The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd, Mead and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia (1884) and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926.
The New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia (1884). Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, which was a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia. The title was changed to New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, and Frank Moore Colby.
The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907 (corrected and expanded to 20 volumes), 1909 and 1911. The 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by a new editor, Talcott Williams. This edition was set up from new type and thoroughly revised. It was very strong in biography.
A third edition was published in 1923, however this was mostly a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in Vol. 24, which had previously been a reading and study guide. A two volume supplement was published in 1925, and this was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 vols. A further 2 vol. supplement in 1930 along with another reprint.
The final edition was published in 1935, now under the Funk and Wagnall's label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade. Some material from the New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopaedia.
The 1926 material was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing twenty-three volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23. Each book contains about 1600 pages.
Like other encyclopedias of the time, New International had a yearly supplement, the New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931. It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, and then by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor. The yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966.
More than 500 men, and some women, submitted and composed the information contained in the New International Encyclopedia.
Editors of the First Edition
Editors of the Second Edition
|vol||Edition||Internet Archive||Wikisource (incomplete)||Year||From||–||To||Notes|
|1||1st||IA 1||WS 1||1905||A||–||Aristogoras|
|2||1st||IA 2||WS 2||1905||Aristarchus||–||Bessières|
|3||1st||IA 3||WS 3||1905||Bessus||–||Cairns|
|4||1st||IA 4||WS 4||1905||Cairo||–||Classification of Ships|
|5||1st||IA 5||WS 5||1905||Classis||–||Da Vinci|
|6||1st||IA 6||WS 6||1905||Davioud||–||Ellery|
|7||1st||IA 7||WS 7||1905||Ellesmere||–||Fontanel|
|8||1st||Not available||WS 8||1903||Fontanes||–||Goethe||Alternatives|
1903 edition, from the Ontario Council of University Libraries digitized in 2009, in the Internet Archive:
|9||1st||IA 9||WS 9||1905||Goethite||–||Heritable Jurisdictions|
|10||1st||IA 10||WS 10||1905||Herjulfson||–||Ishpeming|
|11||1st||IA 11||WS 11||1905||Ishtar||–||Latitudinarians|
|12||1st||IA 12||WS 12||1905||Latium||–||Manna|
|13||1st||IA 13||WS 13||1905||Manna-Croup||–||Morganitic Marriage|
|14||1st||IA 14||WS 14||1905||Morgan City||–||Omul|
|15||1st||IA 15||WS 15||1905||Ona||–||Pickering||The Internet Archive edition is missing pp. 6-7, but see the 1906 volume for the first edition at Google Books, which appears to be about the same thing, and does have these pages.|
|16||1st||IA 16||WS 16||1905||Pickersgill||–||Reid|
|17||1st||IA 17||WS 17||1905||Reifferscheid||–||Servian Wall|
|18||1st||IA 18||WS 18||1905||Service-berry||–||Tagus|
|19||1st||IA 19||WS 19||1905||Taharka||–||Vampire|
|20||1st||IA 20||WS 20||1905||Van||–||Zyrians|
|Volume 10||2nd||1928||||Glacial||–||Havre de Grace|
In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet ( (listen) or (listen)) was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted (for example, "he was brevetted major general"). The promotion would be noted in the officer's title (for example, "Bvt. Maj. Gen. Joshua L. Chamberlain" or "Bvt. Col. Arthur MacArthur").
It is not to be confused with a brevet in Francophone European military circles, where it is an award, nor should it be confused with temporary commissions.Béchamel sauce
Béchamel sauce (; French: [beʃamɛl]), also known as white sauce, is made from a white roux (butter and flour) and milk. It has been considered, since the seventeenth century, one of the mother sauces of French cuisine. It is used as the base for other sauces (such as Mornay sauce, which is Béchamel with cheese).College Board
College Board is an American non-profit organization that was formed in December 1899 as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) to expand access to higher education. While College Board is not an association of colleges, it runs a membership association of institutions, including over 6,000 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. College Board develops and administers standardized tests and curricula used by K–12 and post-secondary education institutions to promote college-readiness and as part of the college admissions process. College Board is headquartered in New York City. David Coleman has been the president of College Board since October 2012. He replaced Gaston Caperton, former Governor of West Virginia, who had held this position since 1999.In addition to managing assessments for which it charges fees, College Board provides resources, tools, and services to students, parents, colleges and universities in the areas of college planning, recruitment and admissions, financial aid, and retention. It is partly funded by grants from various foundations, such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation until 2009.Drupe
In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside. These fruits usually develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries (polypyrenous drupes are exceptions). The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, "lignified" stone (or pit) is derived from the ovary wall of the flower—in an aggregate fruit composed of small, individual drupes (such as a raspberry), each individual is termed a drupelet and may together form a botanic berry.
Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed, but such fruits are not drupes.
Some flowering plants that produce drupes are: coffee, jujube, mango, olive, most palms (including açaí, date, sabal, coconut and oil palms), pistachio, white sapote, cashew, and all members of the genus Prunus, including the almond (in which the mesocarp is somewhat leathery), apricot, cherry, damson, nectarine, peach, and plum.
