 (Simmons having died in August of wounds received in the attack on Fort Wagner).

The most reliable estimates indicate at least 2,000 people were injured. Herbert Asbury, the author of the 1928 book Gangs of New York, upon which the 2002 film was based, puts the figure much higher, at 2,000 killed and 8,000 wounded,[24] a number that some dispute.[25] Total property damage was about $1–5 million ($20.3 million – $102 million, adjusted for inflation).[24][26] The city treasury later indemnified one-quarter of the amount.

Historian Samuel Eliot Morison wrote that the riots were "equivalent to a Confederate victory".[26] Fifty buildings, including two Protestant churches and the Colored Orphan Asylum, were burned to the ground. During the riots, landlords, fearing that the mob would destroy their buildings, drove black residents from their homes. As a result of the violence against them, hundreds of black people left New York, including physician James McCune Smith and his family, moving to Williamsburg, Brooklyn or New Jersey.[9]

The white elite in New York organized to provide relief to black riot victims, helping them find new work and homes. The Union League Club and the Committee of Merchants for the Relief of Colored People provided nearly $40,000 to 2,500 victims of the riots. By 1865 the black population in the city had dropped to under 10,000, the lowest since 1820. The white working-class riots had changed the demographics of the city, and white residents exerted their control in the workplace; they became "unequivocally divided" from the black population.[9]

HEADLEY(1882) -p080 New York - the Colored Orphan Asylum, 143rd Street
Colored Orphan Asylum was burned.

On August 19, the government resumed the draft in New York. It was completed within 10 days without further incident. Fewer men were drafted than had been feared by the white working class: of the 750,000 selected nationwide for conscription, only about 45,000 were sent into active duty.[27]

While the rioting mainly involved the white working class, middle and upper-class New Yorkers had split sentiments on the draft and use of federal power or martial law to enforce it. Many wealthy Democratic businessmen sought to have the draft declared unconstitutional. Tammany Democrats did not seek to have the draft declared unconstitutional, but they helped pay the commutation fees for those who were drafted.[28]

In December 1863, the Union League Club recruited more than 2,000 black soldiers, outfitted and trained them, honoring and sending men off with a parade through the city to the Hudson River docks in March 1864. A crowd of 100,000 watched the procession, which was led by police and members of the Union League Club.[9][29][30]

New York's support for Union cause continued, however grudgingly, and gradually Southern sympathies declined in the city. New York banks eventually financed the Civil War, and the state's industries were more productive than those of the entire Confederacy. By the end of the war, more than 450,000 soldiers, sailors, and militia had enlisted from New York State, which was the most populous state at the time. A total of 46,000 military men from New York State died during the war, more from disease than wounds, as was typical of most combatants.[11]

Order of battle

New York Metropolitan Police Department

New York Metropolitan Police Department under the command of Superintendent John A. Kennedy.
Commissioners Thomas Coxon Acton and John G. Bergen took command when Kennedy was seriously injured by a mob during the early stages of the riots.[31]
Of the NYPD Officers-there were four fatalities-1 killed and 3 died of injuries[32]

