New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is also named. As a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, which is still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church.[2][3]

In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is probably the most celebrated public holiday, often observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family.[1]

New Years 2014 Fireworks - London Eye
Fireworks in London on New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight.
New Year's Day
Mexico City New Years 2013! (8333128248)
Fireworks in Mexico City at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Day, 2013
Observed byUsers of the Gregorian calendar
SignificanceThe first day of the Gregorian year
CelebrationsMaking New Year's resolutions, church services, parades, sporting events, fireworks[1]
DateJanuary 1
Next timeJanuary 1, 2020
FrequencyAnnual
Related toNew Year's Eve, Christmastide

History

Menologion of Basil 047
In Christendom, under which the Gregorian Calendar developed, New Year's Day traditionally marks the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ, which is still observed as such by the Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church.

Mesopotamia (Iraq) instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.[4][5] The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March. That the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were originally positioned as the seventh through tenth months. (Septem is Latin for "seven"; octo, "eight"; novem, "nine"; and decem, "ten".) Roman legend usually credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius. These were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead.[6]

The January Kalends (Latin: Kalendae Ianuariae) came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, and making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still, private and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.[7] Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family gatherings and celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence.[8][9]

In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; March 1 in the old Roman style; March 25 in honor of Lady Day and the Feast of the Annunciation; and on the movable feast of Easter. These days were also astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. (The Julian calendar's small disagreement with the solar year, however, shifted these days earlier before the Council of Nicaea which formed the basis of the calculations used during the Gregorian reform of the calendar.) Medieval calendars nonetheless often continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day.

Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year. This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius (died 659 or 660), who warned the Flemish and Dutch: "(Do not) make vetulas, [little figures of the Old Woman], little deer or iotticos or set tables [for the house-elf, compare Puck] at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks [another Yule custom]."[10] However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar;[11] the custom of exchanging Christmas gifts in a Christian context is traced back to the Biblical Magi who gave gifts to the Child Jesus.[12][13]

Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar widely used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days. The Gregorian calendar reform also (in effect) restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar almost immediately, it was only gradually adopted among Protestant countries. The British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752. Until then, the British Empire  – and its American colonies  – still celebrated the new year on March 25.

Most nations of Western Europe officially adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide.[14] There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25, also called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates,[15] because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's life after his birth, counted from the latter's observation on Christmas, December 25. Pope Gregory acknowledged January 1 as the beginning of the new year according to his reform of the Catholic Liturgical Calendar.[16]

New Year's Days in other calendars

In cultures which traditionally or currently use calendars other than the Gregorian, New Year's Day is often also an important celebration. Some countries concurrently use the Gregorian and another calendar. New Year's Day in the alternative calendar attracts alternative celebrations of that new year:

African

Sep
11
37 Wed Egypt
Ethiopia
  • Nayrouz and Enkutatash are the New Year's Days of the Coptic Egyptians and the Ethiopians, respectively. Between 1900 and 2100, both occur on September 11 in most years and on September 12 in the years before Gregorian leap years. They preserve the legacy of the ancient Egyptian new year Wepet Renpet, which originally marked the onset of the Nile flood but which wandered through the seasons until the introduction of leap years to the traditional calendar by Augustus in 30-20 BC. In Ethiopia, the new year is held to mark the end of the summer rainy season.
Jun
9
23 Sun Philadelphia

East Asian

Jan
28
04 Sat ChinaVietnamSouth Korea
  • Chinese New Year is celebrated in some countries around the East Asia, including China. It is the first day of the lunar calendar and is corrected for the solar every three years. The holiday normally falls between January 20 and February 20.[18] The holiday is celebrated with food, families, lucky money (usually in a red envelope), and many other red things for good luck. Lion and dragon dances, drums, fireworks, firecrackers, and other types of entertainment fill the streets on this day.
  • Vietnamese New Year (Tết Nguyên Đán or Tết), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết or "Vietnamese Lunar New Year", is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam, the holiday normally falls between January 20 and February 20. It is the Vietnamese New Year marking the arrival of spring based on the Chinese calendar, a lunisolar calendar. The name Tết Nguyên Đán is Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from the Hán nôm characters 節 元 旦.
Jan
1
01 Tue Japan
  • Japanese New Year is celebrated on January 1 because the Gregorian calendar is now used instead of the Chinese calendar.
  • Korean New Year is celebrated on the first day of the solar calendar and lunar calendar respectively in South Korea. The first day of the lunar calendar, called Seollal (설날), is a big national holiday with the Korean thanksgiving Day, called Chuseok(추석).[19] South Koreans also celebrate solar New Year's Day on January 1 each year, following the Gregorian Calendar. New Year's Day is also a national holiday, so people have the day off while they have a minimum of three days off on Lunar New Year. These days, many Koreans consider solar New Year’s Day as the first day of the year, while considering the first day of the lunar calendar as a traditional holiday. Koreans celebrate New Year's Day by preparing food for their ancestors' spirits, visiting ancestors' graves, and playing Korean games such as Yunnori (윷놀이) with families. Young children give respect to their parents, grandparents, relatives, and other elders by bowing down in a traditional way and are given good wishes and some money by the elders. Families enjoy the New Year also by counting down until midnight on New Year's Eve on December 31st.
  • North Koreans celebrate New Year's holiday on the first day of the solar calendar, January 1. Solar New Year’s Day, called “Seollal(설날)”, is a big holiday in North Korea, while they take a day off on the first day of the lunar calendar. The first day of the lunar calendar is just regarded as a relaxing day. North Koreans consider the first day of the solar calendar even more important.

