New York City Council

The New York City Council is the lawmaking body of the City of New York. It has 51 members from 51 council districts throughout the five boroughs.

The Council serves as a check against the mayor in a "strong" mayor-council government model. The Council monitors the performance of city agencies and makes land use decisions as well as legislating on a variety of other issues. The City Council also has sole responsibility for approving the city budget. Members elected in or after the year 2010 are limited to two consecutive terms in office, but may run again after a four-year respite; however, Members elected prior to 2010 may seek third consecutive terms.

The head of the City Council is called the Speaker. The current Speaker is Corey Johnson, a Democrat. The Speaker sets the agenda and presides at meetings of the City Council. Proposed legislation is submitted through the Speaker's Office. There are 47 Democratic council members led by Majority Leader Laurie Cumbo. The four Republican council members are led by Minority Leader Steven Matteo.

The Council has 35 committees with oversight of various functions of the city government. Each council member sits on at least three standing, select or subcommittees (listed below). The standing committees meet at least once per month. The Speaker of the Council, the Majority Leader, and the Minority Leader are all ex officio members of every committee.

Council members are elected every four years, except for two consecutive two year terms every twenty years to allow for redistricting between the terms due to the national census (starting in 2001 and 2003 for the 2000 Census and again in 2021 and 2023 for the 2020 Census).[1]

New York City Council
Seal of New York City BW
NYC Councilmanic Flag
Type
Type
Leadership
Speaker
Corey Johnson, Democratic
Since January 2018
Majority Leader
Laurie Cumbo, Democratic
Since January 2018
Minority Leader
Steven Matteo, Republican
Since July 2015
Structure
Seats51
New York City Council seats
Political groups
  • Majority
  Democratic (47)
  • Minority
  Republican (4)
CommitteesSee Standing Committees
Elections
First-past-the-post
Last election
November 7, 2017
Next election
November 2, 2021
Meeting place
New York City Hall, Manhattan
Website
www.council.nyc.gov

Composition

District Member Party Residence Borough Elected Term limited
1 Margaret Chin Democratic Financial District Manhattan 2009 2021
2 Carlina Rivera Democratic Lower East Side Manhattan 2017 2025
3 Corey Johnson Democratic Chelsea Manhattan 2013 2021
4 Keith Powers Democratic Murray Hill Manhattan 2017 2025
5 Ben Kallos Democratic Upper East Side Manhattan 2013 2021
6 Helen Rosenthal Democratic Upper West Side Manhattan 2013 2021
7 Mark D. Levine Democratic Washington Heights Manhattan 2013 2021
8 Diana Ayala Democratic East Harlem The Bronx, Manhattan 2017 2025
9 Bill Perkins Democratic Central Harlem Manhattan 2017* 2025
10 Ydanis Rodríguez Democratic Inwood Manhattan 2009 2021
11 Andrew Cohen Democratic Riverdale The Bronx 2013 2021
12 Andy King Democratic Wakefield The Bronx 2012* 2021
13 Mark Gjonaj Democratic Eastchester The Bronx 2017 2025
14 Fernando Cabrera Democratic Kingsbridge The Bronx 2009 2021
15 Ritchie Torres Democratic Bronx Park The Bronx 2013 2021
16 Vanessa Gibson Democratic Morris Heights The Bronx 2013 2021
17 Rafael Salamanca Democratic Longwood The Bronx 2016* 2025
18 Rubén Díaz Sr. Democratic Parkchester The Bronx 2017 2025
19 Paul Vallone Democratic Bayside Queens 2013 2021
20 Peter Koo Democratic Flushing Queens 2009 2021
21 Francisco Moya Democratic Corona Queens 2017 2025
22 Costa Constantinides Democratic Astoria Queens 2013 2021
23 Barry Grodenchik Democratic Hollis Hills Queens 2015* 2025
24 Rory Lancman Democratic Fresh Meadows Queens 2013 2021
25 Danny Dromm Democratic Jackson Heights Queens 2009 2021
26 Jimmy Van Bramer Democratic Sunnyside Gardens Queens 2009 2021
27 Daneek Miller Democratic Queens Village Queens 2013 2021
28 Adrienne Adams Democratic Jamaica Queens 2017* 2025
29 Karen Koslowitz Democratic Forest Hills Queens 2009 2021
30 Robert Holden Republican Middle Village Queens 2017 2025
31 Donovan Richards Democratic Far Rockaway Queens 2013* 2021
32 Eric Ulrich Republican Ozone Park Queens 2009* 2021
33 Stephen Levin Democratic Greenpoint Brooklyn 2009 2021
34 Antonio Reynoso Democratic Williamsburg Brooklyn, Queens 2013 2021
35 Laurie Cumbo Democratic Clinton Hill Brooklyn 2013 2021
36 Robert Cornegy Democratic Bedford Stuyvesant Brooklyn 2013 2021
37 Rafael Espinal Democratic Cypress Hills Brooklyn 2013 2021
38 Carlos Menchaca Democratic Red Hook Brooklyn 2013 2021
39 Brad Lander Democratic Park Slope Brooklyn 2009 2021
40 Mathieu Eugene Democratic Flatbush Brooklyn 2007* 2021
41 Alicka Ampry-Samuel Democratic Brownsville Brooklyn 2017 2025
42 Inez Barron Democratic East New York Brooklyn 2013 2021
43 Justin Brannan Democratic Bay Ridge Brooklyn 2017 2025
44 Kalman Yeger Democratic Borough Park Brooklyn 2017 2025
45 Jumaane Williams Democratic Flatbush Brooklyn 2009 2021
46 Alan Maisel Democratic Canarsie Brooklyn 2013 2021
47 Mark Treyger Democratic Bensonhurst Brooklyn 2013 2021
48 Chaim Deutsch Democratic Midwood Brooklyn 2013 2021
49 Debi Rose Democratic Mariners Harbor Staten Island 2009 2021
50 Steven Matteo Republican Castleton Corners Staten Island 2013 2021
51 Joseph Borelli Republican Annadale Staten Island 2015* 2025
Partisan makeup
Affiliation Members
Democratic 47
Republican 4
Total 51
Members
Borough
Population
in 2000[2]
Total
Democratic
Republican
Brooklyn 2,465,326 16 16 0
Queens 2,229,379 14 12 2
Manhattan 1,537,195 10 10 0
The Bronx 1,332,650 8 8 0
Staten Island 443,728 3 1 2
Total 8,008,278 51 47 4
Council leaders
Position Name Party Borough
Speaker Corey Johnson Democratic Manhattan
Majority Leader Laurie Cumbo Democratic Brooklyn
Minority Leader Steven Matteo Republican Staten Island