The term drupaceous is applied to a fruit which has the structure and texture of a drupe, but which does not precisely fit the definition of a drupe.Exposition Universelle (1855)
The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855. Its full official title was the Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855. Today the exposition's sole physical remnant is the Théâtre du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées designed by architect Gabriel Davioud, which originally housed the Panorama National.Forage
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage. The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.Gneiss
Gneiss () is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is formed by high temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Orthogneiss is gneiss derived from igneous rock (such as granite). Paragneiss is gneiss derived from sedimentary rock (such as sandstone). Gneiss forms at higher temperatures and pressures than schist. Gneiss nearly all the time shows a banded texture characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands and without a distinct foliation.Humerus
The humerus (, plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The humeral upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes (trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons.James Grant Wilson
James Grant Wilson (April 28, 1832 – February 1, 1914) was an American editor, author, bookseller and publisher, who founded the Chicago Record in 1857, the first literary paper in that region. During the American Civil War, he served as a colonel in the Union Army. In recognition of his service, in 1867, he was nominated and confirmed for appointment as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865. He settled in New York, where he edited biographies and histories, was a public speaker, and served as president of the Society of American Authors and the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.John Fiske (philosopher)
John Fiske (March 30, 1842 – July 4, 1901) was an American philosopher and historian.Legislation
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it. Before an item of legislation becomes law it may be known as a bill, and may be broadly referred to as "legislation", while it remains under consideration to distinguish it from other business. Legislation can have many purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to outlaw, to provide (funds), to sanction, to grant, to declare or to restrict. It may be contrasted with a non-legislative act which is adopted by an executive or administrative body under the authority of a legislative act or for implementing a legislative act.Under the Westminster system, an item of primary legislation is known as an Act of Parliament after enactment.
Legislation is usually proposed by a member of the legislature (e.g. a member of Congress or Parliament), or by the executive, whereupon it is debated by members of the legislature and is often amended before passage. Most large legislatures enact only a small fraction of the bills proposed in a given session. Whether a given bill will be proposed and is generally a matter of the legislative priorities of government.
Legislation is regarded as one of the three main functions of government, which are often distinguished under the doctrine of the separation of powers. Those who have the formal power to create legislation are known as legislators; a judicial branch of government will have the formal power to interpret legislation (see statutory interpretation); the executive branch of government can act only within the powers and limits set by the law.Legislature
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process.
The members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.
Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.
The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors.New Ireland (island)
New Ireland (Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) or Latangai, is a large island in Papua New Guinea, approximately 7,404 km2 (2,859 sq mi) in area with ca. 120,000 people. It is the largest island of New Ireland Province, lying northeast of the island of New Britain. Both islands are part of the Bismarck Archipelago, named after Otto von Bismarck, and they are separated by Saint George's Channel. The administrative centre of the island and of New Ireland province is the town of Kavieng located at the northern end of the island. While the island was part of German New Guinea, it was named Neumecklenburg ("New Mecklenburg").Piedmont (United States)
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the Eastern United States. It sits between the Atlantic coastal plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south. The Piedmont Province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division which consists of the Gettysburg-Newark Lowlands, the Piedmont Upland and the Piedmont Lowlands sections.The Atlantic Seaboard fall line marks the Piedmont's eastern boundary with the Coastal Plain. To the west, it is mostly bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains, the easternmost range of the main Appalachians. The width of the Piedmont varies, being quite narrow above the Delaware River but nearly 300 miles (475 km) wide in North Carolina. The Piedmont's area is approximately 80,000 square miles (210,000 km2).The name "Piedmont" comes from the French term for the same physical region, literally meaning "foothill", ultimately from Latin "pedemontium", meaning "at the foot of the mountains", similar to the name of the Italian region of Piedmont (Piemonte), abutting the Alps.Quail
Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes.
Old World quail are placed in the family Phasianidae, and New World quail are placed in the family Odontophoridae. The species of buttonquail are named for their superficial resemblance to quail, and form the family Turnicidae in the order Charadriiformes. The king quail, an Old World quail, often is sold in the pet trade, and within this trade is commonly, though mistakenly, referred to as a "button quail". Many of the common larger species are farm-raised for table food or egg consumption, and are hunted on game farms or in the wild, where they may be released to supplement the wild population, or extend into areas outside their natural range. In 2007, 40 million quail were produced in the U.S.The collective noun for a group of quail is a flock, covey, queer, or bevy.Quality (philosophy)
In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object. In contemporary philosophy the idea of qualities, and especially how to distinguish certain kinds of qualities from one another, remains controversial.Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell
Theodore Dru Alison Cockerell (1866–1948) was an American zoologist, born at Norwood, England, and brother of Sydney Cockerell. He was educated at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, and then studied botany in the field in Colorado in 1887–90. Subsequently, he became a taxonomist and published numerous papers on the Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Mollusca, as well as publications on paleontology and evolution.Théodore Géricault
Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (French: [ʒɑ̃ lwi ɑ̃dʁe teodoʁ ʒeʁiko]; 26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was an influential French painter and lithographer, whose best-known painting is The Raft of the Medusa. Although he died young, he was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement.