New Acropolis (NA; official name: Spanish: Organización Internacional Nueva Acrópolis "OINA" — Organisation Internationale Nouvelle Acropole, association internationale sans but lucratif) is a worldwide non-profit organisation founded in 1957 by Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi in Argentina, positioning itself as a school of philosophy, although some researchers characterize it as a neo-theosophical new religious movement. Its current president is philosopher, musician and writer, Delia Steinberg Guzman.
Aside from regular philosophy courses, lectures, and workshops the organization offers in its branches, it is also involved in social and philanthropic activities, such as food collection campaigns, art workshops, cleaning of monuments and parks, as well as disaster rescues and music competitions.
Registered in Belgium as international organization since 1981, number 3/12-941/S. The organization has been accused by some scholars and investigators to be a far-right cult. The organization itself rejects these accusations and claims to have no political or religious affiliation.
|International Organization New Acropolis|
|Founded||July 15, 1957|
|Founder||Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi|
|Delia Steinberg Guzmán|
Its founding principles are:
According to the organization's 2018 assembly resolution, New Acropolis is active in three main areas: philosophy, culture and volunteering.
The organization describes itself as a school of philosophy, understood as "a way of life (...), as a means of access to spiritual knowledge and collective and individual realization." According to the organization's webpage, its official introduction program includes the philosophies of Buddhism, Tibet, China, Greece and Rome among others. The school also offers advanced studies in courses such as psychology, history of philosophy and symbology.
Jorge A. Livraga Rizzi wanted to create an 'eclectic and rational approach' - according to his own words - to different currents in order to highlight similarities and commonalities between Eastern and Western thought. He saw his role to define the elements of a philosophy of a universal type, reconnecting with all the spiritual roots, including those rejected by the West; for example, those of Egypt or Asia. Fernand Schwarz (director of New Acropolis France), on his part, has written several books on the Egyptian tradition. In addition to the study of ancient sources, New Acropolis also tries to promote contemporary authors such as CG Jung, Mircea Eliade, Joseph Campbell, Gilbert Durand, Henry Corbin, Paul Ricœur, Dane Rudhyar, Jean Chevalier or Edgar Morin. These, as well as other philosophers, scientists and sociologists, freely expressed themselves in the columns of the association's journal. In the body of reference claimed by the French publications of New Acropolis, we find the philosophy of Pythagoras, Plato, Neoplatonism, Alexandrine Hermeticism and the Renaissance. In addition there are the two great theosophical currents, that of Jacob Boehm and that of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, as well as elements of Eastern philosophy (Hinduism in particular, through the three Purushiac schools, Mahayana and Tibetan Buddhism)."
French writer Jean-Pierre Bayard describes New Acropolis as
a school of philosophy focused on esotericism and symbolism, [which] organizes the comparative study of religions through courses and lectures on various subjects: myths, philosophies, sciences, sacred architecture, traditional arts, with often the contribution of speakers from outside the organization. Travels are organized according to the same spiritual concern (Egypt, Greece, Mexico). Fifteen centers in France provide high-level moral education by developing inner investigation, advocating freedom of conscience and respect for the human being.
The sociologist and researcher of new religions, Massimo Introvigne, defines New Acropolis as a "post-teosophical movement, that combines the ideas of the Theosophical Society with other sources. Compared with the Theosophical Society, it focuses more on Western esotericism than the Eastern one, especially Greek philosophy in the tradition of Pythagoras and Plato."
New Acropolis teaches Apocalypticism and some sort of Esoteric eschatology. The group teaches that current society is living in the "end of times" predicted by several religions, including the hindu Kali Yuga and the Norse Ragnarok, thus making necessary to preserve the esoteric knowledge by creating schools such as NA itself. This apocalyptic belief revolves around a pseudohistorical concept taught in the lessons of the organization and that talks about historical "cycles" where humanity would pass through periods of splendor and decay over and over again.
According to Miguel Martínez, a group's defector, NA follows an ultraconservative ideology strongly influenced by Traditionalism and that advocates a hierarchical and disciplined society with ideological concepts influenced by Plato, Nietzsche and Confucius, and that considers democracy decadent and the ideal model of society a strong caste system under an esoteric theocracy. The Escépticos blog claims that NA believes the white race is divided into seven subraces also hierarchized where the Germanic is the most elevated and the Hebrew the least. According to a NA's former member interviewed in 2014 by Vice magazine, Homosexuals are not allowed to be members of NA.
According to Livraga's 1976's Manual del Dirigente (Leader’s Handbook) the organization's structure was pyramidal and hierarchical. The highest level is the World Command, an office that once belonged to Livraga and his wife known as ADA-JAL. Under the World Command is the Guardian of Seals, under it the Continental Commands, under these the Central Commands, followed by the National or Federal Councilors, the Unified Zone Commands and Branch Chiefs.
The "Golden Ax" is used as a symbol given only to an elite of members known as "hachados" (ax holders) and this honor could only be given and taken away by the World Command. These hachados are proposed by the Central Commands due to their merits and are supposed to refrain from owning a fortune beyond their basic needs. The hachados can request retirement for reasons like age or health, and the organization should be responsible for their living in their final years. If the person retires as hachado can keep the honors but returns the ax, if the person status as hachado is revoked then the ax is return and destroyed.
The handbook itself expresses in its page 3 that its content should be kept secret not only from the public but from every non-directive members of the organization. It also establishes that is valid for the leaders to hide their Acropolitan ideas, believes and concepts when speaking in public or adapt them to the listener's wishes, and that most of the symbols, salutes and customs of the organization should be kept secret as other political movements have used them in the past staining its image in the public eye.
The Reglamento para miembros (Members’ bylaws) of the organization establishes a series of norms for the participants including the obligation of at least 12 hours per month of voluntary work (although this can be increase if the person is sanctioned or if can’t do the monthly payments), the prohibition of any kind of critic to the leaders and fellow members "to the former in any sense, to the later in their personal affairs", the requirement of the students to stand up anytime the teacher enters the room, the mandatory use of tie and jacket for men and skirts for women in all official events, and to refrain from any kind of immorality, among others.
This bylaw also establishes the existence of the “Living Forces” or subgroups; Feminine Brigades, (male) Work Brigades and Security Corps.
In general, New Acropolis activities supporting emergency relief, archaeology, the preservation of cultural and historical monuments, and ecology, are seen as positive by respective communities.
The organization's music competitions attract many participants, such as the International Competition of Piano Delia Steinberg which takes place in Madrid, Spain, and the Peruvian National Music Competition for youth, "Nueva Acropolis". The organization's 2018 commemoration of the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, which took place in Mumbai, India, was endorsed by the Indian Prime minister Narendra Modi, the Dalai Lama and Devendra Fadnavis. Among the speakers, were Indian philanthropist Ronnie Screwvalla, innovator and education reformist Sonam Wangchuk and social activist Chetna Sinha.
Although accusations of neo-fascism and neo-Nazism against the group exists New Acropolis condemns Nazism, racism and political extremism, and some scholars and defectors claim that the organization is more ultra-conservative, hierarchical, and critical or skeptical of democracy influenced by Platonism and Traditionalism, and by the writings of Helena Blavatsky and René Guénon. The Theosophical Society officially denies any links with Livraga, Livraga was expelled from the organization due to his radical far-right ideas. The group also was criticized for allegedly expelling gay members.
Claire Lise-Hoehn, a Swiss independent observer who aids cult victims, penetrated the organization with an alias, and after a 14 month operation, found no basis to the accusations against it. Her report reaffirms the identity of New Acropolis as a philosophy school as well as its founding charter.
The French Commission on Cults (1995) as well as a Belgian parliamentary commission, have, in 1997, registered it as a cult in their respective countries, in an annexed blacklist to their report, along with 171 other associations. On May 27, 2005, the cult blacklists were abandoned by the French government. However Serge Blisko, director of the French Interministerial Mission for Monitoring and Combatting Cultic Deviances (MIVILUDES) said to VICE magazine in 2014 that "disregarding what it says in its Wikipedia article, the French government still considers New Acropolis a cult and is under surveillance".
A study of ex-members of New Acropolis, realized in 1997 by CESNUR, the center of Studies of New Religions, found that 74.79% of ex-members defined New Acropolis as "a philosophy", 22.69% as a cultural association, 3.36% as a religion, and 2.52% as a political movement. Investigating the reasons for leaving the organization, a large majority (69.23%) expressed that "it is an interesting way, but it is not my way", 17.95% expressed that it was "probably my way, I regret having left it". A minority (10.26%) expressed negative views of the association as their reasons for leaving. 
The year 2009 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings.Acropolis Museum
The Acropolis Museum (Greek: Μουσείο Ακρόπολης, Mouseio Akropolis) is an archaeological museum focused on the findings of the archaeological site of the Acropolis of Athens. The museum was built to house every artifact found on the rock and on the surrounding slopes, from the Greek Bronze Age to Roman and Byzantine Greece. It also lies over the ruins of a part of Roman and early Byzantine Athens.
The museum was founded in 2003, while the Organization of the Museum was established in 2008. It opened to the public on 20 June 2009. Nearly 4,000 objects are exhibited over an area of 14,000 square metres. The Organization for the Construction of the new museum is chaired by Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Professor Emeritus of Archaeology, Dimitrios Pandermalis.Athina Rachel Tsangari
Athina Rachel Tsangari (Greek: Αθηνά Ραχήλ Τσαγγάρη; born 2 April 1966) is a Greek filmmaker and projection designer who has worked on projects such as the 2004 Olympic Games.Bernard Tschumi
Bernard Tschumi (born 25 January 1944 in Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator, commonly associated with deconstructivism. Son of the well-known Swiss architect Jean Tschumi and a French mother, Tschumi is a dual French-Swiss national who works and lives in New York City and Paris. He studied in Paris and at ETH in Zurich, where he received his degree in architecture in 1969.Delia Steinberg Guzmán
Delia Steinberg Guzmán, (Buenos Aires, 1943), is a philosopher, musician and writer and, since 1991, International President of the International Organization New Acropolis, a non profit association dedicated to the promotion of philosophy, culture and volunteering. She was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 7 January 1943, and obtained the Spanish nationality in 1975.Dimitrios Pandermalis
Dimitrios Pandermalis (Greek: Δημήτριος Παντερμαλής, born 1940), is a Professor of Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, supervisor of the Archaeological site of Dion, Pieria and curator of the new Acropolis Museum.Dimitris Potiropoulos
Dimitris Potiropoulos was born in Athens in 1953. He is the son of Rigas and Aliki. He studied Architecture at Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, in Germany. During his studies, he served as a Scientific Associate at the Chair of Free Hand Drawing from 1978 to 1980. He specialized in Architectural Design and was awarded a special commendation for his project “Residential Proposal in the Historical Centre of Reutlingen”. He completed his studies in 1981.
From 1978 to 1989, he worked in the beginning as a student and later on as an associate architect in architectural offices, among others in Konstantinos Kapsabelis’ office, Professor Helmut Striffler’s studio, and Alexandros Tompazis’ office. In parallel, he started his own studio, in 1982 and participated in architectural competitions.
In 1987 he started collaborating with his wife, architect Liana Nella-Potiropoulou and in 1989 they established in partnership their own firm “Potiropoulos D+L Architects”. He has been repeatedly awarded prizes and has received distinctions in architectural competitions. Among them: 1st Prize for the Museum of Natural History in Samos, 3rd Prize for the T.E.E. (Technical Chamber of Greece) Building Complex in Maroussi, 2nd Prize for the New Acropolis Museum in Athens, 1st Prize for the Refurbishment of the Ekmetzoglou, Listed Silk-Mill in Volos, Distinction for The Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo, etc. Projects of his have been published in the Greek and international press and have also been presented at exhibitions in Greece and abroad. Lectures and publications of his concern issues of architectural theory, as well as projects and studies of the office. He is co–founder of the “Hellenic Institute of Architecture”.
Projects undertaken by his office include many well known buildings and complexes, such as the Tricha Residence in Filothei, the Olympic Aviation Building Complex at the Athens International Airport, the Refurbishment of “Grande Albergo delle Rose” Hotel in Rhodes, the Olympic Tennis Centre at the Athens Olympic Sports Complex, the Mercedes-Benz Hellas Building Facilities at Attiki Odos, the Flisvos Marina etc.
In January 1992, together with his wife Liana Nella-Potiropoulou had their son, Rigas.Elgin Marbles
The Parthenon Marbles (Greek: Γλυπτά του Παρθενώνα) also known as the Elgin Marbles (), are a collection of Classical Greek marble sculptures made under the supervision of the architect and sculptor Phidias and his assistants. They were originally part of the temple of the Parthenon and other buildings on the Acropolis of Athens.From 1801 to 1812, agents of Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed about half of the surviving sculptures of the Parthenon, as well as sculptures from the Propylaea and Erechtheum. The Marbles were transported by sea to Britain. Elgin later claimed to have obtained in 1801 an official decree (a firman) from the Sublime Porte, the central government of the Ottoman Empire which were then the rulers of Greece. This firman has not been found in the Ottoman archives despite its wealth of documents from the same period and its veracity is disputed. The half not removed by Elgin is now displayed in the Acropolis Museum, aligned in orientation and within sight of the Parthenon, with the position of the missing elements clearly marked and space left should they be returned to Athens.In Britain, the acquisition of the collection was supported by some, while some others, such as Lord Byron, likened the Earl's actions to vandalism or looting. Following a public debate in Parliament and its subsequent exoneration of Elgin, he sold the Marbles to the British government in 1816. They were then passed to the British Museum, where they are now on display in the purpose-built Duveen Gallery.
After gaining its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832, the newly-founded Greek state began a series of projects to restore its monuments and retrieve looted art. It has expressed its disapproval of Elgin's removal of the Marbles from the Acropolis and the Parthenon, which is regarded as one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. International efforts to repatriate the Marbles to Greece were intensified in the 1980s by then Greek Minister of Culture Melina Mercouri, and there are now many organisations actively campaigning for the Marbles' return, several united as part of the International Association for the Reunification of the Parthenon Sculptures. The Greek government itself continues to urge the return of the marbles to Athens so as to be unified with the remaining marbles and for the complete Parthenon frieze sequence to be restored, through diplomatic, political and legal means.In 2014, UNESCO offered to mediate between Greece and the United Kingdom to resolve the dispute, although this was later turned down by the British Museum on the basis that UNESCO works with government bodies, not trustees of museums.Erechtheion
The Erechtheion or Erechtheum (; Ancient Greek: Ἐρέχθειον, Greek: Ερέχθειο) is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece which was dedicated to both Athena and Poseidon.International Competition of Piano Delia Steinberg
International Competition of Piano Delia Steinberg is a contest of piano founded in Madrid (Spain) in 1982 by the pianist and philosopher Delia Steinberg Guzmán (n. 1943), at the time director of the New Acropolis branch in Spain, in order to promote new values of the Music. Since then she has acted as part of the jury.Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi
Jorge Ángel Livraga Rizzi (September 3, 1930 – October 7, 1991) was an Argentinian poet, novelist, self-taught philosopher, essayist, educator and lecturer of Italian heritage best known for having founded and directed New Acropolis, an international philosophical educational and cultural organisation.
His works have been translated into several languages, titles in English include the novels The Alchemist and Ankor, the Last Prince of Atlantis, as well as The Spirits of Nature and Thebes, two studies on esotericism.
He was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and died in Madrid, Spain.Livraga was convicted for illegal arm possession in 1988 by Madrid's Provincial Court.Liana Nella-Potiropoulou
Liana Nella-Potiropoulou (born 1959 in Athens), is the daughter of Konstantinos and Sofia Nella. She is an alumna (1984) of the School of Architecture of the National Technical University of Athens. During her studies she was awarded the "17 November Award" twice (1982, 1983). She continued her postgraduate studies, obtaining a Master’s Degree Course in Architecture from the University of Pennsylvania in 1985 and was awarded the "Frank Miles Day Memorial Prize" for excellence in Architectural Theory.
She worked from 1982 to 1989, in the beginning as a student in Professor’s Pavlos Mylonas’ office and later on as an associate architect in Alexandros Tompazis’ office.
In 1987 she started collaborating with her spouse, architect Dimitris Potiropoulos and in 1989 they established in partnership their own firm "Potiropoulos D+L Architects". She has been repeatedly awarded prizes and has received distinctions in architectural competitions. Among them: 1st Prize for the Museum of Natural History in Samos, 3rd Prize for the T.E.E. (Technical Chamber of Greece) Building Complex in Maroussi, 2nd Prize for the New Acropolis Museum in Athens, 1st Prize for the Refurbishment of the Ekmetzoglou, Listed Silk-mill in Volos, Distinction for The Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo, etc. Projects of hers have been published in the Greek and international press and have also been presented at exhibitions in Greece and abroad. Lectures and publications of hers concern issues of architectural theory, as well as projects and studies of the office. In 2000 – 2001 she tutored at the University of Patras, Department of Architecture.
Projects undertaken by her office include many well known buildings and complexes, such as the Tricha Residence in Filothei, the Olympic Aviation Building Complex at the Athens International Airport, the Refurbishment of "Grande Albergo Delle Rose" Hotel in Rhodes, the Olympic Tennis Centre at the Athens Olympic Sports Complex, the Mercedes-Benz Hellas Building Facilities at Attiki Odos, the Flisvos Marina etc.
In January 1992, together with her husband Dimitris Potiropoulos had their son, Rigas.Makrygianni, Athens
Makrygianni or Makriyanni (Greek: Μακρυγιάννη, pronounced [makɾiˈʝani]) is a neighborhood of Athens, Greece. Also known as Acropolis, it is located in the south side of Acropolis and bounded between the avenues Dionysiou Areopagitou and Syngrou. The district is named after Ioannis Makrygiannis, Greek general of the Greek War of Independence, who used to own a house and fields in the area. Opposite the house of Ioannis Makrygiannis a military hospital was built – known as Weiler Building after the architect who designed it. This building was later used as gendarmerie headquarters and a violent battle took place there during the Dekemvriana, in 1944. In the Makrygianni neighbourhood is located the new Acropolis Museum that was inaugurated in 2009.Marbles Reunited
Marbles Reunited: Friends of the British Committee for the Reunification of the Parthenon Marbles is a campaign group, governed by charter and funded by donations from members and supporters, which lobbies and raises awareness about the case for the return of the Parthenon (Elgin) marbles to Athens, Greece.Museum of the Center for the Acropolis Studies
The Museum of the Center for the Acropolis Studies (Greek: Κέντρο Μελετών Ακροπόλεως) is a museum in Athens, Greece, a part of the new Acropolis Museum and its research workshops. It is housed in the Weiler Building, named after the Bavarian engineer who designed it in 1834 and constructed it in 1836.After serving as a military hospital and a gendarmes barracks, Weiler Building was remodelled from 1985 to 1987 and was converted to a museum. Its collections include casts of the Parthenon sculptures, plaster models of the Acropolis illustrating the architectural development of the monuments from the neolithic to present times, and a permanent exhibition on the works of conservation and restoration and exhibits concerning the Erechtheion and other Acropolis monuments.National Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens
The National Museum of Contemporary Art (EMST Εθνικό Μουσείο Σύγχρονης Τέχνης (ΕΜΣΤ)), established in October 2000, is the sole national institution focused only on collecting and exhibiting contemporary Greek and international art in Athens. Anna Kafetsi, Ph.D in Aesthetics- Art History and former curator for 17 years of the 20th century collection at the National Gallery of Athens, was appointed founding director of EMST.
EMST operated, from 2000 to September 2003, on the ground floor of approximately 1,800 square meters, of the old Fix brewery, a fine example of post-war industrial architecture designed by Takis Zenetos. It is located in close proximity to the center of Athens as well as the archaeological sites of the city, including the Acropolis and the New Acropolis Museum. Currently, the restoration of the building is in progress in order to create state of the art facilities for the permanent collection, periodic exhibitions, educational programs, and workshops. After an international architectural competition was announced, the architectural office which won the first prize and will realize the renovation of the Fix building are 3SK Stylianidis Architects in collaboration with Ioannis Mouzakis and associates architects LTD – studies of technical works Pan. Babilis and associates, and INSTA.
Until the return of the museum to the Fix building, EMST will continue its exhibitions program in the spaces of the Athens Conservatory, one of the most prestigious cultural institutions and finest buildings of architecture in the capital.Nova Akropola
Nova akropola (New Acropolis in Slovene) is the second studio album by Laibach. It was released in 1986.Old Acropolis Museum
The Old Acropolis Museum (Greek: (Παλαιό) Μουσείο Ακρόπολης (Palaio) Mouseio Akropolis) was an archaeological museum located in Athens, Greece on the archeological site of Acropolis. It is built in a niche at the eastern edge of the rock and most of it lies beneath the level of the hilltop, making it largely invisible. It was considered one of the major archaeological museums in Athens. Due to its limited size, the Greek government decided in the late 1980s to build a new museum. The New Acropolis Museum is now built at the foot of the Acropolis. In June 2007 the old museum closed its doors so that its antiquities could be moved to their new home, which opened on 20 June 2009.Organized religion
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.