Salary

Council Members currently receive $148,500 a year in base salary, which the council increased from $112,500 in early 2016.[3] Members receive no additional compensation for serving as a committee chairperson or other officer under the new salary raise.

Law

The New York City Charter is the fundamental law of the government of New York City including the Council. The New York City Administrative Code is the codification of the laws promulgated by the Council and is composed of 29 titles.[4][5] The regulations promulgated by city agencies pursuant to law are contained in the Rules of the City of New York in 71 titles.[6]

A local law has a status equivalent with a law enacted by the Legislature (subject to certain exceptions and restrictions), and is superior to the older forms of municipal legislation such as ordinances, resolutions, rules and regulations.[7] Each local government must designate a newspaper of notice to publish or describe its laws.[8] The Secretary of State is responsible for publishing local laws as a supplement to the Laws of New York (the "session laws" of the state), but they have not done so in recent years.[8] The New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York are published online by the New York Legal Publishing Corp. under contract with the New York City Law Department.[9]

History

The history of the New York City Council can be traced to Dutch Colonial times when New York City was known as New Amsterdam. On February 2, 1653, the town of New Amsterdam, founded on the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1625, was incorporated as a city under a charter issued by the Dutch West India Company. A Council of Legislators sat as the local lawmaking body and as a court of inferior jurisdiction. During the 18th and 19th centuries the local legislature was called the Common Council and then the Board of Aldermen. In 1898 the amalgamation charter of the City of Greater New York renamed and revamped the Council and added a New York City Board of Estimate with certain administrative and financial powers. After a number of changes through the ensuing years, the present Council was born in 1938 under a new charter which instituted the Council as the sole legislative body and the New York City Board of Estimate as the chief administrative body. Certain functions of the Council, however, remained subject to the approval of the Board.

A system of proportional representation known as Single Transferable Vote seated a 26-member Council in 1938 to serve two-year terms. The term was extended to four years in 1945 to coincide with the term of the mayor. Proportional representation was abolished in 1947, largely from pressure from Democrats, who played on fears of Communist council members being elected (two already had).[10] It was replaced by a system of electing one Council Member from each New York State Senate district within the city. The Charter also provided for the election of two Council Members-at-large from each of the five boroughs. In June 1983, however, a federal court ruled that the 10 at-large seats violated the United States Constitution's one-person, one-vote mandate.[11]

In 1989, the Supreme Court ruled that the Board of Estimate also violated the one-person, one-vote mandate. In response, the new Charter abolished the Board of Estimate and provided for the redrawing of the Council district lines to increase minority representation on the Council. It also increased the number of Council Members from 35 to 51. The Council was then granted full power over the municipal budget, as well as authority over zoning, land use and franchises. In 1993 the New York City Council voted to rename the position of President of the City Council to the Public Advocate. As the presiding officer, the Public Advocate was an ex officio member of all committees in the Council, and in that capacity had the right to introduce and co-sponsor legislation. However the city charter revision of 2002 transferred the duties of presiding officer from the Public Advocate to the Council Speaker; the Public Advocate remains a non-voting member of the Council.[12]

Term limits

A two-term limit was imposed on City Council members and citywide elected officials in a 1993 referendum. The movement to introduce term limits was led by Ronald Lauder, a cosmetics heir. In 1996, voters turned down a Council proposal to extend term limits. Lauder spent $4 million on the two referenda.

However, in 2008, under pressure from Mayor Michael Bloomberg (who, like many Council members, was facing the end of his two-term limit at that time), the Council voted 29–22 to extend the limit to three terms; the Council also defeated (by a vote of 22–28, with one abstention) a proposal to submit the issue to public referendum.[13]

Legal challenges to the extension of term limits failed in federal court. The original decision by Judge Charles Sifton of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York (Long Island, Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island) was upheld by a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (Vermont, Connecticut and New York), and a proposal in the New York State Legislature to override the extension was not passed.[14][15][16]

Voters voted to reinstate the two-term limit law in another referendum in 2010.[17] However, according to The New York Times, incumbent Members of the City Council who were elected prior to the 2010 referendum “will still be allowed to run for a third term. The two-term limit will only apply to those elected this year and beyond.”[18]

Presiding officers since 1898

Through several changes in title and duties, this person has been, together with the Mayor and City Comptroller, one of the three municipal officers directly elected by all of the City's voters, and also the person who—when the elected Mayor resigns, dies, or otherwise loses the ability to serve—becomes Acting Mayor until the next special or regular election.[19]

Until 1989, these three officers, together with the five borough presidents, constituted the New York City Board of Estimate. Political campaigns have traditionally tried to balance their candidates for these three offices to appeal as wide a range of the city's political, geographical, social, ethnic and religious constituencies as possible (and, when possible, to both genders).