Southeast Asian

Apr
13
15 Sat CambodiaThailandSri LankaLaos
  • Cambodian New Year (Chaul Chnam Thmey) is celebrated on April 13 or April 14. There are three days for the Khmer New Year: the first day is called "Moha Songkran", the second is called "Virak Wanabat" and the final day is called "Virak Loeurng Sak". During these periods, Cambodians often go to pagoda or play traditional games. Phnom Penh is usually quiet during Khmer New Year as most of the Cambodians prefer spending it at their respective hometowns.
  • Thai New Year is celebrated on April 13 or April 14 and is called Songkran in the local language. People usually come out to splash water on one another. The throwing of water originated as a blessing. By capturing the water after it had been poured over the Buddhas for cleansing, this "blessed" water is gently poured on the shoulder of elders and family for good fortune.

South Asian

Apr
14
15 Sun IndiaBangladesh Nepal
  • Christians in India celebrate January 1 as the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar. Catholic Christians also celebrate January 1 as The Solemnity of Mary, the Mother of God, the liturgical feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
  • Diwali related New Year's celebrations include Marwari New Year and Gujrati New Year.
  • Indian New Year's days has several variations depending on the region and is based on the Hindu calendar.
  • Hindu In Hinduism, different regional cultures celebrate new year at different times of the year. In Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Nepal, Odisha, Punjab,Telangana, Andrapradesh and Tamil Nadu households celebrate the new year when the Sun enters Aries on the Hindu calendar. This is normally on April 14 or April 15, depending on the leap year. Elsewhere in northern/central India, the Vikram Samvat calendar is followed. According to that the new year day is the first day of the Chaitra Month, also known as Chaitra Shukla Pratipada or Gudi Padwa. This basically is the first month of the Hindu calendar, the first shukla paksha (fortnight) and the first day. This normally comes around March 23–24, mostly around the Spring Equinox in Gregorian Calendar. The new year is celebrated by paying respect to elders in the family and by seeking their blessings. They also exchange tokens of good wishes for a healthy and prosperous year ahead.
  • Malayalam New Year (Puthuvarsham) is celebrated either on the first day of the month of Medam in mid-April which is known as Vishu or the first day of the month of Chingam, in the Malayalam Calendar in mid-August according to another reckoning. Unlike most other calendar systems in India, the New Year's Day on the Malayalam Calendar is not based on any astronomical event. It is just the first day of the first of the twelve months on the Malayalam Calendar. The Malayalam Calendar (called Kollavarsham) originated in 825 AD, based on general agreement among scholars, with the re-opening of the city of Kollam (on Malabar Coast), which had been destroyed by a natural disaster.
  • Nepal Sambat is the Nepalese New Year celebration.
  • Pahela Baishakh (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ) or Bangla Nabobarsho (Bengali: বাংলা নববর্ষ, Bangla Nôbobôrsho) is the first day of the Bengali Calendar. It is celebrated on April 14 as a national holiday in Bangladesh, and on April 14 or 15 in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and part of Assam by people of Bengali heritage, irrespective of their religious faith.
  • The Sikh New Year is celebrated as per the Nanakshahi calendar. The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak in 1469. New Year's Day falls annually on what is March 14 in the Gregorian Western calendar.[20]
  • Sinhalese New Year is celebrated in Sri Lankan culture predominantly by the Sri Lankan Sinhalese, while the Tamil New Year on the same day is celebrated by Sri Lankan Tamils. The Sinhalese New Year (aluth avurudda), marks the end of harvest season, by the month of Bak (April) between April 13 and April 14. There is an astrologically generated time gap between the passing year and the New Year, which is based on the passing of the sun from the Meena Rashiya (House of Pisces) to the Mesha Rashiya (House of Aries) in the celestial sphere. The astrological time difference between the New Year and the passing year (nonagathe) is celebrated with several Buddhist rituals and customs that are to be concentrated on, which are exclusive of all types of 'work'. After Buddhist rituals and traditions are attended to, Sinhala and Tamil New Year-based social gatherings and festive parties with the aid of firecrackers, and fireworks would be organized. The exchange of gifts, cleanliness, the lighting of the oil lamp, making kiribath (Milk rice), and even the Asian Koel are significant aspects of the Sinhalese New Year.
  • Tamil New Year (Puthandu) is celebrated on April 13 or April 14. Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chiththirai Thirunaal in parts of Tamil Nadu to mark the event of the Sun entering Aries. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.
  • Telugu New Year (Ugadi), Kannada New Year (Yugadi) is celebrated in March (generally), April (occasionally). Traditionally, it is celebrated as Chaitram Chaitra Shuddha Padyami in parts of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka to mark the event of New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. It falls on a different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendar. The Saka calendar begins with the month of Chaitra (March–April) and Ugadi/Yugadi marks the first day of the new year. Chaitra is the first month in Panchanga which is the Indian calendar. Panchangam (almanac), is read in temples to mark the start of the Year.

