New Windsor is a town in Orange County, New York, United States. The Town of New Windsor is in the eastern part of the county, bordering the Town of Newburgh and the City of Newburgh. The population was estimated at 25,244 in 2010 by the US Census.
The National Purple Heart Hall of Honor is located on Route 300 in the Town of New Windsor.
New Windsor, New York
New Windsor, New York
Location within the state of New York
|• Total||37.06 sq mi (95.99 km2)|
|• Land||34.08 sq mi (88.26 km2)|
|• Water||2.99 sq mi (7.73 km2)|
|Elevation||512 ft (156 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||800.28/sq mi (308.99/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0979274|
The region was originally inhabited by the Munsee people, part of the Lenape confederation. The first European settlers were colonists from Scotland who arrived in 1685. The Town of New Windsor was created in 1763.
Settlement rights in the area that now encompasses the town were obtained from the Munsee by Governor Thomas Dongan, who encouraged the settlement of a party of Scottish colonists led by David Toshack, the Laird of Monzievaird, and his brother-in-law Major Patrick McGregorie. They arrived in 1685 and settled in the area overlooking the Hudson River near Moodna Creek. McGregorie is said to have built a cabin north of the creek on Conwanham's Hill at Plum Point, while Toshack set up a trading post south of the creek on Sloop Hill. In June 1685, Governor Dongan appointed McGregorie Muster-Master of Militia for the City and Province of New York.
A rival claim was obtained in 1694 by Captain John Evans of HMS Richmond, who was granted powers and privileges as lord of the manor. The next governor, the Earl of Bellomont, decided that this was unfair to the settlers, and had the Evans grant annulled in 1699. An additional patent of 1,000 acres was issued in 1709 to William Chambers and William Southerland. Around 1709, the portion of the town nearest the Hudson River was organized under the Precinct of the Highlands (Ulster County), remaining thus until 1743. In 1762, separate precincts were created for the Town of New Windsor and Newburgh.
The name of the town is from Windsor, England, with the New being prefixed. By whom this was conferred cannot be ascertained, but first appears in 1728 records of the London "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts". Among one of the earliest roads was the King's Highway, later known as "the Goshen Road", which ran north and south. Among the early residents of the town was William Ellison who kept as early as 1732 kept a store and owned sloops that sailed from New Windsor to New York. Captains James and William Jackson also owned their own sloops.
During much of the Revolutionary War, New Windsor served as the major depot for the Continental Army and Army Medical Dept. The majority of Town residents supported the war efforts and its leaders.
In October 1782, the troops began to arrive and set up tents, while they began building their huts. This encampment or cantonment covered 1600 acres (6.5 km2) and quartered 6000–8000 men, women and children from New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Here this army built a log city of over 700 huts for the soldiers and many other outbuildings, guardhouses, blacksmith shops, a stable, kitchens, and a hospital. In addition, a long building called the "Temple" was constructed. It was proposed by Rev. Israel Evans, Chaplain to the Army, that a structure be built for religious services. The building also served a general meeting hall. Upon its completion, the officers held a ball.
In order to reward the fidelity and faithfulness of soldiers, Gen. Washington ordered the establishment of an honor, the Badge of Merit, to be bestowed on them. Today, this honor is known as the Purple Heart.
In an effort to preserve this encampment, the Town of New Windsor acquired a 167-acre (0.68 km2) tract consisting of much of the former hut sites. Since 1936, the Town of New Windsor and the membership of the National Temple Hill Association have striven to ensure the preservation of this, the final winter encampment.
The Little Britain Presbyterian Church was organized by Irish and Scottish immigrants. The first church building was constructed in 1765 used by the Continentals as a hospital. This was subsequently destroyed by fire and a new structure was erected in 1807.
In 1814, the town was divided into nine school districts. The first school was a one-room schoolhouse built on Quassaick Avenue in 1841. Epiphany Apostolic College was founded in 1925. The site is now owned by the Newburgh Enlarged City School District.