Precinct Commander Location Strength Notes
1st Precinct Captain Jacob B. Warlow 29 Broad Street 4 Sergeants, 63 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
2nd Precinct Captain Nathaniel R. Mills 49 Beekman Street 4 Sergeants, 60 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
3rd Precinct Captain James Greer 160 Chambers Street 3 Sergeants, 64 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
4th Precinct Captain James Bryan 9 Oak Street 4 Sergeants, 70 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
5th Precinct Captain Jeremiah Petty 49 Leonard Street 4 Sergeants, 61 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
6th Precinct Captain John Jourdan 9 Franklin Street 4 Sergeants, 63 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
7th Precinct Captain William Jamieson 247 Madison Street 4 Sergeants, 52 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
8th Precinct Captain Morris DeCamp 126 Wooster Street 4 Sergeants, 52 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
9th Precinct Captain Jacob L. Sebring 94 Charles Street 4 Sergeants, 51 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
10th Precinct Captain Thaddeus C. Davis Essex Market 4 Sergeants, 62 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
11th Precinct Captain John I. Mount Union Market 4 Sergeants, 56 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
12th Precinct Captain Theron R. Bennett 126th Street (near Third Avenue) 5 Sergeants, 41 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
13th Precinct Captain Thomas Steers Attorney Street (at corner of Delancey Street) 4 Sergeants, 63 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
14th Precinct Captain John J. Williamson 53 Spring Street 4 Sergeants, 58 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
15th Precinct Captain Charles W. Caffery 220 Mercer Street 4 Sergeants, 69 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
16th Precinct Captain Henry Hedden 156 West 20th Street 4 Sergeants, 50 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
17th Precinct Captain Samuel Brower First Avenue (at the corner of Fifth Street) 4 Sergeants, 56 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
18th Precinct Captain John Cameron 22nd Street (near Second Avenue) 4 Sergeants, 74 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
19th Precinct Captain Galen T. Porter 59th Street (near Third Avenue) 4 Sergeants, 49 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
20th Precinct Captain George W. Walling 212 West 35th Street 4 Sergeants, 59 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
21st Precinct Sergeant Cornelius Burdick (acting Captain) 120 East 31st Street 4 Sergeants, 51 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
22nd Precinct Captain Johannes C. Slott 47th Street (between Eighth and Ninth Avenues) 4 Sergeants, 54 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
23rd Precinct Captain Henry Hutchings 86th Street (near Fourth Avenue) 4 Sergeants, 42 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
24th Precinct Captain James Todd New York waterfront 2 Sergeants and 20 Patrolmen Headquartered on Police Steamboat No. 1
25th Precinct Captain Theron Copeland 300 Mulberry Street 1 Sergeant, 38 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen Headquarters of the Broadway Squad.
26th Precinct Captain Thomas W. Thorne City Hall 1 Sergeant, 66 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
27th Precinct Captain John C. Helme 117 Cedar Street 4 Sergeants, 52 Patrolmen, and 3 Doormen
28th Precinct Captain John F. Dickson 550 Greenwich Street 4 Sergeants, 48 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
29th Precinct Captain Francis C. Speight 29th Street (near Fourth Avenue) 4 Sergeants, 82 Patrolmen, and 3 Doormen
30th Precinct Captain James Z. Bogart 86th Street and Bloomingdale Road 2 Sergeants, 19 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen
32nd Precinct Captain Alanson S. Wilson Tenth Avenue and 152nd Street 4 Sergeants, 35 Patrolmen, and 2 Doormen Mounted police

New York State Militia

1st Division: Major General Charles W. Sandford[33]

Unit Commander Complement Officers Other Ranks
65th Regiment Colonel William F. Berens 401
74th Regiment Colonel Watson A. Fox
20th Independent Battery Captain B. Franklin Ryer

Unorganized Militia:

Unit Commander Complement Officers Remarks
Veteran Corps of Artillery of the State of New York Guarded State Arsenal from rioters

Union Army

Department of the East: Major General John E. Wool[34] headquartered in New York[35]

Defenses of New York City: Brevet Brigadier General Harvey Brown,[36][37][34] Brig. General Edward R. S. Canby[38]

  • Artillery: Captain Henry F. Putnam, 12th United States Infantry Regiment.
  • Provost marshals tasked with overseeing the initial enforcement of the draft:
    • Provost Marshal General U.S.A.: Colonel James Fry
    • Provost Marshal General New York City: Colonel Robert Nugent (During the first day of rioting on July 13, 1863, in command of the Invalid Corps: 1st Battalion)

Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton authorized five regiments from Gettysburg, mostly federalized state militia and volunteer units from the Army of the Potomac, to reinforce the New York City Police Department. By the end of the riots, there were more than 4,000 soldiers garrisoned in the troubled area.

Unit Commander Complement Officers Notes
Invalid Corps 1st and 2nd Battalions; just over 9 companies. Over 16 injured; 1 killed 1 missing [39]
26th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment Colonel Judson S. Farrar
5th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment Colonel Cleveland Winslow
7th New York National Guard Regiment Colonel Marshall Lefferts 800 Recalled back to New York; on the way, one Private drowned. On July 16, 1863 during a skirmish with rioters, the regimental casualties were one Private received a buckshot in the back of the hand and two Privates had their coats cut by bullets[40]
8th New York National Guard Regiment Brigadier General Charles C. Dodge 150
9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment Colonel Edward E. Jardine {wounded} Regiment had been mustered out in May 1863 but 200 volunteered to serve again during the draft riots[41]
11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment Colonel Henry O'Brien (killed) Original regiment mustered out on June 2, 1862. Colonel O'Brien was in the process of recruiting at the time of the draft riots. The regiment was never brought back to strength and enlisted members were transferred to 17th Veteran Infantry.
13th New York Volunteer Cavalry Regiment Colonel Charles E. Davies Regiment suffered 2 fatalities during the riots.[42]
14th New York Volunteer Cavalry Regiment Colonel Thaddeus P. Mott All cavalry regiments in New York City were eventually put under the command of General Judson Kilpatrick who volunteered his services on July 17[43]
17th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment Major T. W. C. Grower Regimental losses during the Draft Riots totaled 4; they were 1 enlisted man killed and 1 officer and 2 enlisted men wounded {recovered}[44]
22nd New York National Guard Regiment Colonel Lloyd Aspinwall
47th New York State Militia/National Guard Regiment Colonel Jeremiah V. Messerole
152nd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment Colonel Alonso Ferguson

Fiction

Theatre and film:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ McPherson, James M. (1982), Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, p. 360, ISBN 978-0-394-52469-6
  2. ^ "VNY: Draft Riots Aftermath". Vny.cuny.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Barnes, David M. (1863). The Draft Riots in New York, July 1863: The Metropolitan Police, Their Services During Riot. Baker & Godwin. pp. 5–6, 12.
  4. ^ a b Eric Foner (1988). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, The New American Nation series, pp. 32–33, New York: Harper & Row; ISBN 0-06-093716-5 (updated ed. 2014, ISBN 978-0062354518).
  5. ^ "Wolfram-Alpha: Computational Knowledge Engine". Wolframalpha.com. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  6. ^ "Prologue: Selected Articles". Archives.org. August 15, 1990. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  7. ^ "The Draft in the Civil War", u-s-history.com; accessed August 28, 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Maj. Gen. John E. Wool Official Reports for the New York Draft Riots". Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War blogsite. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Harris, Leslie M. (2003). In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863. University of Chicago Press. pp. 279–88. ISBN 0226317757.
  10. ^ "King Cotton Cotton Trade", New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War, New-York Historical Society; accessed May 12, 2012.
  11. ^ a b Roberts, Sam (December 26, 2010). "New York Doesn't Care to Remember the Civil War". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  12. ^ New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War Online Exhibit, New York Historical Society (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit); accessed May 10, 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d "The Mob in New York". The New York Times. July 14, 1863.
  14. ^ a b Schouler, James (1899). History of the United States of America, Under the Constitution. Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 418.
  15. ^ a b c d Rhodes, James Ford (1899). History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. Macmillan. pp. 320–23.
  16. ^ Bernstein, Iver (1990), pp. 24–25.
  17. ^ "On This Day", New York Times; accessed March 17, 2016.
  18. ^ History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. Macmillan. pp. 320–23.
  19. ^ Bernstein, Iver (1990), pp. 25–26
  20. ^ Cook, Adrian "The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863," 1974, The University Press of Kentucky.
  21. ^ "FACTS AND INCIDENTS OF THE RIOT.: THE MURDER OF COLORED PEOPLE IN THOMPSON AND SULLIVAN STREETS". The New York Times. July 16, 1863. p. 1.
  22. ^ "The New York Riot: The Killing of Negroes". Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express. Buffalo, New York. 18 Jul 1863.
  23. ^ McPherson, James M. (2001). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 399. ISBN 0077430352.
  24. ^ a b Asbury, Herbert (1928). The Gangs of New York. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 169.
  25. ^ Pete Hamill (December 15, 2002). "TRAMPLING CITY'S HISTORY 'Gangs' misses point of Five Points". New York Daily News.
  26. ^ a b Morison, Samuel Eliot (1972). The Oxford History of the American People: Volume Two: 1789 Through Reconstruction. Signet. p. 451. ISBN 0-451-62254-5.
  27. ^ David Donald. Civil War and Reconstruction, Pickle Partners Publishing, 2002, pg. 229 ISBN 0393974278
  28. ^ Bernstein, Iver (1990), pp. 43–44
  29. ^ Thomas L. Jones, "The Union League Club and New York's First Black Regiments in the Civil War", New York History (2006) 87#3, pp. 313–343.
  30. ^ For the context see William Seraile, New York's Black Regiments During the Civil War (2001)
  31. ^ Costello, Augustine E. Our Police Protectors: History of the New York Police from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. New York: A.E. Costello, 1885, pp. 200–01.
  32. ^ "Patrolman Edward Dippel". Odmp.org. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  33. ^ "Maj. Gen. Charles W. Sandford Official Report (OR) For The New York Draft Riots". Civilwarhome.com. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  34. ^ a b "Maj. Gen. John Z. Wool Official Report (OR) For The New York Draft Riots". Civilwarhome.com. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  35. ^ John Ellis Wool biography, bio19c.com; accessed April 26, 2014.
  36. ^ Eicher, p. 146
  37. ^ Brown was in overall command of the military fortresses in New York city at the time and volunteered his services to General Wool. Wool instructed Brown to serve under the command of militia General Sandford to which Brown initially refused but eventually offered to serve in whatever capacity needed.
  38. ^ Brown was relieved of duty on July 16 and Canby succeeded him in command of the military post of New York City on July 17
  39. ^ "US Military casualties in the 1863 Draft riots..." Civilwartalk.com. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  40. ^ Swinton, William (August 1, 1870). "History of the Seventh Regiment, National Guard, State of New York, During the War of the Rebellion: With a Preliminary Chapter on the Origin and Early History of the Regiment, a Summary of Its History Since the War, and a Roll of Honor, Comprising Brief Sketches of the Services Rendered by Members of the Regiment in the Army and Navy of the United States". Fields, Osgood & Company. Retrieved August 1, 2017 – via Google Books.
  41. ^ "Edward Jardine". localhistory.morrisville.edu. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  42. ^ "13th New York Cavalry – Battles and Casualties during the Civil War – NY Military Museum and Veterans Research Center". dmna.ny.gov. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  43. ^ "1863 New York City Draft Riots", mrlincolnandnewyork.org; accessed April 26, 2014.
  44. ^ "17th NY Veteran Regiment of Infantry – battles and casualties during the Civil War – NY Military Museum and Veterans Research Center". dmna.ny.gov. Retrieved August 1, 2017.

References

Further reading

  • Dupree, A. Hunter and Leslie H. Fishel, Jr. "An Eyewitness Account of the New York Draft Riots, July, 1863", Mississippi Valley Historical Review vol. 47, no. 3 (December 1960), pp. 472–79. In JSTOR
  • United States War and Navy Departments (1889). Official Records of the American Civil War, volume xxvii, part ii.
  • Walling, George W. (1887). Recollections of a New York Chief of Police, Chapter 6.
  • New York Evangelist (1830–1902); July 23, 1863; pp. 30, 33; APS Online, pg. 4.

External links

Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°0′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W

14th Indiana Infantry Regiment

The 14th Indiana Infantry Regiment, later referred to as the Gallant Fourteenth, was an infantry regiment and part of the Union Army's celebrated "Gibraltar Brigade" of the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. Organized in May 1861 at Camp Vigo, near Terre Haute, Indiana, it was the state's first regiment organized for three years of service. The 14th Indiana served in major campaigns and battles in the Eastern Theater, mostly in West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. During its three years of service, the regiment had a total of 222 casualties (11 officers and 211 enlisted men).

The 14th Indiana fought at the Battle of Antietam, the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, the Battle of Chancellorsville, and at the Battle of Gettysburg. At Gettysburg, the 14th Indiana helped secure Cemetery Hill. From August 16 to September 6, 1863, the regiment was detached for duty in New York City to help prevent further violence following the New York City draft riots of July 1863. After its return to active duty, the regiment fought in the Bristoe Campaign and the Mine Run Campaign, as well as several major battles, including the Battle of the Wilderness and the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. The Battle of Cold Harbor was the regiment's final last engagement before it left the front on June 6, 1864. Regimental members who had completed their military served mustered out on June 20, 1864, at Indianapolis; its veterans who had re-enlisted and its remaining recruits were transferred to the 20th Regiment Indiana Infantry.

1896 Eastern North America heat wave

The 1896 eastern North America heat wave was a 10-day heat wave in New York City, Boston, Newark and Chicago that killed about 1,500 people in August 1896.

Abigail Hopper Gibbons

Abigail Hopper Gibbons, née Abigail Hopper (December 7, 1801 – January 16, 1893) was an American abolitionist, schoolteacher, and social welfare activist. She assisted in founding and led several nationally known societies for social reform during and following the Civil War.

She grew up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in a Quaker family. Her father, Isaac Hopper, opposed slavery (as did many among Quakers by then) and aided fugitive slaves. She grew to share her father's beliefs and spent much of her life working for social reform in several fields. In 1841, the New York Monthly Meeting disowned Gibbons' father and husband for their anti-slavery writing. Abigail Gibbons resigned the following year, also removing her minor children.Gibbons was prominent during and after the American Civil War. Her work in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Washington, D.C.; and New York City, New York, was for civil rights and education for blacks, prison reform for women, medical care for Union officers during the war, aid to veterans returning from the war, to help them find work; and welfare. Because Gibbons was a known abolitionist, her house had been among those attacked and destroyed during the New York City draft riots of July 1863.

Charles W. Sandford

Major General Charles W. Sandford (May 5, 1796 – July 25, 1878) was an American militia and artillery officer, lawyer and businessman. He was a senior officer in the New York State Militia for over thirty years and commanded the First Division in every major civil disturbance in New York City up until the American Civil War, most notably, the New York Draft Riots in 1863.

Cleveland Winslow

Cleveland Winslow (May 26, 1836 – July 7, 1864) was a United States Army officer who served with the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, otherwise known as the famed Duryee's Zouaves, during the American Civil War. He was also a participant in the New York Draft Riots in 1863. Although a charismatic and courageous battlefield commander (and noted for his fondness of flamboyant uniforms), he was reputed to be a strict disciplinarian generally considered to be unpopular with the lower ranking soldiers.

Daniel C. Carpenter

Daniel C. Carpenter (1815 – November 15, 1866) was an American law enforcement officer and police inspector of the New York Police Department. He was one of earliest leading detectives on the police force during the mid-19th century and also had a prominent role in the Police Riot of 1857 and New York Draft Riots in 1863. His successful defeat of the rioters was the largest, and perhaps most crucial, battle during the riot. Fought in front of the Metropolitan Police headquarters, Carpenter's victory saved the New York financial district from falling into the hands of the rioters.

Enrollment Act

The Enrollment Act, 12 Stat. 731, enacted March 3, 1863, also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act, was legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army. A form of conscription, the controversial act required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. In some cities, particularly New York City, enforcement of the act sparked civil unrest as the war dragged on, leading to the New York City draft riots on July 13–16. It replaced the previous Militia Act of 1862.

Galen Porter

Galen T. Porter (1807 – March 30, 1883) was an American law enforcement officer and police captain in the New York City Police Department. One of the senior police commanders during the New York Draft Riots, he helped defend the Third Avenue draft office and later headed the Nineteenth Precinct.