European

Jan
13
02 Sun Pembrokeshire
  • The Old New Year in Serbia is commonly called the Serbian New Year (Српска Нова година / Srpska Nova godina),[21] celebrated on January 14 as the start of the New Year by the Julian calendar. The Serbian Orthodox Church, with traditional adherence in Serbia (including Kosovo), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia, celebrates its feasts and holidays according to the Julian calendar.[21] A part of the population celebrates Serbian New Year in a similar way as the New Year on January 1. This time, usually one concert is organized in front of either City Hall or the National Parliament (in Belgrade), while fireworks are prepared by the Serbian Orthodox Church and fired from the Church of Saint Sava, where people also gather. Other cities also organize such celebrations. Restaurants, clubs, cafes and hotels are usually fully booked and organize New Year's celebrations with food and live music.[21]
  • In the Gwaun Valley, Pembrokeshire, Wales the new year is celebrated on January 13, based on the Julian calendar. See New Year celebrations in Gwaun Valley.

Middle Eastern

Muharram
1
Thu Arab LeagueIsrael ( for native Arabs)
  • Hijri New Year in the Islamic culture is also known as Islamic new year (Arabic: رأس السنة الهجرية Ras as-Sanah al-Hijriyah) is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year. New Year moves from year to year because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar. The first day of the year is observed on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.
Mar
21±1
Thu Iran equinox
  • Nowruz also known as Persian New Year marks the first day of spring and the beginning of the year in the Iranian calendar. It is celebrated on the day of the astronomical vernal equinox, which usually occurs on March 21 or the previous/following day depending on where it is observed. Nowruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years by the related cultural continent. The holiday is also celebrated and observed by many parts of Central Asia, South Asia, Northwestern China, Crimea and some groups in the Balkans. As well as being a Zoroastrian holiday and having significance amongst the Zoroastrian ancestors of modern Iranians, the same time is celebrated in the Indian sub-continent as the new year. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year and Iranian families gather together to observe the rituals.
Tishrei
½
Mon Israel
  • Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish new year, is celebrated by Jews in Israel and throughout the world. The date is not set according to the Gregorian calendar, but it always falls during September or October. The holiday is celebrated by religious services and special meals. The night of December 31/January 1, the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar, is also celebrated widely in Israel and is referred to as Sylvester or the civil new year.[22]

Traditional and modern celebrations and customs

New Year's Eve

OperaSydney-Fuegos2006-342289398
Sydney contributes to some of the major New Year celebrations each year.

January 1 represents the fresh start of a new year after a period of remembrance of the passing year, including on radio, television, and in newspapers, which starts in early December in countries around the world. Publications have year-end articles that review the changes during the previous year. In some cases publications may set their entire year work alight in hope that the smoke emitted from the flame brings new life to the company. There are also articles on planned or expected changes in the coming year.

