New Brunswick

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation: [nuvobʁɔnzwɪk] (listen)) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton.

Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is mostly forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, and less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes.

Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples. The French settlers were later displaced when the area became part of the British Empire. In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia.

The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew rapidly, reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).

After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England. The mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%.[6]

Tourism accounts for about 9% of the labour force directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.[7]

New Brunswick

Nouveau-Brunswick  (French)
Motto(s): 
Latin: Spem reduxit[1]
("Hope restored")
NB
Canadian Provinces and Territories
CountryCanada
ConfederationJuly 1, 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia)
CapitalFredericton
Largest cityMoncton
Largest metroGreater Moncton
Government
 • TypeConstitutional monarchy
 • Lieutenant GovernorJocelyne Roy-Vienneau
 • PremierBlaine Higgs (Progressive Conservatives)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of New Brunswick
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats10 of 338 (3%)
Senate seats10 of 105 (9.5%)
Area
 • Total72,907 km2 (28,150 sq mi)
 • Land71,450 km2 (27,590 sq mi)
 • Water1,458 km2 (563 sq mi)  2%
Area rankRanked 11th
 0.7% of Canada
Population
(2016)
 • Total747,101 [2]
 • Estimate 
(2019 Q1)
772,094 [3]
 • RankRanked 8th
 • Density10.46/km2 (27.1/sq mi)
Demonym(s)New Brunswicker
FR: Néo-Brunswickois(e)
Official languages[4]
GDP
 • Rank9th
 • Total (2011)C$32.180 billion[5]
 • Per capitaC$42,606 (11th)
Time zoneAtlantic: UTC−4/−3
Postal abbr.
NB
Postal code prefixE
ISO 3166 codeCA-NB
FlowerPurple violet
TreeBalsam fir
BirdBlack-capped chickadee
Websitewww.gnb.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

History

Pre-history

Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Bouctouche, Petitcodiac, Quispamsis, and Shediac.

New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, and Basque, Breton, and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s.[8]

French colony

Carte de l Acadie, Isle Royale, et pais voisins
Acadia in 1757

The first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was later the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick.[8] French settlement eventually extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton.

Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, and up the Petitcodiac, Memramcook, and Shepody Rivers.[9]

By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Quebec and Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Île-Royale (Cape Breton Island). The ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto.

The British eventually prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians.

British colony

Henry Sandham - The Coming of the Loyalists
The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry Sandham, showing a romanticised view of the Loyalists' arrival in New Brunswick

Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, and Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants, mostly from New England, on their former lands. Some settled around Memramcook and along the Saint John River.[10]

Settlement was initially slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, and English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area.

After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy,[11] commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope restored"). The number reached almost 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten eventually returning to America.[12] The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly.[13]

The colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, and Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany.[14] In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city.[15] The population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812.

The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding,[15] bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels.[16]

The first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861.

In 1848, responsible home government was granted[13] and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties largely organised along religious and ethnic lines.[15]

Confederation

British North America Act, 1867
The first of the British North America Acts, 1867

The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed increasingly in the 1860s. Many felt that the American Civil war was the result of weak central government, and wished to avoid such violence and chaos.[17] The 1864 Charlottetown Conference was intended to discuss a Maritime Union, but concerns over possible conquest by the Americans, coupled with a belief Britain was unwilling to defend its colonies against American attack, led to a request from the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to expand the meeting's scope. In 1866 the US cancelled the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty leading to loss of trade with New England and prompting a desire to build trade within British North America,[18] while Fenian raids increased support for union.[19]

On 1 July 1867 New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada.

Modern New Brunswick

Confederation brought into existence the Intercolonial Railway in 1872, a consolidation of the existing Nova Scotia Railway, European and North American Railway, and Grand Trunk Railway. In 1879 John A. Macdonald's Conservatives enacted the National Policy which called for high tariffs and opposed free trade, disrupting the trading relationship between the Maritimes and New England. The economic situation was worsened by the decline of the wooden ship building industry. The railways and tariffs did foster the growth of new industries in the province such as textile manufacturing, iron mills, and sugar refineries,[10] many of which eventually failed to compete with better capitalized industry in central Canada.

In 1937 New Brunswick had the highest infant mortality and illiteracy rates in Canada.[20] At the end of the Great Depression the New Brunswick standard of living was much below the Canadian average. In 1940 the Rowell–Sirois Commission reported that federal government attempts to manage the depression illustrated grave flaws in the Canadian constitution. While the federal government had most of the revenue gathering powers, the provinces had many expenditure responsibilities such as healthcare, education, and welfare, which were becoming increasingly expensive. The Commission recommended the creation of equalization payments, implemented in 1957.

The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers to the south. The population of French origin grew dramatically after Confederation, from about 16 per cent in 1871 to 34 per cent in 1931.[21] Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in Francophone areas was less developed than elsewhere. In 1960 Premier Louis Robichaud embarked on the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program, in which education, rural road maintenance, and healthcare fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province, rather than the former county-based system.

The flag of New Brunswick, based on the coat of arms, was adopted in 1965. The conventional heraldic representations of a lion and a ship represent colonial ties with Europe, and the importance of shipping at the time the coat of arms was assigned.[22]

Geography

New Brunswick topographic map-fr
Topography of the province

Roughly square, New Brunswick is bordered on the north by Quebec, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Bay of Fundy, and on the west by the US state of Maine. The southeast corner of the province is connected to Nova Scotia at the isthmus of Chignecto.

Glaciation has left much of New Brunswick's uplands with only shallow, acidic soils which have discouraged settlement, but are home to enormous forests.[23]

Topography

New Brunswick lies entirely within the Appalachian Mountain range.

All of the rivers of New Brunswick drain into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east or the Bay of Fundy to the south. These watersheds include lands in Quebec and Maine.[24]

New Brunswick was covered by thick layers of ice during the glacial period. It cut U-shaped valleys in the Saint John and Nepisiguit River valleys, and pushed granite boulders from the Miramichi highlands south and east, leaving them as erratics when the ice receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, along with deposits such as the eskers between Woodstock and St George, today sources of sand and gravel.

Flora and fauna

Lynx Canadensis
Canada lynx

Most of New Brunswick[24] is forested with secondary forest or tertiary forest. At the start of European settlement, the Maritimes were covered from coast to coast by a forest of mature trees, giants by today's standards. Today less than one per cent of old-growth Acadian forest remains,[25] and the World Wide Fund for Nature lists the Acadian Forest as endangered.[26] Following the frequent large scale disturbances caused by settlement and timber harvesting, the Acadian forest is not growing back as it was, but is subject to borealization. This means that exposure-resistant species that are well adapted to the frequent large scale disturbances common in the boreal forest are increasingly abundant. These include jack pine, balsam fir, black spruce, white birch, and poplar.[26]

Forest ecosystems support large carnivores such as the bobcat, Canada lynx, and black bear, and the large herbivores moose and white-tailed deer.

Fiddlehead greens are harvested from the Ostrich fern which grows on riverbanks.

Furbish's lousewort a perennial herb endemic to the shores of the upper Saint John River, is an endangered species threatened by habitat destruction, riverside development, forestry, littering and recreational use of the riverbank.[27] Many wetlands are being disrupted by the highly invasive Introduced species purple loosestrife.[28]

Climate

New Brunswick's climate is more severe than that of the other Maritime provinces, which are lower and have more shoreline along the moderating sea. New Brunswick has a humid continental climate, with slightly milder winters on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coastline. Elevated parts of the far north of the province have a subarctic climate.

Evidence of climate change in New Brunswick includes: more intense precipitation events, more frequent winter thaws, and one quarter to half the amount of snowpack.[29]

Today the sea level is about 30 cm higher than it was 100 years ago, and is expected to rise twice that much again by the year 2100.[29]

Geology

Bay of Fundy rock formations
Bay of Fundy rock formations

Bedrock types range from 1 billion to 200 million years old.[30] Much of the bedrock in the west and north derives from ocean deposits in the Ordovician, which were then subject to folding and igneous intrusion, and were eventually covered with lava during the Paleozoic, peaking during the Acadian orogeny.[10]

During the Carboniferous era, about 340 million years ago, New Brunswick was in the Maritimes Basin, a sedimentary basin near the equator. Sediments, brought by rivers from surrounding highlands, accumulated there and after being compressed, producing the Albert oil shales of southern New Brunswick. Eventually sea water from the Panthalassic Ocean invaded the basin, forming the Windsor Sea. Once this receded, conglomerates, sandstones, and shales accumulated. The rust colour of these was caused by the oxidation of iron in the beds between wet and dry periods.[31] Such late carboniferous rock formed the Hopewell Rocks, which have been shaped by the extreme tidal range of the Bay of Fundy.

In the early Triassic, as Pangea drifted north it was rent apart, forming the rift valley that is the Bay of Fundy. Magma pushed up through the cracks, forming basalt columns on Grand Manan.[32]

People

The four Atlantic Provinces are Canada's least populated, with New Brunswick is the third least populous at 747,101 in 2016. The Atlantic provinces also have higher rural populations. New Brunswick was largely rural until 1951 since when the rural urban split has been roughly even.[33] Population density in the Maritimes is above average among Canadian provinces, which reflects their small size and the fact that they do not possess large unpopulated hinterlands, as do the other seven provinces and three territories.

Partridge Island Lighthouse, Irish immigration to Saint John, NB
Partridge Island welcomed immigrants and refugees into Saint John Harbour from around the world and was North America's first quarantine station.

New Brunswick's 107 municipalities[34] cover 8.6% of the province's land mass but are home to 65.3% of its population. The three major urban areas are in the south of the province and are Greater Moncton, population 126,424, Greater Saint John, population 122,389, and Greater Fredericton, population 85,688.

Ethnicity and language

Bienvenue au Nouveau-Brunswick
Bilingual highway sign at entrance to New Brunswick
Canada Irish Festival on the Miramichi
Canada's Irish Festival on the Miramichi River

In the 2001 census, the most commonly reported ethnicities were British and Irish 60%, French Canadian or Acadian 31%, other European 7%, First Nations 3%, Asian Canadian 2%. Each person could choose more than one ethnicity.[35]

According to the Canadian Constitution, both English and French are the official languages of New Brunswick,[36] making it the only officially bilingual province. Anglophone New Brunswickers make up roughly two-thirds of the population, with about one-third being Francophone. Recently there has been growth in the numbers of people reporting themselves as bilingual, with 34% reporting that they speak both English and French. This reflects a trend across Canada.[37]

Religion

In the 2011 census, 84% of provincial residents reported themselves as Christian:[10] 52% were Roman Catholic, 8% Baptist, 8% United Church of Canada, and 7% Anglican. Fifteen percent of residents reported no religion.

Economy

As of October 2017 seasonally-adjusted employment is 73,400 for the goods-producing sector, and 280,900 for the services-producing sector.[38]

Those in the goods producing industries are mostly employed in manufacturing or construction, while those in services work in social assistance, trades, and health care.

The US is the province's largest export market, accounting for 92% of a foreign trade valued in 2014 at almost $13 billion, with refined petroleum making up 63% of that, followed by seafood products, pulp, paper and sawmill products and non-metallic minerals (chiefly potash).

Agriculture

More than 13,000 New Brunswickers work in agriculture, shipping products worth over $1 billion, half of which is from crops, and half of that from potatoes, mostly in the Saint John River valley. McCain Foods is one of the world's largest manufacturers of frozen potato products. Other products include apples, cranberries, and maple syrup.[39] New Brunswick was in 2015 the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada.[40]

The value of the livestock sector is about a quarter of a billion dollars, nearly half of which is dairy. Other sectors include poultry, fur, and goats, sheep, and pigs.

Fisheries

The value of exports, mostly to the United States, was $1.6 billion in 2016. About half of that came from lobster. Other products include salmon, crab, and herring.[41]

Forestry

About 83% of New Brunswick is forested. Historically important, it accounted for more than 80% of exports in the mid 1800s. By the end of the 1800s the industry, and shipbuilding, were declining due to external economic factors. The 1920s saw the development of a pulp and paper industry. In the mid-1960s, forestry practices changed from the controlled harvests of a commodity to the cultivation of the forests.[21]

The industry employs nearly 12,000, generating revenues around $437 million.[10]

Mining

Mining was historically unimportant in the province, but since the 1950s has grown and in 2012 was an estimated $1.1 billion. Mines in New Brunswick produce lead, zinc, copper, and potash.

Tourism

In 2015, spending on non-resident tourism in New Brunswick was $441 million, which provided $87 million in tax revenue.[42]

Infrastructure

NB - Confederation Bridge6
Confederation Bridge connecting New Brunswick to Prince Edward Island

The Department of Transportation and Infrastructure maintains government facilities and the province's highway network and ferries. The Trans-Canada Highway is not under federal jurisdiction, and traverses the province from Edmundston following the Saint John River Valley, through Fredericton, Moncton, and on to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

Rail

Via Rail's Ocean service, which connects Montreal to Halifax, is currently the oldest continuously operated passenger route in North America, with stops from west to east at Campbellton, Charlo, Jacquet River, Petit Rocher, Bathurst, Miramichi, Rogersville, Moncton, and Sackville.

Canadian National Railway operates freight services along the same route, as well as a subdivision from Moncton to Saint John.

The New Brunswick Southern Railway, a division of J. D. Irving Limited, together with its sister company Eastern Maine Railway form a continuous 305 km (190 mi) main line connecting Saint John and Brownville Junction, Maine.

Energy

Energy Capacity by source in NB

  Fossil Fuel (54.7%)
  Hydro (22.0%)
  Nuclear (15.4%)
  Other Renewables (7.9%)

Publicly-owned NB Power operates 13 of New Brunswick's generating stations, deriving power from fuel oil and diesel (1497 MW), hydro (889 MW), nuclear (660 MW), and coal (467 MW). There were 30 active natural gas production sites in 2012.[10]

Government

New Brunswick Legislative Assembly January 2011
NB Legislative Building, seat of New Brunswick Government since 1882

Under Canadian federalism, power is divided between federal and provincial governments. Among areas under federal jurisdiction are citizenship, foreign affairs, national defence, fisheries, criminal law, Indian policies, and many others. Provincial jurisdiction covers public lands, health, education, and local government, among other things. Jurisdiction is shared for immigration, pensions, agriculture, and welfare.[43]

The parliamentary system of government is modelled on the British Westminster system. Forty-nine representatives, nearly always members of political parties, are elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. The head of government is the Premier of New Brunswick, normally the leader of the party or coalition with the most seats in the legislative assembly. Governance is handled by the executive council (cabinet), with about 32 ministries.[44]

Ceremonial duties of the Monarchy in New Brunswick are mostly carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick.

Under amendments to the province's Legislative Assembly Act in 2007, a provincial election is held every four years. The two largest political parties are the New Brunswick Liberal Association and the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick. Since the 2018 election, minor parties are the Green Party of New Brunswick and the People's Alliance of New Brunswick.

Judiciary

The Court of Appeal of New Brunswick is the highest provincial court. It hears appeals from:

The system consists of eight Judicial Districts, loosely based on the counties.[46] The Chief Justice of New Brunswick serves at the apex of this court structure.

Administrative divisions

Administrative areas of New Brunswick with First Nations lands map-blank
Administrative areas of New Brunswick:

Ninety-two per cent of the land in the province, inhabited by about 35% of the population, is under provincial administration and has no local, elected representation. The 51% of the province that is Crown land is administered by the Department of Energy and Resource Development.

Most of the province is administrated as a local service district (LSD), an unincorporated unit of local governance. As of 2017 there are 237 LSDs. Services, paid for by property taxes, include a variety of services such as fire protection, solid waste management, street lighting, and dog regulation. LSDs may elect advisory committees[47] and work with the Department of Local Government to recommend how to spend locally collected taxes.

In 2006 there were three rural communities. This is a relatively new entity, and to be created requires a population of 3,000 and a tax base of $200 million.[48]

In 2006 there were 101 municipalities.

Regional Service Commissions, which number 12, were introduced in 2013 to regulate regional planning and solid waste disposal, and provide a forum for discussion on a regional level of police and emergency services, climate change adaptation planning, and regional sport, recreational and cultural facilities. The commissions' administrative councils are populated by the mayors of each municipality or rural community within a region.[49]

Historically the province was divided into counties with elected governance, but this was abolished in 1966. These were subdivided into 152 parishes which also lost their political significance in 1966, but are still used as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada.

Provincial finances

New Brunswick has the most poorly-performing economy of any Canadian province, with a per capita income of $28,000.[50] The government has historically run at a large deficit. With about half of the population being rural, it is expensive for the government to provide education and health services, which account for 60 per cent of government expenditure. Thirty-six per cent of the provincial budget is covered by federal cash transfers.[51]

The government has frequently attempted to create employment through subsidies, which has often failed to generate long-term economic prosperity and resulted in bad debt,[51] examples of which include Bricklin, Atcon,[52] and the Marriott call centre in Fredericton.[53]

According to a 2014 study by the Atlantic Institute for Market Studies the large public debt is a very serious problem. Government revenues are shrinking because of a decline in federal transfer payments. Though expenditures are down (through government pension reform and a reduction in the number of public employees), they have increased relative to GDP,[54] necessitating further measures to reduce debt in the future.

In the 2014–15 fiscal year, provincial debt reached $12.2 billion or 37.7 per cent of nominal GDP, an increase over the $10.1 billion recorded in 2011–12.[54] The debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to reach 41.9% in 2017–18, compared to a ratio of 25% in 2007–08.[55]

Culture

Education

UNB OldArtsBuilding
Sir Howard Douglas Hall on the University of New Brunswick Fredericton campus, currently the oldest university building still in use in Canada

Public education in the province is administered by the NB Department of Education. New Brunswick has a parallel system of Anglophone and Francophone public schools. There are also secular and religious private schools in the province, such as the Moncton Flight College.

The New Brunswick Community College system has campuses in all regions of the province.

The two comprehensive provincial universities are the University of New Brunswick (Fredericton and Saint John) and the Université de Moncton (Moncton, Shippegan and Edmundston). These have extensive postgraduate programs and Law schools. Medical education programs have also been established at both the Université de Moncton and at UNBSJ in Saint John (affiliated with Université de Sherbrooke and Dalhousie University respectively). Other public funded universities include Mount Allison University in Sackville and Saint Thomas University in Fredericton. Mount Allison University is a highly regarded undergraduate university with over 50 Rhodes Scholars to its credit. There are several private universities in the province as well, the largest being Crandall University in Moncton.

Literature

Charles G. D. Roberts cph.3a43709
Charles G. D. Roberts

Julia Catherine Beckwith born in Fredericton, was Canada's first published novelist. Charles G. D. Roberts was one of the first Canadians to achieve international fame. Antonine Maillet was the first non-European winner of France's Prix Goncourt. Other modern writers include Alfred Bailey, Alden Nowlan, John Thompson, Douglas Lochhead, K. V. Johansen, David Adams Richards, Raymond Fraser, and France Daigle. A recent New Brunswick Lieutenant-Governor, Herménégilde Chiasson, is a poet and playwright.

The Fiddlehead, established in 1945 at UNB, is Canada's oldest literary magazine.

Visual arts

Mount Allison University in Sackville began offering classes in 1854. The program came into its own under John A. Hammond, from 1893 to 1916. Alex Colville and Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there and both Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The University's art gallery – which opened in 1895 and is named for its patron, John Owens of Saint John – is Canada's oldest. Modern New Brunswick artists include landscape painter Jack Humphrey, sculptor Claude Roussel, and Miller Brittain.

Music

Music of New Brunswick includes artists such as Henry Burr, Roch Voisine, Lenny Breau, and Édith Butler. Symphony New Brunswick, based in Saint John, tours extensively in the province.

Performing arts, events, and festivals

Imperial Theatre, Saint John(IMG 9955)
Saint John's Imperial Theatre

Symphony New Brunswick based in Saint John and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada (based in Moncton), tours nationally and internationally. Theatre New Brunswick (based in Fredericton), tours plays around the province. Canadian playwright Norm Foster saw his early works premiere at TNB. Other live theatre troops include the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in Caraquet, and Live Bait Theatre in Sackville. The refurbished Imperial and Capitol Theatres are found in Saint John and Moncton, respectively; the more modern Playhouse is in Fredericton.

Media

New Brunswick has four daily newspapers: the Times & Transcript, serving eastern New Brunswick, the Telegraph-Journal, based in Saint John and distributed province-wide, The Daily Gleaner, based in Fredericton, and L'Acadie Nouvelle, based in Caraquet. The three English-language dailies and the majority of the weeklies are owned and operated by Brunswick News, privately owned by J. K. Irving.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has Anglophone television and radio operations in Fredericton. Télévision de Radio-Canada is based in Moncton.

Historic sites

There are about 61 historic places in New Brunswick, including Fort Beauséjour, Kings Landing Historical Settlement and the Village Historique Acadien, and many New Brunswick museums.

See also

References

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External links

Coordinates: 46°N 66°W / 46°N 66°W

Atlantic Canada

Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.

Bay of Fundy

The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; French: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range.

Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, and are classified as a Hemispheric site. It is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and the Canadian Wildlife Service, and is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada.

Fredericton

Fredericton (; French pronunciation: ​[fʁədʁiktɔ̃]) is the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the Saint John River, which flows west to east as it bisects the city. The river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 56,224 in the 2011 census. It is the third-largest city in the province after Moncton and Saint John.

An important cultural, artistic, and educational centre for the province, Fredericton is home to two universities, the New Brunswick College of Craft and Design, and cultural institutions such as the Beaverbrook Art Gallery, the Fredericton Region Museum, and The Playhouse, a performing arts venue. The city hosts the annual Harvest Jazz & Blues Festival, attracting regional and international jazz, blues, rock, and world artists. Fredericton is also an important and vibrant centre point for the region's top visual artists; many of New Brunswick's notable artists live and work there today. Fredericton has also been home to some great historical Canadian painters as well, including Goodridge Roberts, and Molly and Bruno Bobak.

As a provincial capital, its economy is tied to the public sector; however, the city also contains a growing IT and commercial sector. The city has the highest percentage of residents with a post-secondary education in the province and the highest per capita income of any city in New Brunswick.

Fredericton International Airport

Fredericton International Airport (IATA: YFC, ICAO: CYFC) is an airport in Lincoln, New Brunswick, Canada, 7 nautical miles (13 km; 8.1 mi) southeast of Fredericton.

The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 55 passengers or 140 if offloaded in stages.Part of the National Airports System, the airport is owned by Transport Canada and operated by the Greater Fredericton Airport Authority.

The airport has two runways and is the second-busiest airport in New Brunswick in terms of passenger levels, after the Greater Moncton International Airport. In 2016 the airport handled 377,977 passengers and in 2008 the airport went from 34,078 aircraft movements to 73,330, an increase of 115%, prompting Nav Canada to provide a control tower in 2009/2010. In 2009 the airport saw the number of movements rise by 44.8% to 106,178 making it the 19th-busiest in Canada and the only one in the top twenty without air traffic control during the year.Fredericton was designated an international airport in 2007 by Transport Canada.

The airport spent $30 million to expand the terminal size by 50% to improve energy efficiency, add more ticket counters, washroom and seating. The expansion began in mid summer of 2018 and lasts for 30 months.

Greater Moncton Roméo LeBlanc International Airport

Greater Moncton Roméo LeBlanc International Airport, (GMIA, French: Aéroport international Roméo-LeBlanc du Grand Moncton) or Moncton/Greater Moncton Roméo LeBlanc International Airport (IATA: YQM, ICAO: CYQM) is located in the city of Dieppe 4 nautical miles (7.4 km; 4.6 mi) east northeast of downtown Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada.

The GMIA handled 665,630 passengers and 111,887 aircraft movements in 2017.

The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). CBSA officers at this airport currently can handle aircraft with up to 300 passengers. Nevertheless, planes as large as the 580 passenger Boeing 747 have been handled.GMIA is home to the Moncton Flight College, the largest flight college in Canada.