Name Start and end dates as Presiding Officer Party Reason for end of term
As President of the Board of Aldermen
Randolph Guggenheimer[20] January 1, 1898[21][22] – December 31, 1901 Democratic
  • did not run for re-election[23]
Charles V. Fornes[24] January 1, 1902[25] – December 31, 1903 Fusion (first term)
  • elected to two two-year terms[24]
January 1, 1904 – December 27, 1905 Democratic (second term)
  • did not run for re-election after his second term
Patrick F. McGowan[26] December 27, 1905[27] – December 31, 1909 Democratic
John Purroy Mitchel[29] b, c January 1, 1910[30] – June 7, 1913[31] Fusion
Ardolph L. Kline[32] a, d June 9, 1913[33] – December 31, 1913 Republican
  • did not run for election as aldermanic president, but was re-elected to his aldermanic seat[34]
George McAneny[35] January 1, 1914[36] – February 1, 1916[37] Fusion, Democratic
Frank L. Dowling[39] February 1, 1916[37][40] – December 31, 1917 Democratic
Alfred E. Smith[42] January 1, 1918[43] – December 31, 1918 Democratic
Robert L. Moran[45] January 1, 1919[44] – December 31, 1919 Democratic
  • ran for re-election, but lost to La Guardia[46]
Fiorello H. La Guardia[47] b, c January 1, 1920[48] – December 31, 1921 Republican
  • ran for Mayor, but lost in the Republican primary election[49]
Murray Hulbert[50] January 2, 1922[51] – January 8, 1925[52] Democratic
  • ousted by a court decision after accepting an honorary position as a member of the Finger Lakes Park Commission[52]
William T. Collins[53] January 8, 1925[52] – December 30, 1925[54] Democratic
  • became Acting Mayor for one day, then became New York County Clerk[54]
Joseph V. McKee[55] a, c January 1, 1926[56] – May 15, 1933[57] Democratic
  • resigned to become president of the Title Guarantee and Trust Company[57]
Dennis J. Mahon[58] (acting) May 16, 1933[59] – December 31, 1933[60] Democratic
  • ran for re-election to his aldermanic seat, but lost to the Republican-Fusion candidate Morton Baum[61]
Bernard S. Deutsch[62] January 1, 1934[63] – November 21, 1935[62] Republican, Fusion, Law Preservation[64]
  • died unexpectedly[62]
Timothy J. Sullivan[65] November 22, 1935[62] – December 31, 1936 Democratic
  • did not run for election as aldermanic president, but won re-election to his aldermanic seat
William F. Brunner[66] January 1, 1937[67] – December 31, 1937 Democratic
  • ran for Queens Borough President, and lost[68]
As President of the City Council
Newbold Morris[69] c December 31, 1937[70] – January 1, 1946 Republican
Vincent Impellitteri[72] a, b January 1, 1946[73] – August 31, 1950 Democratic
  • became Mayor upon O'Dwyer's resignation
Joseph T. Sharkey[74] (acting) September 2, 1950[75] – November 14, 1951 Democratic
  • Halley was sworn in as soon as the Election Day results were certified[76]
Rudolph Halley[77] c November 14, 1951[76] – December 31, 1953 Liberal, Fusion, Independent Citizens
Abe Stark[79] January 1, 1954[80] – December 31, 1961 Democratic
  • ran for Brooklyn Borough President, and won[81]
Paul R. Screvane[82] January 1, 1962[83] – December 31, 1965 Democratic, Liberal, Brotherhood[84]
Frank D. O'Connor[86] January 1, 1966[87] – January 3, 1969[88] Democratic
Francis X. Smith January 8, 1969[89] – December 31, 1969 Democratic
  • ran for re-election, but lost to Garelik[90]
Sanford Garelik[91] January 1, 1970[92] – December 31, 1973 Republican, Liberal
  • ran for re-election as a Democrat, but lost the primary election to O'Dwyer[93][94]
Paul O'Dwyer[95] January 1, 1974[96] – December 31, 1977 Democratic
  • ran for re-election, won the Democratic primary but not with enough votes to avoid a run-off,[97] then lost the run-off to Bellamy[98]
Carol Bellamy c January 1, 1978[99] – December 31, 1985 Democratic
Andrew Stein January 1, 1986[101] – December 31, 1993 Democratic, Liberal
  • initially ran for Mayor, then dropped out, then ran for Public Advocate, and dropped out of that race[102]
As Public Advocate
Mark Green c January 2, 1994[103] – December 31, 2001 Democratic
As Speaker of the City Council
Gifford Miller January 9, 2002[105] – December 31, 2005 Democratic
  • had to give up his seat because of term limits,[106] ran for Mayor and came in fourth in the Democratic primary election[107]
Christine Quinn January 4, 2006[108] – December 31, 2013 Democratic
Melissa Mark-Viverito January 8, 2014[110] – December 31, 2017 Democratic
  • term limits
Corey Johnson January 3, 2018 – present Democratic
  • incumbent

Notes

a. Became acting mayor upon the death or resignation of the elected mayor.
b. Later won election as mayor.
c. Unsuccessful candidate for mayor in a subsequent general election.
d. Not elected by citywide popular vote (Ardolph Kline had been elected deputy president by his fellow aldermen, and then succeeded as president upon Mitchel's resignation).

Standing committees

Caucuses

See also

References

  1. ^ Charter of the City of New York, Chapter 2 §25(a).
  2. ^ United States Census figures for the respective counties from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2009, (New York, 2008), ISBN 978-1-60057-105-3, p. 620.
  3. ^ NYC Council votes 40-7 to raise members’ pay to $148,500, by Matthew Chayes, Newsday; February 5, 2016.
  4. ^ Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. p. 450. ISBN 1-57588-728-2. LCCN 2004042477. OCLC 54455036.
  5. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 458.
  6. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 473.
  7. ^ Adopting Local Laws in New York State (PDF). James A. Coon Local Government Technical Series. New York State Department of State. May 1998. pp. 1–10.
  8. ^ a b Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 261.
  9. ^ "About the Law Department". New York City Law Department. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013. The most important laws of the City of New York are now available on the web. The Law Department contracted with New York Legal Publishing Corp. for a site where you can browse and search the New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York.
  10. ^ Amy, Douglas J. (1996). "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States". Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  11. ^ Andrews v. Koch, 528 F.Supp. 246 (1981), aff’d sub nom., Giacobbe v. Andrews, 459 U.S. 801 (1982).
  12. ^ Cardwell, Diane. "Betsy Gotbaum, the Advocate, Struggles to Reach Her Public". Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  13. ^ Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks. Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, New York Times, published on-line and retrieved October 23, 2008.
  14. ^ Fernanda Santos. The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, New York Times, October 24, 2008, p. A24 (retrieved October 24, 2008).
  15. ^ Fernanda Santos. Judge Rejects Suit Over Term Limits, New York Times, January 14, 2009, p. A26 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
  16. ^ Appeals Court Upholds Term Limits Revision, New York Times City Room Blog, April 28, 2009 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
  17. ^ Javier C. Fernandez. "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits", New York Times, November 3, 2010.
  18. ^ Hernandez, Javier (November 3, 2010). "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  19. ^ "New York City Charter, ch. 1, §10" (PDF). nyc.gov. City of New York. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  20. ^ "Death of Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. September 13, 1907. p. 7. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  21. ^ "Democrats Take All — The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City — Only Two Republicans in the Council — Van Wyck's Plurality Is 80,316 — Seth Low Ran Nearly 40,000 Ahead of His Ticket — The Republicans Lose 21 Assemblymen and Elect Only 11 Candidates to the Board of Aldermen". New York Times. November 4, 1897. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  22. ^ "City Legislators Meet — The First Session of the Council in Its Chamber Held Amid a Profusion of Flowers — Address of the President — He Calls the Attention of the Members to Serious Questions Confronting Them and Urges the Necessity of Economy in Expenditures". New York Times. January 4, 1898. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  23. ^ "Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. January 1, 1902. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Charles V. Fornes Dies of Stroke at 82 — Twice President of New York City Board of Aldermen Succumbs in Buffalo — Was an Ex-Congressman — Long a Merchant Here and Active in Charities — Former President of Catholic Club". New York Times. May 23, 1929. p. 29. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  25. ^ "Seth Low Takes The Mayor's Chair — Ex-Mayor Van Wyck Leaves the City Hall Alone — The New Executive Greeted With Courteous Words by His Predecessor Asks the People's Help in Redeeming His Solemn Pledges". New York Times. January 2, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  26. ^ "Patrick F. M'Gowan Dead in Hospital — Operation for Spleen Growth Fails to Save Former President of Aldermen — Washington Irving High School His Monument — Came to City As a Poor Young Man". New York Times. April 7, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  27. ^ "Mayor McClellan Sworn In — McGowan, Metz, Hayes, and Gass Also Get Certificates and Follow Suit". New York Times. December 28, 1905. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  28. ^ "Kind to Metz and McGowan — Good Committees Picked for Them on Board of Education". New York Times. January 7, 1910. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  29. ^ "Belt Unfastened, Ex-Mayor Mitchel Falls To Death - His Scout Plane 500 Feet from Ground When the Accident Happened - Find Body In Marsh Grass - Other Airmen Believe He Was Trying to Make Landing When He Fell - Wife Not on the Grounds - Bears Shock Bravely and Will Bring Body from Louisiana Field to This City". New York Times. July 7, 1918. p. 1. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  30. ^ "Mayor Gaynor Takes Office — But He Will Not Announce His Appointments Before To-morrow — Ridder For Park Board — Publisher May be Commissioner for Manhattan, But Asks Time to Consider — McAneny Is Sworn In — Mitchel, Prendergast and Other Officers of the New Administration Also Take Hold". New York Times. January 2, 1910. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  31. ^ "Mitchel In Office As Port Collector Loeb, Retiring, Wishes Him Well — McAneny and Steers There as He Is Sworn In — Still in Mayoralty Fight — Politicians Say His Federal Appointment Can't Keep Him Out and Will Help Him". New York Times. June 8, 1913. p. C4. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  32. ^ "Ex-Mayor Kline Dies At Age Of 72 — City's Chief Executive A Few Months Upon Death Of Mayor Gaynor In 1913 — Once Head Of Aldermen — A Brigadier General in the National Guard — Was With U.S. Shipping Board At His Death — Joined National Guard In 1876 — Praised By Gaynor". New York Times. October 14, 1930. p. 25. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  33. ^ "Col. Kline For Economy — Successor of Mitchel As Aldermen's Head Will Follow His Lead". New York Times. June 10, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  34. ^ "Kline Elected Alderman — Mayor Gets All but Forty Votes In His Home District". New York Times. November 5, 1913. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  35. ^ "George M'Aneny, 83, Dead in Princeton — Zoning and Transit Expert Was City Controller, President of Manhattan Borough — Banker, Reform Leader — Former Executive Manager of The Times Helped to Draft Code for Civil Service". New York Times. July 30, 1953. p. 23. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  36. ^ "Mitchel's First Day As Mayor — Cautions Heads of Departments Against Talking Too Much — Insists on Co-operation — No Police Head Yet — Commissioner McKay May Remain If Mayor Cannot Get the Man He Wants for the Place". New York Times. January 2, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  37. ^ a b "McAneny Stays Till Feb. 1 — President of Aldermen Postpones His Resignation at Mayor's Request". New York Times. January 22, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  38. ^ "M'Aneny to Resign to Join The Times — President of the Board of Aldermen to Give Up Office in January Next — Will Finish Work in Hand — Regrets Leaving Associates, but Feels That He Will Still Be in the Public's Service". New York Times. October 20, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  39. ^ "Frank L. Dowling Dies of Pneumonia — President of Manhattan Borough Stricken After Attack of Gall Stones a Week Ago — Long Career in Politics — Former President of Board of Aldermen Served 18 Years in That Body — Mayor Pays Tribute". New York Times. September 28, 1919. p. 22. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  40. ^ "Frank L. Dowling Heads Aldermen; Vice Chairman of the Board Will Take President McAneny's Place — Democrats in Control — Dr. Thomas W. Martin Replaces Barry, Who Died In Bronx District — Committees Named". New York Times. January 4, 1916. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  41. ^ "A Tammany Sweep — Hylan Can Get Every Vote in the Board of Estimate — Carries Every Borough — His Vote Is 293,382, Mitchel's 148,060, and Hillquit's 138,793 — Lewis, Attorney General — Beaten in This City, but Had a Big Plurality Up-State — Hylan Promises Loyalty". New York Times. November 7, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  42. ^ "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70 — 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  43. ^ "Smith Fills Offices — Matthew T. Horgan Will Be Assistant President of Aldermen". New York Times. January 2, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  44. ^ a b "Named By Smith To Military Staff — Governor-Elect Will Appoint 4 More Men Later Who Have Seen Active Service — Resigns From Aldermen — Will Use Governor's Room at City Hall to Meet Persons Here on Official Business". New York Times. December 24, 1918. p. 7. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  45. ^ "R.L. Moran, Led City's Aldermen — Chief of Board Under Hylan Dies — Was Commissioner of Bronx Public Works". New York Times. August 19, 1954. p. 23. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  46. ^ "La Gaurdia Wins By 1,530 — Beats Moran for President of Board of Aldermen in a Close Contest — Koenig Ordered Vigilance — Warned Republican Chairmen to Stay by the Ballot Boxes and Scrutinize Count — Curran Defeats Boyle — Five Republican Votes in Board of Estimate Assured — Clean Cut Result in Supreme Court". New York Times. November 5, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  47. ^ "La Guardia is Dead; City Pays Homage to 3-Time Mayor — Body Lying in State at St. John the Divine, Where Services Will Be Held Tomorrow — Gilbert Will Officiate — Truman, O'Dwyer and General Assembly of U.N. Mourn 'Champion of Democracy'". New York Times. September 21, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  48. ^ "Curran Sworn In, LaGuardia Also — Borough President and Head of Aldermen Silent on Public Issues — Two Resignations Asked — Curran Pays Tribute to the Late Frank L. Dowling — Says Fairer Man Never Lived". New York Times. January 2, 1920. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  49. ^ "Curran Defeats La Guardia by 60,000 — Haskell Third — Gilroy Wins — Hines Loses — Hines's Manager and a Candidate Shot — Fusion Wins All Over City — Wet Republican Runs 3 to 1 Behind — Bennett a Poor Fourth — Connolly Wins in Queens — Organization Leader Defeats Denis O'Leary, Insurgent Democrat, by 3 to 1 — Lockwood in Easy Victory — With 455 Districts Missing, Curran Has 83,425, LaGuardia 30,955, Bennett 3,777". New York Times. September 14, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  50. ^ "Murray Hulbert, Jurist, 65, Dead — Member of the Federal Bench Since 1934 Formerly Headed Board of Aldermen Here". New York Times. April 27, 1950. p. 19. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  51. ^ "Hylan Reinstalled, Pledges Old Policy; Keeps His Old Staff — In Inaugural Address Continues His Criticism of Press, Legislature and Port Authority — Refers to His Large Vote — Says It Is Not a Personal Tribute, but It Imposes Grave Responsibility — For Higher Aldermanic Pay — Craig Appears With Draft of New Charter Providing $5,000 Salaries for Members". New York Times. January 3, 1922. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  52. ^ a b c "Court Ousts Hulbert From City Office; Forfeited Post By Taking State Job; Hylan Hopes Smith Will Reappoint Him — Collins His Successor — His Eligibility to the Office Since Jan. 1 Is Questioned, However — Dispute Over The Law — Governor May Have Power to Appoint Hulbert to His Old Position — Comma Figures in Case". New York Times. January 9, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  53. ^ "William Collins, Ex-Justice, Dead — Surrogate Served on State Supreme Court, 1928–45". New York Times. September 6, 1961. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  54. ^ a b "Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  55. ^ "J.V. M'Kee is Dead; Served as Mayor — President of Old Aldermanic Board Replaced Walker in Wave of Reform — Known as 'Holy Joe' — Former Teacher Entered Politics 'by Accident' — Headed Trust Company". New York Times. January 29, 1956. p. 93. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  56. ^ "McKee Resigns as Judge". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 2. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  57. ^ a b "M'Kee Reinstates Man The Man He Had Ousted — Just Before Quitting Office He Names McEneny, Dropped in School Site Inquiry — Now Finds Charges Fail — O'Brien Assures His Departing Associate He Will Always Be Welcome at City Hall". New York Times. May 16, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  58. ^ "Dennis J. Mahon, Tammany Aide, 71 — Acting Mayor in 30's Dies — Assisted De Sapio". New York Times. June 14, 1965. p. 33. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
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  60. ^ "Rockway Subway Approved by City — Long Island Road's Route Held Best of 3 Proposed — Buying of Line Up to LaGuardia — Cost Put at $34,114,000 — Estimate Board Also Passes on Site of Staten Island Tube and Brooklyn Tunnel". New York Times. December 30, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  61. ^ "Democrats Keep Aldermanic Rule — But the Republican-Fusionists Elect Seventeen, a Gain of Sixteen Seats — Majority Leader Loses — Mahon's Defeat Blow to Tammany — Kiernan Beaten in Brooklyn — Baldwin Winner". New York Times. November 8, 1933. p. 2. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
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  68. ^ "Tables Showing the Vote for City-Wide Officials and Borough and County Posts". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 14. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  69. ^ "Morris, An Athlete, Heads City Council — Amateur Skating Champion and College Oarsman a Descendant of Declaration Signer". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 13. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  70. ^ "Morris Is Sworn As Council Head — Takes Oath Under Portrait of Great-Grandfather, Mayor of City 1851 to 1853 — 200 Attend Ceremonies — Lazarus is Selected as Head of Administrative Staff — 5 Other Aides Named". New York Times. January 1, 1938. p. 36. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  71. ^ "O'Dwyer Elected Mayor in City Sweep; Carries Ticket With Him; Goldstein 2d; Molotov Rebukes US on Atomic Policy — Record Plurality — Margin Totals 685,175 — McGoldrick Out but Runs Ahead of Ticket — Blow to Dewey Seen — Beldock Defeated by Big Margin — Lynch Loses to Hall in Richmond". New York Times. November 7, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
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  78. ^ "Wagner Wins By 360,078 in Democratic Sweep; Meyner is Elected in Jersey By a Landslide and — City Vote 2,205,662 — Riegelman Runs Second — Stark Tops Ticket in New Dealers' Triumph". New York Times. November 4, 1953. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
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  99. ^ "List of City Officers Who Were Sworn In". New York Times. January 2, 1978. p. 13. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
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External links

References

  1. ^ Charter of the City of New York, Chapter 2 §25(a).
  2. ^ United States Census figures for the respective counties from The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2009, (New York, 2008), ISBN 978-1-60057-105-3, p. 620.
  3. ^ NYC Council votes 40-7 to raise members’ pay to $148,500, by Matthew Chayes, Newsday; February 5, 2016.
  4. ^ Gibson, Ellen M.; Manz, William H. (2004). Gibson's New York Legal Research Guide (PDF) (3rd ed.). Wm. S. Hein Publishing. p. 450. ISBN 1-57588-728-2. LCCN 2004042477. OCLC 54455036.
  5. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 458.
  6. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 473.
  7. ^ Adopting Local Laws in New York State (PDF). James A. Coon Local Government Technical Series. New York State Department of State. May 1998. pp. 1–10.
  8. ^ a b Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 261.
  9. ^ "About the Law Department". New York City Law Department. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013. The most important laws of the City of New York are now available on the web. The Law Department contracted with New York Legal Publishing Corp. for a site where you can browse and search the New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York.
  10. ^ Amy, Douglas J. (1996). "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States". Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  11. ^ Andrews v. Koch, 528 F.Supp. 246 (1981), aff’d sub nom., Giacobbe v. Andrews, 459 U.S. 801 (1982).
  12. ^ Cardwell, Diane. "Betsy Gotbaum, the Advocate, Struggles to Reach Her Public". Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  13. ^ Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks. Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, New York Times, published on-line and retrieved October 23, 2008.
  14. ^ Fernanda Santos. The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, New York Times, October 24, 2008, p. A24 (retrieved October 24, 2008).
  15. ^ Fernanda Santos. Judge Rejects Suit Over Term Limits, New York Times, January 14, 2009, p. A26 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
  16. ^ Appeals Court Upholds Term Limits Revision, New York Times City Room Blog, April 28, 2009 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
  17. ^ Javier C. Fernandez. "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits", New York Times, November 3, 2010.
  18. ^ Hernandez, Javier (November 3, 2010). "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  19. ^ "New York City Charter, ch. 1, §10" (PDF). nyc.gov. City of New York. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  20. ^ "Death of Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. September 13, 1907. p. 7. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  21. ^ "Democrats Take All — The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City — Only Two Republicans in the Council — Van Wyck's Plurality Is 80,316 — Seth Low Ran Nearly 40,000 Ahead of His Ticket — The Republicans Lose 21 Assemblymen and Elect Only 11 Candidates to the Board of Aldermen". New York Times. November 4, 1897. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  22. ^ "City Legislators Meet — The First Session of the Council in Its Chamber Held Amid a Profusion of Flowers — Address of the President — He Calls the Attention of the Members to Serious Questions Confronting Them and Urges the Necessity of Economy in Expenditures". New York Times. January 4, 1898. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  23. ^ "Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. January 1, 1902. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Charles V. Fornes Dies of Stroke at 82 — Twice President of New York City Board of Aldermen Succumbs in Buffalo — Was an Ex-Congressman — Long a Merchant Here and Active in Charities — Former President of Catholic Club". New York Times. May 23, 1929. p. 29. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  25. ^ "Seth Low Takes The Mayor's Chair — Ex-Mayor Van Wyck Leaves the City Hall Alone — The New Executive Greeted With Courteous Words by His Predecessor Asks the People's Help in Redeeming His Solemn Pledges". New York Times. January 2, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  26. ^ "Patrick F. M'Gowan Dead in Hospital — Operation for Spleen Growth Fails to Save Former President of Aldermen — Washington Irving High School His Monument — Came to City As a Poor Young Man". New York Times. April 7, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  27. ^ "Mayor McClellan Sworn In — McGowan, Metz, Hayes, and Gass Also Get Certificates and Follow Suit". New York Times. December 28, 1905. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  28. ^ "Kind to Metz and McGowan — Good Committees Picked for Them on Board of Education". New York Times. January 7, 1910. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  29. ^ "Belt Unfastened, Ex-Mayor Mitchel Falls To Death - His Scout Plane 500 Feet from Ground When the Accident Happened - Find Body In Marsh Grass - Other Airmen Believe He Was Trying to Make Landing When He Fell - Wife Not on the Grounds - Bears Shock Bravely and Will Bring Body from Louisiana Field to This City". New York Times. July 7, 1918. p. 1. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  30. ^ "Mayor Gaynor Takes Office — But He Will Not Announce His Appointments Before To-morrow — Ridder For Park Board — Publisher May be Commissioner for Manhattan, But Asks Time to Consider — McAneny Is Sworn In — Mitchel, Prendergast and Other Officers of the New Administration Also Take Hold". New York Times. January 2, 1910. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  31. ^ "Mitchel In Office As Port Collector Loeb, Retiring, Wishes Him Well — McAneny and Steers There as He Is Sworn In — Still in Mayoralty Fight — Politicians Say His Federal Appointment Can't Keep Him Out and Will Help Him". New York Times. June 8, 1913. p. C4. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  32. ^ "Ex-Mayor Kline Dies At Age Of 72 — City's Chief Executive A Few Months Upon Death Of Mayor Gaynor In 1913 — Once Head Of Aldermen — A Brigadier General in the National Guard — Was With U.S. Shipping Board At His Death — Joined National Guard In 1876 — Praised By Gaynor". New York Times. October 14, 1930. p. 25. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  33. ^ "Col. Kline For Economy — Successor of Mitchel As Aldermen's Head Will Follow His Lead". New York Times. June 10, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  34. ^ "Kline Elected Alderman — Mayor Gets All but Forty Votes In His Home District". New York Times. November 5, 1913. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  35. ^ "George M'Aneny, 83, Dead in Princeton — Zoning and Transit Expert Was City Controller, President of Manhattan Borough — Banker, Reform Leader — Former Executive Manager of The Times Helped to Draft Code for Civil Service". New York Times. July 30, 1953. p. 23. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  36. ^ "Mitchel's First Day As Mayor — Cautions Heads of Departments Against Talking Too Much — Insists on Co-operation — No Police Head Yet — Commissioner McKay May Remain If Mayor Cannot Get the Man He Wants for the Place". New York Times. January 2, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  37. ^ a b "McAneny Stays Till Feb. 1 — President of Aldermen Postpones His Resignation at Mayor's Request". New York Times. January 22, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  38. ^ "M'Aneny to Resign to Join The Times — President of the Board of Aldermen to Give Up Office in January Next — Will Finish Work in Hand — Regrets Leaving Associates, but Feels That He Will Still Be in the Public's Service". New York Times. October 20, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  39. ^ "Frank L. Dowling Dies of Pneumonia — President of Manhattan Borough Stricken After Attack of Gall Stones a Week Ago — Long Career in Politics — Former President of Board of Aldermen Served 18 Years in That Body — Mayor Pays Tribute". New York Times. September 28, 1919. p. 22. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  40. ^ "Frank L. Dowling Heads Aldermen; Vice Chairman of the Board Will Take President McAneny's Place — Democrats in Control — Dr. Thomas W. Martin Replaces Barry, Who Died In Bronx District — Committees Named". New York Times. January 4, 1916. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  41. ^ "A Tammany Sweep — Hylan Can Get Every Vote in the Board of Estimate — Carries Every Borough — His Vote Is 293,382, Mitchel's 148,060, and Hillquit's 138,793 — Lewis, Attorney General — Beaten in This City, but Had a Big Plurality Up-State — Hylan Promises Loyalty". New York Times. November 7, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  42. ^ "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70 — 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  43. ^ "Smith Fills Offices — Matthew T. Horgan Will Be Assistant President of Aldermen". New York Times. January 2, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  44. ^ a b "Named By Smith To Military Staff — Governor-Elect Will Appoint 4 More Men Later Who Have Seen Active Service — Resigns From Aldermen — Will Use Governor's Room at City Hall to Meet Persons Here on Official Business". New York Times. December 24, 1918. p. 7. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  45. ^ "R.L. Moran, Led City's Aldermen — Chief of Board Under Hylan Dies — Was Commissioner of Bronx Public Works". New York Times. August 19, 1954. p. 23. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  46. ^ "La Gaurdia Wins By 1,530 — Beats Moran for President of Board of Aldermen in a Close Contest — Koenig Ordered Vigilance — Warned Republican Chairmen to Stay by the Ballot Boxes and Scrutinize Count — Curran Defeats Boyle — Five Republican Votes in Board of Estimate Assured — Clean Cut Result in Supreme Court". New York Times. November 5, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  47. ^ "La Guardia is Dead; City Pays Homage to 3-Time Mayor — Body Lying in State at St. John the Divine, Where Services Will Be Held Tomorrow — Gilbert Will Officiate — Truman, O'Dwyer and General Assembly of U.N. Mourn 'Champion of Democracy'". New York Times. September 21, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  48. ^ "Curran Sworn In, LaGuardia Also — Borough President and Head of Aldermen Silent on Public Issues — Two Resignations Asked — Curran Pays Tribute to the Late Frank L. Dowling — Says Fairer Man Never Lived". New York Times. January 2, 1920. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  49. ^ "Curran Defeats La Guardia by 60,000 — Haskell Third — Gilroy Wins — Hines Loses — Hines's Manager and a Candidate Shot — Fusion Wins All Over City — Wet Republican Runs 3 to 1 Behind — Bennett a Poor Fourth — Connolly Wins in Queens — Organization Leader Defeats Denis O'Leary, Insurgent Democrat, by 3 to 1 — Lockwood in Easy Victory — With 455 Districts Missing, Curran Has 83,425, LaGuardia 30,955, Bennett 3,777". New York Times. September 14, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  50. ^ "Murray Hulbert, Jurist, 65, Dead — Member of the Federal Bench Since 1934 Formerly Headed Board of Aldermen Here". New York Times. April 27, 1950. p. 19. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  51. ^ "Hylan Reinstalled, Pledges Old Policy; Keeps His Old Staff — In Inaugural Address Continues His Criticism of Press, Legislature and Port Authority — Refers to His Large Vote — Says It Is Not a Personal Tribute, but It Imposes Grave Responsibility — For Higher Aldermanic Pay — Craig Appears With Draft of New Charter Providing $5,000 Salaries for Members". New York Times. January 3, 1922. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  52. ^ a b c "Court Ousts Hulbert From City Office; Forfeited Post By Taking State Job; Hylan Hopes Smith Will Reappoint Him — Collins His Successor — His Eligibility to the Office Since Jan. 1 Is Questioned, However — Dispute Over The Law — Governor May Have Power to Appoint Hulbert to His Old Position — Comma Figures in Case". New York Times. January 9, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  53. ^ "William Collins, Ex-Justice, Dead — Surrogate Served on State Supreme Court, 1928–45". New York Times. September 6, 1961. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  54. ^ a b "Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  55. ^ "J.V. M'Kee is Dead; Served as Mayor — President of Old Aldermanic Board Replaced Walker in Wave of Reform — Known as 'Holy Joe' — Former Teacher Entered Politics 'by Accident' — Headed Trust Company". New York Times. January 29, 1956. p. 93. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  56. ^ "McKee Resigns as Judge". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 2. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  57. ^ a b "M'Kee Reinstates Man The Man He Had Ousted — Just Before Quitting Office He Names McEneny, Dropped in School Site Inquiry — Now Finds Charges Fail — O'Brien Assures His Departing Associate He Will Always Be Welcome at City Hall". New York Times. May 16, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  58. ^ "Dennis J. Mahon, Tammany Aide, 71 — Acting Mayor in 30's Dies — Assisted De Sapio". New York Times. June 14, 1965. p. 33. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  59. ^ "City Charter Bill Voted — Aldermen Provide Referendum on Question of Revision". New York Times. May 17, 1933. p. 19. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  60. ^ "Rockway Subway Approved by City — Long Island Road's Route Held Best of 3 Proposed — Buying of Line Up to LaGuardia — Cost Put at $34,114,000 — Estimate Board Also Passes on Site of Staten Island Tube and Brooklyn Tunnel". New York Times. December 30, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  61. ^ "Democrats Keep Aldermanic Rule — But the Republican-Fusionists Elect Seventeen, a Gain of Sixteen Seats — Majority Leader Loses — Mahon's Defeat Blow to Tammany — Kiernan Beaten in Brooklyn — Baldwin Winner". New York Times. November 8, 1933. p. 2. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
  62. ^ a b c d "Bernard S. Deutsch Dies Unexpectedly At 51 In Bronx Home — President of Board of Aldermen Succumbs to Brief Illness Not Known to Be Serious — Strain of Office Blamed — Wife and Two Daughters at Bedside — Mayor Goes to Home on Learning News — He Was Leader in Fusion — Long Identified With Law Here — Rose in Politics After 1930 Ambulance Chasing Inquiry". New York Times. November 22, 1935. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  63. ^ "LaGuardia Takes Office To Give City A New Deal; Sworn at Seabury Home — Ceremony At Midnight — Wife and Fusion Chiefs Are Present as McCook Administers Oath — His Day to Begin Early — Goes to Headquarters at 8:30 A.M. to Induct O'Ryan as Police Commissioner — Board to Hear His Plans — Mayor Faces Many Problems, a Hostile Tammany and Fight for His Program at Albany". New York Times. January 1, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  64. ^ "List of Candidates Who Will Be on Ballots in Municipal Election Nov. 7". New York Times. November 5, 1933. p. N2. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  65. ^ "T.J. Sullivan Dies; Once Acting Mayor — Former President of the Board of Aldermen and Midtown Democratic Leader". New York Times. December 14, 1951. p. 31. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  66. ^ "William Brunner ot Queens, 77, Last Alderman Board Head, Dies — Representative, 1928 to '35, Assemblyman and Sheriff — Headed Peninsula Hospital". New York Times. April 24, 1965. p. 29. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  67. ^ "Brunner Sworn In To Head Aldermen — Hallinan Administers Oath in Presence of Family and a Few Close Friends — Induction on Monday — Former Sheriff of Queens is Expected to Outline Policies at Meeting of Board". New York Times. January 2, 1937. p. 4. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  68. ^ "Tables Showing the Vote for City-Wide Officials and Borough and County Posts". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 14. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
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