This day is traditionally a religious feast, but since the 1900s has also become an occasion to celebrate the night of December 31, called New Year's Eve. There are fireworks at midnight at the moment the new year arrives (a major one is in Sydney, Australia). Watchnight services are also still observed by many.[23]

Regional celebrations

National celebrations

Happy Christmas and New Year
Happy Christmas and New Year card
  • Throughout Great Britain there are many celebrations across the island, particularly in Scotland.
  • In Greece and Cyprus, families and relatives switch off the lights at midnight, then celebrate by cutting the vasilopita (Basil's pie) which usually contains one coin or equivalent. Whoever wins expects luck for the whole year.[24] After the pie, a traditional game of cards called triantaena (31) follows.
  • In Nassau, Bahamas, the Junkanoo parade takes place.
  • In the Philippines, New Year's is considered part of the Christmas holiday. Noise is made on New Year's Eve with firecrackers and horns (amongst other methods) to dispel evil spirits and to prevent them from bringing bad luck to the coming new year. Tables are laden with food for the Media Noche (midnight meal), and a basket of twelve, different round fruits is displayed to symbolise prosperity in each of the coming twelve months.[25] Public New Year's parties are organised by city governments, and are very well-attended.
  • In Russia and the other 14 former republics of the Soviet Union, the celebration of Novi God is greeted by fireworks and drinking champagne. Because religion was suppressed in the Soviet Union the New Year holiday took on many attributes associated with Christmas in other countries, including Christmas trees, Ded Moroz (a variant of Santa Claus) and family celebrations with lavish food and gifts. In Moscow, the president of Russia counts down the final seconds of the "old year". The Kremlin's landmark Spassky Clock Tower chimes in the new year and then the anthem starts. It is customary to make a wish while the Clock chimes. The Old New Year is celebrated on January 13 (equivalent to January 1 in the "old style" Julian calendar). Although not an official holiday, it marks the end of the holiday season and is usually when people take down trees and other decorations.
  • In Davos, Switzerland, the final match of the Spengler Cup ice hockey Tournament is usually held on this day by tradition.
  • In the United States, it is traditional to spend this occasion together with loved ones. A toast is made to the new year, with kisses, fireworks and parties among the customs. It is popular to make a New Year's resolution, although that is optional. In the country's most famous New Year celebration in New York City, the 11,875-pound (5,386-kg), 12-foot-diameter (3.7-m) Times Square Ball located high above One Times Square is lowered starting at 11:59 pm, with a countdown from sixty seconds until one second, when it reaches the bottom of its tower. The arrival of the new year is announced at the stroke of midnight with fireworks, music and a live celebration that is broadcast worldwide. (Hundreds of local imitations of the ball drop also occur throughout the United States.)
  • In France,[26] some regard the weather as the prediction of that year: wind blowing east, fruit will yield; wind blowing west, fish and livestock will be bumper; wind blowing south, there will be good weather all year round and wind blowing north, there will be crop failure. People would like to toast for the new year.
  • In Spain, it is customary to have 12 grapes at hand when the clock strikes 12 at midnight. One grape is eaten on each stroke. If all the grapes are eaten within the period of the strikes, it means good luck in the new year.[27]

New Year's Day

Stoatsdook1
The Annual Stoats Loony Dook held in Edinburgh, Scotland on the 1st January.

The celebrations and activities held worldwide on January 1 as part of New Year's Day commonly include the following:

Music

Music associated with New Year's Day comes in both classical and popular genres, and there is also Christmas song focus on the arrival of a new year during the Christmas and holiday season.

  • Johann Sebastian Bach, in the Orgelbüchlein, composed three chorale preludes for the new year: Helft mir Gotts Güte preisen ["Help me to praise God's goodness"] (BWV 613); Das alte Jahr vergangen ist ["The old year has passed"] (BWV 614); and In dir ist freude ["In you is joy"] (BWV 615).[30]
  • The year is gone, beyond recall is a traditional Christian hymn to give thanks for the new year, dating back to 1713.[31]
  • Auld Lang Syne by Robert Burns.[32]

The annual Vienna New Year's Concert, primarily featuring music composed by the Strauss family, is broadcast around the world.

New Year's babies

A common image used, often as an editorial cartoon, is that of an incarnation of Father Time (or the "Old Year") wearing a sash across his chest with the previous year printed on it passing on his duties to the Baby New Year (or the "New Year"), an infant wearing a sash with the new year printed on it.[33]

Babies born on New Year's Day are commonly called New Year babies. Hospitals, such as the Dyersburg Regional Medical Center[34] in the US, give out prizes to the first baby born in that hospital in the new year. These prizes are often donated by local businesses. Prizes may include various baby-related items such as baby formula, baby blankets, diapers, and gift certificates to stores which specialize in baby-related merchandise.