Between about 1858 to 1859 the Palmer and Longking company operated on the Quassaick Creek the first large scale factory for the manufacture of "bellows-box" daguerreotype cameras. The factory, on the site of Sterrit's former pin factory, had approximately thirty-five employees. The building was later converted to a flour mill and subsequently burned down.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.0 square miles (95.9 km2). 34.8 square miles (90.1 km2) of it is land and 2 square miles (5.2 km2) (6.03%) is water.
The east town line, marked by the Hudson River, is the border of Dutchess County, New York. Part of the north town line borders the City of Newburgh. The remainder of the north town line is with the Town of Newburgh and the Town of Montgomery.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 22,866 people, 8,396 households, and 6,078 families residing in the town. The population density was 657.4 people per square mile (253.8/km2). There were 8,759 housing units at an average density of 97.2 persons/km² (251.8 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 84.72% White, 6.76% African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.17% from other races, and 2.30% from two or more races. 11.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 8,396 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 27.6% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the town, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $51,113, and the median income for a family was $58,292. Males had a median income of $34,283 versus $30,044 for females. The per capita income for the town was $22,806. 5.9% of the population and 1.03% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 52.8% are under the age of 18 and 7.5% are 65 or older.
New Windsor is served by the school systems of the three nearby districts: Cornwall, Newburgh, and Washingtonville. The majority of school-age children attend Newburgh schools, with a split in the subdivisions near Vails Gate (Butterhill, Forest Glen, The Reserve) between Newburgh and Cornwall. Far-southwestern New Windsor is served by Washingtonville.
Children in the New Windsor area attend a number of schools, including: Butterhill Day School (PK–K), Children S Country School (private, PK–4), Cornwall Central High School (public, 9–12), Newburgh Free Academy (public, 9-12), Heritage Junior High School (public, 6–8), Little Britain Elementary School (public, K–5), Little Harvard School (private, PK–K), McQuade Children's Services Kaplan Campus School (private, 2–11), New Windsor School (public, K–5), St. Joseph School (private, K–8), Temple Hill School (public, K–8), Vails Gate High Technology Magnet School (public, K–5), Windsor Academy (private, PK–3), Willow Avenue Elementary School (public, K–4), Lee Road (public, K–4), Cornwall Central Middle School (public, 5–8) and Woodland Montessori School (private, PK–8). Yeshiva Ohr Naftoli (private, 9–12 and undergraduate) is located in town, but the student body is from out of town, housed in a dormitory.
Little Britain Road is one of the oldest in the Town.
Stewart International Airport is located partially in New Windsor and partially in the Town of Newburgh. Formerly Stewart Air Force Base, the airport is named after Capt. Lachlan Stewart, who skippered schooners and other sailing vessels about 1850–1870. Stewart was also a lumber merchant and later retired to a dairy farm. In 1930, his grandson, Thomas Archibald ("Archie") Stewart, persuaded his uncle, Samuel L. Stewart, to donate land at "Stoney Lonesome", to the city of Newburgh for an airport.
Stewart continued as part of the Strategic Air Command until the late 1960s or early 1970s when the Air Force turned the base over to the MTA for use as a cargo facility. The grand plan to create a jetport lead to the acquisition of over 8000 acres (32 km2) of the present day buffer zone and the loss of many early farms and structures. During the late 1980s, through the efforts of the late State Senator Schermerhorn, the airport passed into the hands of the NY State Dept. of Transportation. Today, Stewart International in addition to its civilian capability, is the home base of the NY Air National Guard and United States Marine Corps Reserve MAG-49 Detachment Bravo.
There is a new entrance to Stewart International Airport, via New York State Route 747. Now for the first time, the airport can be accessed directly from the Interstates without encountering local traffic on the state roads.