George Opdyke

George Opdyke (December 7, 1805 – June 12, 1880) as an entrepreneur and the 76th Mayor of New York City (1862 to 1864) during the American Civil War. The New York City draft riots occurred during his tenure. After his term as mayor expired, Opdyke attempted to forbid blacks from participating in President Abraham Lincoln's funeral processional.

Henry O'Brien (colonel)

Henry F. O'Brien (died July 14, 1863) was the colonel of the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment who was killed during the New York City draft riots in 1863.

As commander of the Fire Zouaves, he rallied around 150 infantry against approaching rioters in front of Oliver's Livery Stable near the East River. As police under Inspector Daniel C. Carpenter began withdrawing after fighting with rioters on Second Avenue, O'Brien arrived with two companies at 34th Street and Second Avenue.

After a brief skirmish with the rioters, the mob retreated and O'Brien left his command and walked up the avenue entering a nearby drugstore. However, after a few moments, he was attacked by a group of rioters who had reorganized him as he left the building. Severely beaten by the crowd, he was kicked and hit with stones as he lay on the street, which continued for more than an hour.Although some local residents attempted to help, rioters attacked bystanders attempting to bring him food and water. He was eventually taken by rioters to his nearby home where he was tortured to death and mutilated beyond recognition. After rioters had left, his body was transferred to Bellevue Hospital.

James Z. Bogart

James Z. Bogart (March 26, 1821 – March 28, 1881) was an American

law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department.

A member of the old Municipal police force, he joined the Metropolitan Police Department upon its formation in 1857. From his official appointment on April 23, 1857, Bogart rose from roundsman, to sergeant and finally captain within only a few years. He served in a number of important posts throughout the city, including the Twelfth, Twenty-Second and Thirty-First Precincts.During the New York Draft Riots in 1863, Bogart led a police force made up of reserve members from the Thirty-First Precinct and the Broadway Squad against rioters looting the home of J.S. Gibbons, a cousin of New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley, at Lamartine Place near Eighth Avenue and Twenty-Ninth Street. After a half hour of fierce fighting, particularly among the female rioters, the battle was broken up by a detachment of soldiers who fired a volley into the crowd striking police and rioters alike. One patrolman was killed and two were seriously wounded by the attack.He was also the precinct captain of Twenty-Second station at the time of his retirement on June 6, 1870. He was given a $1,000 a year pension and placed on the retired list where he would remain for over ten years. He ran a fish stand on Third Avenue until his death at East One Hundred and Twelfth Street on the night of March 28, 1881, only two days after his 60th birthday.

Jeremiah Hamilton

Jeremiah G. Hamilton (sometimes Jerry Hamilton) was a Wall Street broker noted as "the only black millionaire in New York" by James McCune Smith about a decade before the American Civil War. Hamilton was a shrewd financial agent, amassing a fortune of $2 million ($250,000,000 in 2018 dollars) by the time of his death in 1875. Although he was the subject of much newspaper coverage and his life provides a unique perspective on race in 19th century America, Hamilton is virtually absent from modern historical literature.Hamilton first came to prominence in 1828 after hiding out in a fishing boat for multiple days in the Port-au-Prince harbor in Haiti and eventually escaping the Haitian authorities. They had discovered he was transporting counterfeit coins to Haiti reportedly for a group of New York merchants; in absentia he was sentenced to be shot. The ship he had chartered, the Ann Eliza Jane, was confiscated by the port officials; Hamilton claimed he had escaped with $5000 of the counterfeit coin.Almost a decade later, after the 1835 Great Fire of New York destroyed most of the buildings on the southeast tip of Manhattan, Hamilton accrued about $5 million in 2013 dollars by "taking pitiless advantage of several of the fire victims' misfortunes". His business practices were controversial; where most black entrepreneurs sold their goods to other blacks, "Hamilton cut a swath through the lily-white New York business world of the mid-1830s, a domain where his depredations soon earned him the nickname of "The Prince of Darkness". Others, with even less affection, simply called him Hamilton. Soon thereafter, he used about $7 million to buy up a substantial amount of land and property in modern-day Astoria and Poughkeepsie. Hamilton would go on to tuggle with Cornelius Vanderbilt, the famous American industrialist, over control of the Accessory Transit Company.

