New German Cinema (German: Neuer Deutscher Film) is a period in German cinema which lasted from the late 1960s into the 1980s. It saw the emergence of a new generation of directors. Working with low budgets, and influenced by the French New Wave, such directors as Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Alexander Kluge, Harun Farocki, Volker Schlöndorff, Helma Sanders-Brahms, Werner Schroeter, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, Margarethe von Trotta and Wim Wenders made names for themselves and produced a number of "small" motion pictures that caught the attention of art house audiences, and enabled these directors (particularly Wenders and Schlöndorff) to create better-financed productions which were backed by the big US studios. However, most of the films were commercial failures and, by 1977, 80% of a budget for a typical German film was ensured by a subsidy.
Most of the directors of the New German Cinema movement were members of their self-owned Filmverlag der Autoren association founded in 1971, which funded and distributed most of their films, and the history of New German Cinema from the 1970s onwards was largely identical with it.
|New German Cinema|
|Major figures||Harun Farocki, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Alexander Kluge, Ulli Lommel, Helma Sanders-Brahms, Peter Schamoni, Volker Schlöndorff, Straub-Huillet, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, Margarethe von Trotta, Werner Schroeter, Wim Wenders, Edgar Reitz|
As a reaction to the artistic and economic stagnation of German cinema, a group of young filmmakers issued the Oberhausen Manifesto on 28 February 1962. This call to arms, which included Alexander Kluge, Edgar Reitz, Peter Schamoni, Haro Senft and Franz-Josef Spieker among its signatories, provocatively declared "Der alte Film ist tot. Wir glauben an den neuen" ("The old cinema is dead. We believe in the new cinema"). Other younger filmmakers allied themselves to this Oberhausen group, among them Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Jean-Marie Straub, Wim Wenders, Hans-Jürgen Syberberg and Rainer Werner Fassbinder in their rejection of the existing German film industry and their determination to build a new industry founded on artistic excellence rather than commercial dictates.
Despite the foundation of the Kuratorium Junger Deutscher Film (Young German Film Committee) in 1965, set up under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to support new German films financially, the directors of this New German Cinema, who rejected co-operation with the existing film industry, were consequently often dependent on money from television. Young filmmakers had the opportunity to test their mettle in such programmes as the stand-alone drama and documentary series Das kleine Fernsehspiel|de (The Little TV Play) or the television films of the crime series Tatort. However, the broadcasters sought TV premieres for the films which they had supported financially, with theatrical showings only occurring later. As a consequence, such films tended to be unsuccessful at the cinema box-office.
This situation changed after 1974 when the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen (Film and Television Accord) was agreed between the Federal Republic's main broadcasters, ARD and ZDF, and the German Federal Film Board (a government body created in 1968 to support film-making in Germany). This accord, which has been repeatedly extended up to the present day, provides for the television companies to make available an annual sum to support the production of films which are suitable for both theatrical distribution and television presentation. (The amount of money provided by the public broadcasters has varied between €4.5 and 12.94 million per year). Under the terms of the accord, films produced using these funds can only be screened on television 24 months after their theatrical release. They may appear on video or DVD no sooner than six months after cinema release. As a result of the funds provided by the Film-Fernseh-Abkommen, German films, particularly those of the New German Cinema, gained a much greater opportunity to enjoy box-office success before they played on television.
The artistically ambitious and socially critical films of the New German Cinema strove to delineate themselves from what had gone before and the works of auteur filmmakers such as Kluge and Fassbinder are examples of this, although Fassbinder in his use of stars from German cinema history also sought a reconciliation between the new cinema and the old. In addition, a distinction is sometimes drawn between the avantgarde "Young German Cinema" of the 1960s and the more accessible "New German Cinema" of the 1970s. For their influences the new generation of filmmakers looked to Italian Neorealism, the French Nouvelle Vague and the British New Wave but combined this eclectically with references to the well-established genres of Hollywood cinema. The new movement saw German cinema return to international critical significance for the first time since the end of the Weimar Republic. Films such as Kluge's Abschied von gestern (Yesterday Girl, 1966), Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), Fassbinder's Fear Eats the Soul (1974) and The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979), and Wenders' Paris, Texas (1984) found international acclaim and critical approval. Often the work of these auteurs was first recognised abroad rather than in Germany itself. The work of post-war Germany's leading novelists Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass provided source material for the adaptations The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum (1975) (by Schlöndorff and Margarethe von Trotta) and The Tin Drum (1979) (by Schlöndorff alone) respectively, the latter becoming the first German film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Although overlooked in early scholarship on New German Cinema, female directors were an important part of it, which encompassed the works of directors such as Danièle Huillet, Helma Sanders-Brahms, Helke Sander, and von Trotta.
Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus (born July 27, 1936) is a German film editor who was a member of the New German Cinema movement and is noted particularly for her many films with director Werner Herzog. Between 1966 and 1986, she was credited on more than twenty-five feature films and feature-length documentaries.Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus is the daughter of Hildegard (née Farbowski) and George Mainka, a bank official. She was born in the village of Vogt, near Oppeln, which was then a part of Germany. At the end of the Second World War she and her parents left Oppeln, which became part of Poland; they relocated to Ansbach. She was musically inclined, and her secondary school education from 1946 to 1951 included ballet instruction and acting; following her graduation in 1951, she attended a private film school in Wiesbaden to train as a film editor.After schooling, Mainka worked for five months in a copy center, and became involved as an editorial assistant in the production of short documentary films by Harry Piel. In 1955, Mainka moved to Munich, where she worked at Bavaria Film as an assistant film editor, working with editor Anna Höllering on several feature films directed by Rolf Hansen. Her first credit as an editor was for the television production Ein gewisser Judas (A Certain Judas) (1958), which was the only film directed by Oskar Werner (under the pseudonym "Erasmus Nothnagel").
In 1959 she became acquainted with director Edgar Reitz, with whom she worked on short documentaries through about 1966. Reitz introduced her to the director Alexander Kluge; Reitz, Kluge, and Mainka became early exponents of the New German Cinema. Mainka's long collaboration with Kluge began with Die Patriotin (The Patriotic Woman) (1964), and extended through 1986 including the films Yesterday Girl (1966) and Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968).
In 1967 and 1968 Mainka-Jellinghaus taught film editing at the Ulm School of Design, where she was a member of the Institut für Filmgestaltung (Institute for Film Design) founded by Edgar Reitz and Alexander Kluge. Starting with the 1968 film, Signs of Life, Mainka-Jellinghaus worked with director Werner Herzog on twenty films, including several of Herzog's best-known films such as Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972) and Fitzcarraldo (1982). Her last film with Herzog was Where the Green Ants Dream (1984).
Following her final film with Kluge, Miscellaneous News (1986), she retired into private life; the New German Cinema era was over.
Mainka-Jellinghaus is among the editors interviewed for the 2006 documentary Schnitte in Raum und Zeit (Cutting in Space and Time), which was produced by Gabriele Voss.Berlin School (filmmaking)
Berlin School is a term used for a new movement in German films that has emerged in the early 21st century. The German term Berliner Schule has been applied to a number of intimate German films that received critical acknowledgement, first in France.
A circle of directors of penetrating, realistic studies of relationships and characters informally constitutes the Berlin School. Among these directors are Christian Petzold, Christoph Hochhäusler and Angela Schanelec.Cinema of Germany
The film industry in Germany can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema made major technical and artistic contributions to early film, broadcasting and television technology. Babelsberg became a household synonym for the early 20th century film industry in Europe, similar to Hollywood later.
Germany witnessed major changes to its identity during the 20th and 21st century. Those changes determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements.Dietrich Lohmann
Dietrich Lohmann, B.V.K. (German Society of Cinematographers) (9 March 1943 – 13 November 1997) was a German cinematographer.
He was born in Schnepfenthal, Waltershausen, Thuringia, Germany. He studied at the Staatliche Fachschule für Optik und Fototechnik in Berlin. After graduating he entered Olympia-Film in Munich and worked with Thomas Mauch, and he became a key cinematographer of New German Cinema. He is prominent for his collaboration with director Rainer Werner Fassbinder.
He went to the US in 1988, and photographed Hollywood films such as The Innocent, Color of Night, A Couch in New York, The Peacemaker and Deep Impact.
He won at the German Film Awards in 1970, and at the American Society of Cinematographers Awards in 1989.On November 13, 1997, Lohmann died from leukemia, aged 54.The film Deep Impact was dedicated to Lohmann's memory.Filmfest München
Munich International Film festival (German: Filmfest München) is the largest summer film festival in Germany and second only in size and importance to the Berlinale. It has been held annually since 1983 and takes place in late June. It presents feature films and feature-length documentaries. The festival is also proud of the role it plays in discovering talented and innovative young filmmakers. With the exception of retrospectives, tributes and homages, all of the films screened are German premieres and many are European and world premieres.
There are a dozen competitions with prizes worth over €150,000 which are donated by the festival's major sponsors and partners.
With over 200 feature films and feature-length documentaries on more than 18 screens, Filmfest München attracts approximately 80 000 movie lovers each year. It accredits more than 600 members of the international press and media as well as over 2500 film industry professionals. It has always been a popular meeting place for industry insiders throughout Germany and Europe.
The festival center is located at Munich's cultural center Gasteig, where screenings, panels, ceremonies and discussions take place and the festival offices are located. There are several participating movie theaters in the downtown area.
The director of Filmfest München is Diana Iljine, who took over in August 2011. Former directors are Andreas Ströhl (2004-2011) and Eberhard Hauff, who ran the festival from its outset.
The festival is hosted by Internationale Münchner Filmwochen GmbH, whose shareholders are the City of Munich, the Free State of Bavaria (represented by State Minister of Finance Markus Söder), the Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian Broadcasting, represented by director Ulrich Wilhelm) and the SPIO (the German film industry association represented by Thomas Negele. The IMF also hosts the annual International Festival of Film Schools (German: Internationales Festival der Filmhochschulen München)/Filmschoolfest in November.Filmverlag der Autoren
Filmverlag der Autoren is a German film distributor that was founded in 1971 to help finance and distribute independent films by German Autorenfilm directors, that is directors who are renowned for predominantly adapting their own screenplays. Many directors of the New German Cinema movement were associated with it such as Werner Herzog, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wim Wenders, Percy Adlon, and Alexander Kluge; whose films were produced and distributed by the Filmverlag and many of whom were members of the Filmverlag's board.Hanna Schygulla
Hanna Schygulla (born 25 December 1943) is a German actress and chanson singer. Long associated with the theater and film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder, for whom she first worked in 1965, she is generally considered the most prominent German actress of the New German Cinema. She won the 1979 Berlin Silver Bear for Best Actress for Fassbinder's The Marriage of Maria Braun, and the 1983 Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress for the Marco Ferreri film The Story of Piera.Herbert Achternbusch
Herbert Achternbusch (born 23 November 1938 in Munich) is a German writer, painter and filmmaker. His anarchist surrealistic films are not known to a wide audience in Germany, although one of them, Das Gespenst (The Ghost), caused a scandal in 1983 because of its
alleged blasphemous content. Werner Herzog, a director of the New German Cinema, based his film Heart of Glass on a story by Achternbusch.
In 1981, he directed the film Der Neger Erwin, which was entered into the 31st Berlin International Film Festival. The following year, he directed The Ghost, which was entered into the 33rd Berlin International Film Festival. In 1988, his film Wohin? was entered into the 38th Berlin International Film Festival. In 1995, his film Hades was entered into the 45th Berlin International Film Festival.Herbert Achternbusch was awarded the German international literary Petrarca-Preis in 1977, but he declined. In 2010, he was awarded the Kassel Literary Prize. He won the Mülheimer Dramatikerpreis in 1986 and 1994.Jeanine Meerapfel
Jeanine Meerapfel (born 14 June 1943) is a German-Argentine film director and screenwriter. She has directed 17 films since 1966. In 1984, she was a member of the jury at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival.She was born in 1943 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and moved to Ulm, Germany in 1964 to study at the Institute for Film at the Academy of Art and Design. In 1981, her debut feature film Malou was an autobiographical story of a woman's life in Germany, France and Argentina. The film won the FIPRESCI prize at the Cannes Film Festival, as well as awards at the San Sebastián International Film Festival. Critics noted that Malou's style was distinct from other autobiographical feminist films in New German Cinema. Her 1987 film Days to Remember was entered into the 37th Berlin International Film Festival.List of German submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
Germany has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since the creation of the award in 1956. The award is handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains primarily non-English dialogue.Each year, the Academy invites countries to submit their best films for competition according to strict rules, with only one film being accepted from each country. However, because of Germany's status as a divided country throughout much of the second half of the 20th century, West Germany and East Germany competed separately in the Best Foreign Language Film category until 1990. With eight nominations and one win, West Germany was far more successful than East Germany, whose only nomination was received in 1976 for Jacob the Liar, a film which the Moscow International Film Festival had refused to screen. West Germany received four consecutive nominations during the first years of the award's existence. It fared less well in the 1960s, as all of its submissions failed to garner a nomination. The advent of New German Cinema led to an improvement of German cinema's reputation abroad. As a result of this, West Germany received several nominations during the 1970s, culminating with The Tin Drum's victory in 1979.West Germany and East Germany were formally reunited on 3 October 1990. The 63rd Academy Awards, held on 25 March 1991, were thus the first at which Germany was able to participate as a single country. Reunified Germany has been successful in the Best Foreign Language Film category, securing two wins and eight nominations in less than two decades. The two German films that received the award since reunification are The Lives of Others (2006) by Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck and Nowhere in Africa (2001) by Caroline Link. Both are the only two German directors to have had more than one film nominated for the award. Several other German films have received Academy Awards in categories other than Best Foreign Language Film.Marianne and Juliane
Marianne and Juliane (German: Die bleierne Zeit; lit. "The Leaden Time" or "Leaden Times"), also called The German Sisters in the United Kingdom, is a 1981 West German film directed by Margarethe von Trotta. The screenplay is a fictionalized account of the true lives of Christiane and Gudrun Ensslin. Gudrun, a member of The Red Army Faction, was found dead in her prison cell in Stammheim in 1977. In the film, Von Trotta depicts the two sisters Juliane (Christine) and Marianne (Gudrun) through their friendship and journey to understanding each other. Marianne and Juliane was von Trotta's third film and solidified her position as a director of the New German Cinema.