Augustus van Horne Ellis (May 1, 1827 – July 2, 1863) was an American lawyer, sea captain, and soldier. He was a brevet brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War, and was killed in action at the Battle of Gettysburg.Charles Humphrey
Charles Humphrey (February 14, 1792 – April 17, 1850), was an American lawyer and politician who served as United States Representative from New York.DeWitt Clinton
DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769 – February 11, 1828) was an American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator, Mayor of New York City and sixth Governor of New York. In this last capacity, he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton was a major candidate for the American presidency in the election of 1812, challenging incumbent James Madison.
A nephew of long-time New York Governor George Clinton, DeWitt Clinton served as his uncle's secretary before launching his own political career. As a Democratic-Republican, Clinton won election to the New York State Legislature in 1798 before briefly serving as a U.S. Senator. Returning to New York, Clinton served three terms as Mayor of New York City and also won election as the Lieutenant Governor of New York. In the 1812 election, Clinton won support from the Federalists as well as a group of Democratic-Republicans dissatisfied with Madison. Though Madison won re-election, Clinton carried most of the Northeastern United States and fared significantly better than the previous two Federalist-supported candidates. After the presidential election, Clinton continued to affiliate with the Democratic-Republican Party.
Clinton served as Governor of New York from 1817 to 1822 and from 1825 to 1828, presiding over the construction of the Erie Canal. Clinton believed that infrastructure improvements could transform American life, drive economic growth, and encourage political participation. He heavily influenced the development of New York State and the United States.FedEx Flight 1406
FedEx Flight 1406 was an American domestic cargo flight from Memphis International Airport, Memphis, Tennessee, to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, that suffered an in-flight cargo fire over New York on September 5, 1996. The three crew members and two passengers on board successfully evacuated after an emergency landing at Stewart International Airport in New Windsor, New York. After the evacuation, the DC-10 was consumed by fire. After an extensive investigation, the National Transportation Safety Board was unable to determine what caused the fire. Nevertheless, the Federal Aviation Administration made recommendations to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.George Clinton Jr.
George Clinton (June 6, 1771 – September 16, 1809) was a Representative from New York and served in the Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Congresses.James Clinton
Major-General James Clinton (August 9, 1736 – September 22, 1812) was an American Revolutionary War officer who, with John Sullivan, led the Sullivan Expedition. He obtained the rank of brevet major general.James G. Clinton
James Graham Clinton (January 2, 1804 – May 28, 1849) was an American lawyer and politician. He was a U.S. Representative from New York.Knox's Headquarters State Historic Site
Knox's Headquarters State Historic Site, in the town of New Windsor in Orange County, New York, consists of the Georgian house of the Ellison family, built in 1755 by Immigrant William Bull of Hamptonburg, NY, and the grounds around it. It is located on Old Forge Hill Road, just south of Route 94 east of Vails Gate.
Although most closely associated with Henry Knox, who was using it as his headquarters as the Revolutionary War drew to a close in the early 1780s, it was used as a general's headquarters throughout most of the war, by Nathanael Greene and Horatio Gates.
The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. While owned by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation the Ellison House is administered and operated by the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, like many other state parks and historic sites in the mid- and lower Hudson region.
Today, the house can be toured when the site is open. It is used to educate visitors about how 18th-century families such as the Ellisons actually lived. On holidays and special occasions staff dress in reproduction period clothing and give special events. Staff dressed as the 2nd Continental Artillery frequently demonstrate cannon use on the grounds during special events, as Knox was best known for his command of Continental artillery.
The house and its grounds were the setting and subject of the children's haunted-house novel Buried Treasure (1919), by the best-selling children's author Henry Everett McNeil. The book is illustrated with McNeil's own photographs (made circa 1911 or 1912) of the various buildings and bridge at the Knox site.
The Jane Colden Plant Sanctuary along some of the trails in the nearby woods memorializes America's first female botanist, who also resided in the area.Little Britain, New York
Little Britain, New York, is an area in the town of New Windsor, Orange County. The name spread to the surrounding region, which at that time was part of Ulster County, New York.Matt Herr
Matthew Gregory Herr (born May 26, 1976) is an American retired ice hockey forward who played for part of four National Hockey League (NHL) seasons.New Windsor (CDP), New York
New Windsor is a census-designated place (CDP) in the town of New Windsor in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 8,922 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area.New Windsor Cantonment State Historic Site
The New Windsor Cantonment State Historic Site, also known as New Windsor Cantonment, is located along NY 300, north one mile of Vails Gate, in the Town of New Windsor, Orange County, New York. The site features a reconstruction of the Continental Army's final military encampment.Newburgh Bay
Newburgh Bay is a feature of the Hudson River's west bank, located approximately 60 miles (105 km) north of New York City. It takes its name from the city of Newburgh, New York, for many years the major port on this section of the river. Towns on the bay are Newburgh (town), New York; New Windsor, New York and Cornwall, New York, all in Orange County. The Roseton and Danskammer power plants are located at the north end of the bay, in the town of Newburgh.
The bay is not a protected inlet, but rather a widening of the river with a maximum depth of 80 feet (24 M). It begins roughly at the Hudson Highlands near the village of Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, and extends some 10 miles north to Danskammer Point. Between the city of Newburgh, Orange County on the west bank and Beacon, Dutchess County on the east, the river is almost 2 miles (3.2 km) in width
While not as wide as Haverstraw Bay to the south, the bay makes the river wide enough that it was the last section of the Hudson to be bridged. The Newburgh-Beacon Bridge opened in November 1963. The recently restored Newburgh-Beacon Ferry makes passenger-only trips between the two cities during commuting hours in the morning and evening for riders on the Metro North Hudson Line's Beacon station.St. Thomas Episcopal Church (New Windsor, New York)
St. Thomas Episcopal Church is located on River Road in New Windsor, New York, a short distance off US 9W. It is part of the Episcopal Diocese of New York. The small stone building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.Stewart Air National Guard Base
Stewart Air National Guard Base, located in Orange County, New York, is the base of the 105th Airlift Wing (105 AW), an Air Mobility Command (AMC)-gained unit of the New York Air National Guard and "host" wing for the installation. The former Stewart Air Force Base is also known as Newburgh-Stewart IAP and Stewart International Airport, while the military portion of this now-joint civil-military airport is known as Stewart Air National Guard Base (Stewart ANGB). The base is named in honor of 19th-century Scottish-born sea captain, Lachlan Stewart, and his son, who donated the land it now occupies.Tony DeVito
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Vails Gate is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 3,369 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area.
Vails Gate is in the south part of the Town of New Windsor, located on Route 32. It is defined largely by the junction of that highway with Routes 94 and 300, a busy commercial center which has the ZIP code 12584. Part of that also spills into adjacent regions of the Town of Cornwall to the south.WGNY-FM
WGNY-FM (98.9 FM) is a radio station broadcasting an oldies format. Licensed to Rosendale, New York, United States, the station serves the Poughkeepsie and Kingston areas. The station, which signed on in February 2011, is owned by Hawkeye Communications and operated by Sunrise Broadcasting Corporation, and features programming from ABC Radio. It also broadcasts in HD, and carries Dance "Drive FX" on its HD-2 channel. Its studios are in New Windsor, New York and its transmitter is in Esopus, New York.William J. Larkin Jr.
William J. Larkin Jr. (February 5, 1928 – August 31, 2019) was an American politician from the Republican Party. He sat in the New York State Legislature for 40 years, representing various districts in the Hudson Valley. Larkin was a member of the State Assembly between 1979 and 1990, representing first the 97th and then the 95th Districts. He then sat in the State Senate from 1991 until his retirement in 2018, representing the 39th District. Before his career in state politics, Larkin had previously served as New Windsor town supervisor.
Municipalities and communities of Orange County, New York, United States
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Hudson River watershed