Although he circulated among the financial elite and was himself very wealthy (he amassed a 2018 equivalent fortune of around $250 million), Hamilton was also a victim of the racism against African-Americans so pervasive during his time. During the New York City draft riots in 1863, white men seeking to lynch Hamilton broke into his house, but were turned away with only liquor, cigars, and an old suit by his wife Eliza after she said her husband was not home. Eliza Hamilton was white which made her marriage to Jeremiah taboo for the time.At the time of his death in May 1875, Jeremiah Hamilton was said by obituaries to be the richest black man in the United States. He is buried in his family lot in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.There is no known surviving image of Jeremiah Hamilton. As biographer Shane White has reasoned, Hamilton "almost certainly did have photographs taken, and quite likely commissioned a painting, but if any likenesses have survived they are probably catalogued under ‘miscellaneous’ or as ‘subject unknown'."

John Alexander Kennedy

John Alexander Kennedy (August 9, 1803 – June 20, 1873) was the superintendent of police for New York City. He was in charge of the police response to the New York City draft riots in 1863, until he was badly beaten by the mobs.

John Cameron (police officer)

John Cameron (September 30, 1807 – January 1, 1873) was an American law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. Although best remembered for his performance during the New York Draft Riots, Cameron was one of the most prominent senior police officials during the post-American Civil War era and the oldest serving police officer at the time of his death in 1873.

John F. Dickson

John F. Dickson (November 30, 1821 – September 12, 1880) was an American public servant, law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. He and drillmaster Theron S. Copeland led a police squad during the New York Draft Riots which were dispatched against rioters attacking African-Americans. He was also the longtime head of the Tombs Police Court and one of the oldest serving police officers on the police force at the time of his death in 1880.

John G. Bergen

John G. Bergen (December 4, 1814 – July 18, 1867) was an American public servant and New York City Police Commissioner. A member and treasurer of the Board of Police Commissioners, he and Thomas Coxon Acton assumed command of the NYPD during the New York Draft Riots after Superintendent John Kennedy was injured at the hands of a mob.

Maritcha Remond Lyons

Maritcha Remond Lyons (May 23, 1848 – January 28, 1929) was an American educator, civic leader, feminist, and writer in New York City and Brooklyn, New York. She taught in public schools in Brooklyn for 48 years, and was the second black woman to serve in their system as an assistant principal, eventually becoming a principal. Lyons was a co-founder of the White Rose Mission in Manhattan's San Juan Hill district, which provided support to American migrants from the South and immigrants from the West Indies.

Roosevelt Street

Roosevelt Street was a street located in the Two Bridges district of Lower Manhattan, which existed from the British colonial period up until the early 1950s, running from Pearl Street at Park Row southeast to South Street. It ran parallel to James Street. The western end of Roosevelt Street later became the walkway from Park Row to the front entrance of the Chatham Green Apartments at 165 Park Row.

Theron S. Copeland

Theron S. Copeland (July 30, 1831 – July 8, 1905) was an American law enforcement officer and police captain with the New York City Police Department. He studied military tactics at a military academy and in the National Guard before joining the police force in 1855. Much of his career was spent as a drillmaster and, during the New York Draft Riots in 1863, he was part of the force under Inspector Daniel C. Carpenter who confronted a mob intending to loot the New York financial district and the United States sub-treasury. Copeland was later named in a general address to the police force for displaying "valor and intelligent service" during the riots.In January 1903, he retired at the rank of captain after 41 years of service. He died at Barlow Street on July 8, 1905. Survived by his wife and eleven children, his funeral was held at their home and was buried at Greenwood Cemetery.

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