Marianne and Juliane also marked the first time that von Trotta worked with Barbara Sukowa. They would go on to work on six more films together.Parapsycho – Spectrum of Fear
Parapsycho – Spectrum of Fear (German: Parapsycho - Spektrum der Angst) is a 1975 Austrian horror film directed by Peter Patzak, starring Marisa Mell, Leon Askin and Debra Berger. Split into three episodes, it uses extrasensory perception, reincarnation and telepathy as its subject matter. Even in the school of New German Cinema, the film was ground breaking for using footage of a real autopsy, beginning with the incision of the body from sternum to pubic bone, rather than recreating the scene using prosthetics or special effects.Rosa von Praunheim
Rosa von Praunheim (born 25 November 1942) is a German film director, author, painter and the most famous gay rights activist in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In over 50 years, von Praunheim has made more than 150 films (short- and longfilms).
He began his career associated to the New German Cinema as a senior member of the Berlin school of underground filmmaking. He took the artistic female name Rosa von Praunheim to remind people of the pink triangle that homosexuals had to wear in Nazi concentration camps. A pioneer of Queer Cinema, von Praunheim has been an activist in the gay rights movement. He was an early advocate of AIDS awareness and safer sex, but has been a controversial figure even within the gay community. His films center on gay related themes and strong female characters. His works are characterized by excess and employ a campy style. His films have featured such personalities as Diamanda Galás, Jayne County, Vaginal Davis, Divine, Jeff Stryker and a row of Warhol superstars.Roxy Film
Roxy Film is a German film production company established in 1951 by Luggi Waldleitner. During the 1950s, it was a leading producer with films such as melodramas which continued the traditions of the 1930s and 1940s. During the 1960s the company struggled, partly due to fierce competition from other producers such as Rialto Films which were better at using new genres such as Edgar Wallace thrillers and Karl May westerns. By the late 1960s the company had begun to specialise in making sex comedies, but in the 1970s moved to producing adaptations of classic literature and funding ambitious projects by members of the New German Cinema such as Rainer Werner Fassbinder.Ulli Lommel
Ulli Lommel (21 December 1944 – 2 December 2017) was a German actor and director, noted for his many collaborations with Rainer Werner Fassbinder and his association with the New German Cinema movement. Lommel spent time at The Factory and was a creative associate of Andy Warhol, with whom he made several films and works of art. Since 1977 he lived and worked in the United States, where he wrote, directed and starred in over 50 movies.Volker Schlöndorff
Volker Schlöndorff (born 31 March 1939) is a German filmmaker who has worked in Germany, France and the United States. He was a prominent member of the New German Cinema of the late 1960s and early 1970s, which also included Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, Margarethe von Trotta and Rainer Werner Fassbinder.
He won an Oscar as well as the Palme d'or at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival for The Tin Drum (1979), the film version of the novel by Nobel Prize-winning author Günter Grass.Wim Wenders
Ernst Wilhelm "Wim" Wenders (German: [vɪm vɛndɐs]; born 14 August 1945) is a German filmmaker, playwright, author, and photographer. He is a major figure in New German Cinema. Among many honors, he has received three nominations for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature: for Buena Vista Social Club (1999), about Cuban music culture; Pina (2011), about the contemporary dance choreographer Pina Bausch; and The Salt of the Earth (2014), about Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado.
One of Wenders' earliest honors was a win for the BAFTA Award for Best Direction for his narrative drama Paris, Texas (1984), which also won the Palme d'Or at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival. Many of his subsequent films have also been recognized at Cannes, including Wings of Desire (1987), for which Wenders won the Best Director Award at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.
Wenders has been the president of the European Film Academy in Berlin since 1996. Alongside filmmaking, he is an active photographer, emphasizing images of desolate landscapes. He is considered to be an auteur director.Yesterday Girl
Yesterday Girl (German: Abschied von gestern, "Farewell to Yesterday") is a 1966 drama film directed and written by Alexander Kluge. The film is based on the short story "Anita G." (1962), which is also by Alexander Kluge. The film tells the story of Anita G., a young East German migrant to West Germany and her struggle to adjust to her new life. The film is associated with New German Cinema.
The film won four German Film Awards. The film won a Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival, whereas Kluge's next film, Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed even went on to win the Golden Lion, a political scandal due to its progressive leanings which resulted in no Golden Lions being awarded up to 1979.
New Wave in cinema
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