Other celebrations on January 1

The Anglican Church and the Lutheran Church celebrate the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ on January 1, based on the belief that if Jesus was born on December 25, then according to Hebrew tradition, his circumcision would have taken place on the eighth day of his life (January 1). The Roman Catholic Church celebrates on this day the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, which is also a Holy Day of Obligation. In the United States, New Year's Day is a postal holiday.[35]

Johann Sebastian Bach composed several church cantatas for the double occasion:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Mehra, Komal (2006). Festivals Of The World. Sterling Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 9781845575748. In many European countries like Italy, Portugal and Netherlands, families start the new year by attending church services and then calling on friends and relatives. Italian children receive gifts or money on New Year's Day. People in the United States go to church, give parties and enjoy other forms of entertainment.
  2. ^ McKim, Donald K. (1996). Dictionary of Theological Terms. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0664255114.
  3. ^ Hobart, John Henry (1840). A Companion for the festivals and fasts of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Stanford & Co. p. 284.
  4. ^ Brunner, Borgna. "A History of the New Year". Infoplease.com. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  5. ^ Andrews, Evan (December 31, 2012). "5 Ancient New Year's Celebrations". History News. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  6. ^ Forsythe, Gary (2012). Time in Roman Religion: One Thousand Years of Religious History. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-415-52217-5.
  7. ^ Michels, A.K. The Calendar of the Roman Republic (Princeton, 1967), p. 97-8.
  8. ^ Macrobius, Book I, Ch. xiii, §17.
  9. ^ Kaster (2011), p. 163.
  10. ^ Quoting the Vita of St. Eligius written by Ouen.
  11. ^ Forbes, Bruce David (October 1, 2008). Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780520258020. Some people referred to New Year's gifts as "Christmas presents" because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of Christmas, but in spite of the name they still were gifts given on January 1.
  12. ^ Collins, Ace (May 4, 2010). Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Harper Collins. p. 88. ISBN 9780310873884. Most people today trace the practice of giving gifts on Christmas Day to the three gifts that the Magi gave to Jesus.
  13. ^ Berking, Helmuth (March 30, 1999). Sociology of Giving. SAGE Publications. p. 14. ISBN 9780857026132. The winter solstice was a time of festivity in every traditional culture, and the Christian Christmas probably took its place within this mythical context of the solar cult. Its core dogma of the Incarnation, however, solidly established the giving and receiving of gifts as the structural principle of that recurrent yet unique event. 'Children were given presents as the Jesus child received gifts from the magi or kings who came from afar to adore him. But in reality it was they, together with all their fellow men, who received the gift of God through man's renewed participation in the divine life' (ibid.: 61).
  14. ^ Sim, Alison (November 8, 2011). Pleasures and Pastimes in Tudor England. The History Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780752475783. Most of the twelve days of Christmas were saint's days, but the main three days for celebration were Christmas Day, New Year's Day and Epiphany, or Twelfth Night.
  15. ^ Harris, Max (March 17, 2011). Sacred Folly: A New History of the Feast of Fools. Cornell University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780801449567. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  16. ^ Trawicky, Bernard (July 1, 2000). Anniversaries and Holidays (5th ed.). American Library Association. p. 222. ISBN 9780838906958. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  17. ^ Gregg, Cherri (May 13, 2013). "Oshunbumi Fernandez, Caring Through Culture and Odunde 365". CBS Philadelphia. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  18. ^ Helmer Aslaksen, "The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar"
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of Korean Seasonal Customs. The National Folk Museum of Korea (South Korea). 2014. pp. 30–46. ISBN 978-8992128926.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Nanakshahi Calendar at SGPC.net
  21. ^ a b c "What is 'Serbian New Year'?". Balkan Insight. January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  22. ^ Mintz, Josh (January 2, 2012). "The Hypocrisy of Turning New Year's Eve in Israel Into a Nonevent". Haaretz. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  23. ^ "Watch Night services provide spiritual way to bring in New Year". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved December 28, 2011. The service is loosely constructed with singing, spontaneous prayers and testimonials, and readings, including the Covenant Renewal service from The United Methodist Book of Worship (pp. 288–294).
  24. ^ Kochilas, Diane. The Glorious Foods of Greece. HarperCollins. p. 828. ISBN 9780061859588. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  25. ^ World Book (September 1, 1998). Christmas in the Philippines. World Book, Inc. p. 61. ISBN 9780716608530. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  26. ^ Yue Feng, ed. (1991). 世界节 [World Festival] (in Chinese). ISBN 978-7211058990.
  27. ^ Medina, F. Xavier (2005). Food Culture In Spain. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 9780313328190. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  28. ^ "History of America's State Parks First Day Hikes". California Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  29. ^ "Lucky Foods for the New Year - New Year's Day - Epicurious.com".
  30. ^ "Table of Contents: Orgelbüchlein". libweb.grinnell.edu.
  31. ^ "The Year Is Gone, Beyond Recall". www.hymntime.com.
  32. ^ "Scotland - In the words of the Bard -". Scotland.
  33. ^ Birx, H. James (January 13, 2009). Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. Sage Publications. p. 510. ISBN 9781412941648. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  34. ^ "DRMC rounds up prizes for New Year's baby, Life Choices". Dyersburg State Gazette. Stategazette.com. December 31, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  35. ^ "2011-federal-holidays".