History of New Brunswick

New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick), is one of the three Maritime provinces in Canada, and the only officially bilingual province (English-French) in the country. The history of New Brunswick can be viewed according to four periods: pre-European contact, French colonization, British colonization and finally, New Brunswick since Confederation.

Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick

The Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick (French: Assemblée législative du Nouveau-Brunswick) is located in Fredericton. It was established in Saint John de jure when the colony was created in 1784, but came into session only in 1786, following the first elections in late 1785. It was the lower house in a bicameral legislature until 1891, when its upper house counterpart, the Legislative Council of New Brunswick, was abolished. Its members are called "Members of the Legislative Assembly," commonly referred to as "MLAs".

List of airports in New Brunswick

This is a complete list of airports, water aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian province of New Brunswick.

Miramichi, New Brunswick

Miramichi [ˈmɛɚˌməˌʃi] is the largest city in northern New Brunswick, Canada. It is situated at the mouth of the Miramichi River where it enters Miramichi Bay. The Miramichi Valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley.

Moncton

Moncton (; French pronunciation: ​[mɔŋktœn]) is the largest city in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city has earned the nickname "Hub City" due to its central inland location in the region and its history as a railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes.

The city proper has a population of 71,889 (2016) and has a land area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi). The Moncton CMA has a population of 144,810 (2016), making it the largest city and CMA in New Brunswick, and the second-largest city and CMA in the Maritime Provinces. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties.Although the Moncton area was first settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been officially founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. Initially an agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855. The city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier. A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded, mainly due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, and Moncton remained a railway town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway (CNR) locomotive shops in the late 1980s.

Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound strongly on both occasions. The city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. The city's economy is stable and diversified, primarily based on its traditional transportation, distribution, retailing, and commercial heritage, and supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, financial, information technology, and insurance sectors. The strength of Moncton's economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is consistently less than the national average.

New Brunswick, New Jersey

New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. The city is the county seat of Middlesex County, and the home of Rutgers University. New Brunswick is on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. As of 2016, New Brunswick had a Census-estimated population of 56,910, representing a 3.1% increase from the 55,181 people enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, which in turn had reflected an increase of 6,608 (+13.6%) from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as both the Hub City and the Healthcare City. The corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.

New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian. The Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.

New Brunswick Liberal Association

The New Brunswick Liberal Association (French: Association libérale du Nouveau-Brunswick), more popularly known as the New Brunswick Liberal Party or Liberal Party of New Brunswick, is one of the two major provincial political parties in New Brunswick, Canada. The party descended from both the Confederation Party and the Anti-Confederation Party whose members split into left-wing and right-wing groups following the creation of Canada as a nation in 1867.

The current political organization emerged in the 1880s to serve as an organization housing the supporters of Premier Andrew G. Blair and, later, federal Liberal Party of Canada leader Wilfrid Laurier.

Today, the New Brunswick Liberal Party follows the centre-left tradition. They compete with the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick to form the government. The People's Alliance Party and the Green Party are the only other major parties that have seats in the legislature. The NDP is not currently represented in the legislature.

Like its counterparts in the Atlantic Canada provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, the New Brunswick Liberal Association serves both the federal Liberal Party of Canada and acts as the provincial party. While its leader acts only in the provincial capacity, the party executive organizes for both provincial and federal election campaigns.

Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick

The Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick is a centre-right, conservative political party in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The party has its origins in the pre-Canadian confederation Conservative Party that opposed the granting of responsible government to the colony. It has historically followed the Red Tory tradition. The Progressive Conservative Party currently leads the provincial government since 2018 under Premier Blaine Higgs.

Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (), commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

Rutgers was originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766. It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956.Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, and the Camden campus. The university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students. The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities (2001) as a Public Ivy.

Rutgers University–New Brunswick

Rutgers University – New Brunswick in New Jersey is the oldest campus of Rutgers University, the others being in Camden and Newark. It is primarily located in New Brunswick and Piscataway. The campus is composed of several smaller campuses: College Avenue, Busch, Livingston, Cook, and Douglass, the latter two sometimes referred to as "Cook/Douglass," as they are adjacent to each other. Rutgers – New Brunswick also includes several buildings in downtown New Brunswick. The New Brunswick campuses include 19 undergraduate, graduate and professional schools, including the School of Arts and Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, School of Engineering, the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, the Graduate School, the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, the Graduate School of Education, School of Management and Labor Relations, the Mason Gross School of the Arts, the College of Nursing, the Rutgers Business School and the School of Social Work.

While several student centers, libraries, commercial venues, and dining halls are found on the various campuses, each campus has a unique environment created by the academic departments and facilities it hosts.

Saint John, New Brunswick

Saint John (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃.ʒɔn]) is the coastal port city of the Bay of Fundy in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The port is Canada’s third largest port by tonnage with a cargo base that includes dry and liquid bulk, break bulk, containers, and cruise. In 2016, after more than 40 years of population decline, the city became the second most populous city in the province for the first time, with a population of 67,575 over an area of 315.82 square kilometres (121.94 sq mi). Greater Saint John covers a land area of 3,362.95 square kilometres (1,298.44 sq mi) across the Caledonia Highlands, with a population (as of 2016) of 126,202. After the partitioning of the colony of Nova Scotia in 1784, the new colony of New Brunswick was thought to be named 'New Ireland' with the capital to be in Saint John before being vetoed by Britain's King George III. Saint John is the oldest incorporated city in Canada. During the reign of George III, the municipality was created by royal charter in 1785.Saint John is the oldest of five chartered cities in Canada along with Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver, and Lloydminster (a city that straddles both Alberta and Saskatchewan).French colonist Samuel de Champlain landed at Saint John Harbour on June 24, 1604 (the feast of St. John the Baptist) and is where the Saint John River gets its name although Mi'kmaq and Maliseet peoples lived in the region for thousands of years prior calling the river Wolastoq. After over a century of ownership disputes over the land surrounding Saint John between the French and English, the English deported the French colonists in 1755 and constructed Fort Howe above the harbour in 1779. Saint John, as a major settlement, was established by refugees of the American Revolution when two fleets of vessels from Massachusetts, one in the spring and a second in the fall, arrived in the harbour. These Loyalist refugees wished to remain living under Great Britain and were forced to leave their U.S. homes during the American Revolution. In 1785, the City of Saint John was formed from the union of Parrtown and Carleton. Over the next century, waves of Irish immigration, namely during the Great Famine via Partridge Island, would fundamentally change the city's demographics and culture.

Saint John Airport

Saint John Airport (IATA: YSJ, ICAO: CYSJ) is an airport located 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) east northeast of the central business district of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. The airport is wholly within the boundaries of the City of Saint John. In 2018, the terminal handled 282,217 passengers.

Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)

The Saint John River is a 673 kilometres (418 mi) long river that flows from Northern Maine into Canada, and runs south along the western side of New Brunswick, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean in the Bay of Fundy. Eastern Canada's longest river, its drainage basin is one of the largest on the east coast at about 55,000 square kilometres (21,000 sq mi).

A tributary forms 55km of the border between Quebec and Maine, and much of the border between New Brunswick and Maine follows the river. New Brunswick settlements through which it passes include, moving downstream, include Edmundston, Fredericton, Oromocto, and Saint John.

It is regulated by hydro-power dams located at Mactaquac, Beechwood, and Grand Falls, New Brunswick.

University of New Brunswick

The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a public university with two primary campuses in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick. It is the oldest English-language university in Canada, and among the oldest public universities in North America. UNB was founded by a group of seven Loyalists who left the United States after the American Revolution.UNB has two main campuses: the original campus, founded in 1785 in Fredericton, and a smaller campus which opened in Saint John in 1964. In addition, there are two small satellite health sciences campuses located in Moncton and Bathurst, New Brunswick, and two offices in the Caribbean and in Beijing. UNB offers over 75 degrees in fourteen faculties at the undergraduate and graduate levels with a total student enrollment of approximately 11,400 between the two principal campuses. UNB was named the most entrepreneurial university in Canada at the 2014 Startup Canada Awards.

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