Bibliography

External links

1992 New Year's Day Storm

The New Year's Day Storm (Norwegian: Nyttårsorkanen) was a powerful European windstorm that affected much of northern Scotland and western Norway on 1 January 1992. DNMI estimated the strongest sustained winds (10 min. average) and the strongest gusts to have reached 90 knots (46 m/s) and 62 m/s, respectively. Unofficial records of gusts in excess of 130 knots (67 m/s) were recorded in Shetland, while Statfjord-B in the North Sea recorded wind gusts in excess of 145 knots (75 m/s). There were very few fatalities, mainly due to the rather low population of the islands, and the fact that the islanders are used to powerful wind, and because it struck in the morning on a public holiday when people were indoors. In Norway there were one fatality, in Frei, Møre og Romsdal county. There were also two fatalities on Unst in the Shetland Isles.

Calendar year

Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days. A year can also be measured by starting on any other named day of the calendar, and ending on the day before this named day in the following year. This may be termed a "year's time", but not a "calendar year". To reconcile the calendar year with the astronomical cycle (which has a fractional number of days) certain years contain extra days ("leap days" or "intercalary days").

The Gregorian year, which is in use in most of the world, begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. It has a length of 365 days in an ordinary year, with 8,760 hours, 525,600 minutes, or 31,536,000 seconds; but 366 days in a leap year, with 8,784 hours, 527,040 minutes, or 31,622,400 seconds. With 97 leap years every 400 years, the year has an average length of 365.2425 days. Other formula-based calendars can have lengths which are further out of step with the solar cycle: for example, the Julian calendar has an average length of 365.25 days, and the Hebrew calendar has an average length of 365.2468 days. The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

The astronomer's mean tropical year, which is averaged over equinoxes and solstices, is currently 365.24219 days, slightly shorter than the average length of the year in most calendars, but the astronomer's value changes over time, so John Herschel's suggested correction to the Gregorian calendar may become unnecessary by the year 4000.

Fear Itself (TV series)

Fear Itself is a horror/suspense anthology television series shot in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, with some additional shooting in the city of St. Albert and the town of Devon, Alberta. It began airing on June 5, 2008 on NBC.The show aired Thursday nights at 10/9c. It was put on hiatus for the duration of the 2008 Summer Olympics, with the promise of a return once the event was over, but no further episodes were aired. While NBC failed to comment on the fate of the series once the Olympics ended, its time-slot was thereafter filled with re-runs of other NBC shows, and "Fear Itself" did not appear on the NBC Fall 2008 schedule.Its title is derived from the famous Franklin D. Roosevelt quote, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." The anthology was born out of Masters of Horror and shares several of the same creative elements. It features self-contained horror/thriller stories directed by the biggest horror directors working in features today, both shows were created by Mick Garris, and both shows are produced by Industry Entertainment's Andrew Deane, Adam Goldworm and Ben Browning. Stuart Gordon, Brad Anderson, John Landis and Rob Schmidt all directed at least one episode of each series. Guest stars included Eric Roberts, Anna Kendrick, Brandon Routh, Briana Evigan, Jesse Plemons, Elisabeth Moss, and Cory Monteith. The song in the opening credits is titled "Lie Lie Lie" by System of a Down frontman Serj Tankian, from his first solo album Elect the Dead.

On March 13, 2009, it was confirmed that the series had been canceled and would not be returning to NBC.

The complete series was released on DVD on September 15, 2009.

Hoppin' John

Hoppin' John, also known as Carolina peas and rice, is a peas and rice dish served in the Southern United States. It is made with black-eyed peas (or red cowpeas such as iron and clay peas in the Southeast US) and rice, chopped onion, and sliced bacon, seasoned with salt. In some recipes, instead of bacon, ham hock, fatback, country sausage, or smoked turkey parts are used. A few use green peppers or vinegar and spices. Smaller than black-eyed peas, field peas are used in the Low Country of South Carolina and Georgia; black-eyed peas are the norm elsewhere.

In the southern United States, eating Hoppin' John on New Year's Day is thought to bring a prosperous year filled with luck. The peas are symbolic of pennies or coins, and a coin is sometimes added to the pot or left under the dinner bowls. Collard greens, mustard greens, turnip greens, chard, kale, cabbage and similar leafy green vegetables served along with this dish are supposed to further add to the wealth, since they are the color of American currency. Another traditional food, cornbread, can also be served to represent wealth, being the color of gold. On the day after New Year's Day, leftover "Hoppin' John" is called "Skippin' Jenny" and further demonstrates one's frugality, bringing a hope for an even better chance of prosperity in the New Year.

London's New Year's Day Parade

The London New Year's Day Parade also known as "LNYDP" is an annual parade through the streets of the West End of London on 1 January. The parade first took place in 1987, as the Lord Mayor of Westminster's Big Parade. The parade was renamed in 1994 and for 2000 only it was called the Millennium Parade.

Lunar New Year

Lunar New Year is the beginning of a calendar year whose months are coordinated by the cycles of the moon. The relevant calendar may be a purely lunar calendar or a lunisolar calendar.

Nepal Sambat

Nepal Sambat (Nepalese: नेपाल सम्बत) is the lunar calendar used by the Nepalese speaking people native to the Indian subcontinent of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Nepalis of Indian nationality. The Calendar era began on 20 October 879 AD, with the year 2013-14 AD corresponding to 1134 in Nepal Sambat. Nepal Sambat appeared on coins, stone and copper plate inscriptions, royal decrees, chronicles, Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts, legal documents and correspondence. Today, it is used for ceremonial purposes and to determine the dates of religious festivals, birthdays and death anniversaries.

New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner and the 1st day of January is often marked as a national holiday.

In the Gregorian calendar, the most widely used calendar system today, New Year occurs on January 1 (New Year's Day). This was also the case both in the Roman calendar (at least after about 713 BC) and in the Julian calendar that succeeded it.

Other calendars have been used historically in different parts of the world; some calendars count years numerically, while others do not.

During the Middle Ages in western Europe, while the Julian calendar was still in use, authorities moved New Year's Day, depending upon locale, to one of several other days, including March 1, March 25, Easter, September 1, and December 25. Beginning in 1582, the adoptions of the Gregorian calendar and changes to the Old Style and New Style dates meant the various local dates for New Year's Day changed to using one fixed date, January 1.

The widespread official adoption of the Gregorian calendar and marking January 1 as the beginning of a new year is almost global now. Regional or local use of other calendars continues, along with the cultural and religious practices that accompany them. In Latin America, various native cultures continue the observation of traditions according to their own calendars. Israel, China, India, and other countries continue to celebrate New Year on different dates.

New Year's Day (Taylor Swift song)

"New Year's Day" is a song by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, recorded for her sixth studio album, Reputation (2017). The song was serviced to American country radio as the album's fourth single on November 27, 2017. Swift co-wrote and co-produced the track with Jack Antonoff.

New Year's Day (U2 song)

"New Year's Day" is a song by Irish rock band U2. It is the third track on their 1983 album War and was released as the album's lead single in January 1983. With lyrics written about the Polish Solidarity movement, "New Year's Day" is driven by Adam Clayton's distinctive bassline and the Edge's piano and guitar playing. It was the band's first UK hit single, peaking at number 10, and was also their first international hit, reaching for number 9 in Norway, number 11 on the Dutch Top 40, number 17 in Sweden, and number 53 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States.

In 2010, Rolling Stone magazine placed the single at number 435 on their list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". This song was also included in the Pitchfork 500.The UK cover features a photograph of Peter Rowen, who grew up near U2 lead vocalist Bono in Ireland.

New Year's Day (disambiguation)

New Year's Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

New Year's Day may also refer to:

New Year's Day (1989 film), a 1989 film starring David Duchovny

New Year's Day (2001 film), a 2001 comedy-drama film starring Andrew Lee Potts

"New Year's Day" (U2 song), 1983

"New Year's Day" (Bon Jovi song), 2016

"New Year's Day" (Taylor Swift song), 2017

New Years Day (band), a rock band from Anaheim, California

New Years Day (EP), the band's self-titled debut EP released in 2006

"New Year's Day" (Fear Itself), a 2008 episode of the NBC television series Fear Itself

New Year's Day (horse), a racehorse

New Year's Day Battle of 1968

The New Year's Day Battle of 1968 was a military engagement during the Vietnam War that began on the evening of 1 January 1968. It involved units assigned to the U.S. 25th Infantry Division and a regiment of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).

New Years Day (band)

New Years Day is an American rock band formed in Anaheim, California in 2005. After building a reputation strictly through promotion on the social networking website MySpace, the band released its debut self-titled EP in 2006 and their first full-length album My Dear in 2007. Six years after their initial debut, Victim to Villain was finally released, shortly followed by Malevolence in 2015. Malevolence peaked at No. 45 on the Billboard 200, the band's highest charting thus far.

Public holidays in Moldova

Public holidays in the Republic of Moldova are the celebrated non-working days established by the Government of the Republic of Moldova and valid for the whole territory of the country. Autonomous territorial units Gagauzia and Transnistria, as well cities, communes and cantonal authorities also establish local holidays, which are, however, not non-working days. There are 14 nationally celebrated holidays in the modern Moldova.

In the Republic of Moldova, most retail businesses close on New Year's and Independence Day, but remain open on all other holidays. Private businesses often observe only the big holidays (New Year's Day, Easter and Easter Monday, Victory Day (May 9), Independence Day, Labor Day, Limba Noastra, and Christmas).

Most holidays celebrated in the Republic of Moldova recognize events or people from History of Moldavia, although four are shared in common with many other countries: Christmas Day and New Year's Day, Victory Day (May 9) and Labour Day.

The holiday season in the winter traditionally ran between New Year's Day until Old new Year's Day. As of 2009, the holiday season now officially begins with Western Christmas on December 25, now a legal holiday in the Republic of Moldova. The holiday seasons gets underway much earlier with the official lighting of the Chisinau town Christmas tree at the end of November or very beginning of December when other than Christmas, some locals celebrate Winter solstice, Hanukkah, and Kwanzaa.

Summer holiday season traditionally (though unofficially) starts in May with celebrations of anniversary of most important localities (Bălţi - 21 May) and culminates in the end of August with the successive celebrations of Independence Day of the Republic of Moldova and Limba Noastra.

Resolution (Doctor Who)

"Resolution" is an episode of the British science fiction television programme Doctor Who. It was written by showrunner, head writer and executive producer Chris Chibnall, directed by Wayne Yip, and was first broadcast on BBC One on 1 January 2019. The special follows the eleventh series as a New Year's Day special episode, instead of the traditional annual Christmas special. "Resolution" is the only episode of Doctor Who to air in 2019, as the twelfth series is set to air in early 2020.

The episode stars Jodie Whittaker as the Thirteenth Doctor, alongside Bradley Walsh, Tosin Cole, and Mandip Gill as her companions, Graham O'Brien, Ryan Sinclair and Yasmin Khan, respectively. The episode also sees the return of the Daleks. The episode was watched by 7.13 million viewers.

Réveillon

In Belgium, France, Brazil, in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Manitoba, Ontario and New Brunswick, the city of New Orleans, and some other French-speaking places, a réveillon (French: [ʁevɛjɔ̃] (listen)) is a long dinner held on the evenings preceding Christmas Day and New Year's Day. The name of this dinner is based on the word réveil (meaning "waking"), because participation involves staying awake until midnight and beyond. In Portuguese-speaking countries, it is also a designation for the party preceding New Year's Day. In the United States, the réveillon tradition is still observed in New Orleans due to the city's strong French-Canadian heritage, with a number of the city's restaurants offering special réveillon menus on Christmas Eve.

The term is first documented in 18th century France, and was used by the French as a name for the night-long party dinners held by the nobility. Eventually the word began to be used by other courts (amongst them the Portuguese courts) and after the French Revolution it was adopted as a definition of the New Year's Eve.

Vienna New Year's Concert

The Vienna New Year's Concert (Neujahrskonzert der Wiener Philharmoniker) is an annual concert of classical music performed by the Vienna Philharmonic on the morning of New Year's Day in Vienna, Austria. The concert occurs at the Musikverein at 11:15. The orchestra performs the same concert programme on 30 December, 31 December, and 1 January but only the last concert is regularly broadcast on radio and television.

War (U2 album)

War is the third studio album by Irish rock band U2. It was produced by Steve Lillywhite, and was released on 28 February 1983 on Island Records. The album is regarded as U2's first overtly political album, in part because of songs like "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "New Year's Day", as well as the title, which stems from the band's perception of the world at the time; lead vocalist Bono stated that "war seemed to be the motif for 1982."U2 recorded the album from September–November 1982 at Windmill Lane Studios with Lillywhite producing, the group's third consecutive album made at the studio with the producer. While the central themes of U2's previous albums Boy and October were adolescence and spirituality, respectively, War focused on both the physical aspects of warfare, and the emotional after-effects. Musically, it is also harsher than the band's previous releases. The album has been described as the record where the band "turned pacifism itself into a crusade."War was a commercial success for the band, knocking Michael Jackson's Thriller from the top of the UK charts to become the band's first number-one album there. It reached number 12 in the United States and became the band's first gold-certified album there. While poorly received by British critics at the time of release, War has since gained critical acclaim. In 2012, the album was ranked number 223 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". The group supported the album with the War Tour through the end of 1983.

White Wells

White Wells is a spa bath situated on Ilkley Moor in West Yorkshire, England. It was built in c.1700 as an open air spa bath, later baths were enclosed and a single plunge pool survives today inside the White Wells Spa Cottage.

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