In the broadcasting industry (particularly in North America), a network affiliate or affiliated station is a local broadcaster, owned by a company other than the owner of the network, which carries some or all of the lineup of television programs or radio programs of a television or radio network. This distinguishes such a television or radio station from an owned-and-operated station (O&O), which is owned by the parent network.
Notwithstanding this distinction, it is common in informal speech (even for networks or O&Os themselves) to refer to any station, O&O or otherwise, that carries a particular network's programming as an affiliate, or to refer to the status of carrying such programming in a given market as an "affiliation".
Stations which carry a network's programming by method of affiliation maintain a contractual agreement, which may allow the network to dictate certain requirements that a station must agree to as part of the contract (such as programming clearances, local programming quotas or reverse compensation of a share of a station's retransmission consent revenue to the network). Affiliation contracts normally last between three and five years, though contracts have run for as little as one year or as long as ten; in addition, if a company owns two or more stations affiliated with the same network, affiliation contracts may have end-of-term dates that are the same or differ among that company's affiliates, depending on when a particular station's affiliation agreement was either previously renewed or originally signed.
While many television and radio stations maintain affiliations with the same network for decades, on occasion, there are certain factors that may lead a network to move its programming to another station (such as the owner of a network purchasing a station other than that which the network is already affiliated with, the network choosing to affiliate with another local station in order to improve local viewership of its programming by aligning with a stronger station, or a dispute between a network and station owner while negotiating a contract renewal for a particular station such as those over reverse compensation shares), often at the end of one network's existing contract with a station. One of the most notable and expansive affiliation changes occurred in the United States from September 1994 to September 1996, when television stations in 30 markets changed affiliations (through both direct swaps involving the new and original affiliates, and transactions involving multiple stations) as a result of a May 1994 agreement by New World Communications to switch twelve of its stations to Fox, resulting in various other affiliation transactions including additional groupwide deals (such as those between ABC and the E. W. Scripps Company, and CBS and Westinghouse Broadcasting).
In the United States, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations limit the number of network-owned stations as a percentage of total national market reach. As such, networks tend to have O&Os only in the largest media markets (such as New York City and Los Angeles), and rely on affiliates to carry their programming in other markets. However, even the largest markets may have network affiliates in lieu of O&Os. For instance, Tribune Broadcasting's WPIX serves as the New York City affiliate of The CW, which does not have an O&O in that market. On the other hand, several other television stations in the same market – WABC-TV (ABC), WCBS-TV (CBS), WNBC (NBC), WNJU (Telemundo), WNYW (Fox), WWOR-TV (MyNetworkTV), WPXN-TV (Ion Television), WXTV-DT (Univision) and WFUT-DT (UniMás) – are O&Os.
A similar rule exists in Japan, in which regulations governed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (総務省 Sōmu-shō) limit the number of network-owned commercial television stations as a percentage of total national market reach. As such, commercial networks tend to have O&Os only in the four largest media markets (Kantō, Keihanshin, Chūkyō, and Fukuoka), and rely on affiliates to carry their programming in other prefectures. However, there are two major exceptions to the regulations. NHK is a government-owned, non-commercial television network and, since it is not covered by the ownership cap, owns and operates all of its stations. TV Tokyo Network is also not covered by the ownership cap due to the network's low number of affiliates (which are all owned by the network).
In Canada, the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) has significantly more lenient rules regarding media ownership. As such, most television stations, regardless of market size, are now O&Os of their respective networks, with only a few true affiliates remaining (mainly located in smaller cities). The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation originally relied on a large number of privately owned affiliates to disseminate its radio and television programming. However, since the 1960s, most of the CBC Television affiliates have become network owned-and-operated stations or retransmitters. CBC Radio stations are now entirely O&O.
While network-owned stations will normally carry the full programming schedule of the originating network (save for major local events), an affiliate is independently owned and typically under no obligation to do so. This is especially the case for network shows airing outside the network's primetime hours. Affiliated stations often buy supplementary programming from another source, such as a broadcast syndication service, or another television network which otherwise does not have coverage in the station's broadcast area. Some affiliates may air such programs instead of those from their primary network affiliation; a common example of this was the popular syndicated science fiction drama series Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987–1994).:124 Some network affiliates may also choose to air season games involving local sport teams in lieu of network programming.
A handful of networks, such as the U.S.-based Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) public television and National Public Radio (NPR), have been founded on a principle which effectively reverses the commercial broadcasting owned-and-operated station model and is called a state network. Instead of television networks owning stations, the stations collectively own the network and brand themselves as "PBS member stations" or "member networks" instead of as affiliates or O&Os.
Individual stations such as WPBS-TV (in Watertown, New York) and KPBS (in San Diego, California) are not allowed to be owned by the Public Broadcasting Service; most belong to local community non-profit groups, universities or local and state educational organizations. The national PBS system is owned collectively by hundreds of broadcasters in communities nationwide. Individual member stations are free to carry large amounts of syndicated programming and many produce their own educational or edutainment content for distribution to other PBS member stations through services like American Public Television or the National Educational Television Association; likewise, most content on PBS's core national programming service is produced by various individual member stations such as WGBH-TV, WNET and WETA-TV. These are not affiliate stations in that the ownership of the main network is not independent of ownership of the individual local stations.
Unlike the modern-day affiliation model with commercial stations, in which network programming is only shared between the main station in a given market and any repeaters it may operate to extend its coverage, PBS is not beholden to exclusive programming agreements with stations in the same metropolitan area. In some markets, the network maintains memberships with two noncommercial educational stations – in some cases, these are owned by the same entity – which split the programming rights. To avoid programming conflicts, the network utilizes a Program Differentiation Plan to assign programming quotas in these situations, resulting in the primary member station carrying more PBS-distributed programming than the secondary member; the number of two-to-a-market PBS members (not counting repeaters of the market's main PBS outlet) has been steadily decreasing since the early 2000s, with few remaining outside larger markets.
The "member station" model had historically been used in Canada in the early days of privately owned networks CTV and TVA, but the original "one station, one vote" model has largely faltered as increasing numbers of stations are acquired by the same owners. In CTV's case, the systematic pattern of acquisition of CTV member stations by the owners of CFTO-TV in Toronto ultimately allowed control over the network as a whole, turning former member stations into CTV O&Os.
In some smaller markets in the United States, a station may even be simultaneously listed as an affiliate of two (or in rare cases, three) networks. A station which has a dual affiliation is typically expected to air all or most of both networks' core prime time schedules – although programming from a station's secondary affiliation normally airs outside its usual network time slot, and some less popular programs may simply be left off of a station's schedule. Dual affiliations are most commonly associated with the smaller American television networks, such as The CW and MyNetworkTV, which air fewer hours of prime time programming than the "Big Four" networks and can therefore be more easily combined into a single schedule, although historically the "Big Four" have had some dual-affiliate stations in small markets as well and in some cases, affiliates of more than two networks (including a few that had affiliations with ABC, NBC, CBS and DuMont during the late 1940s through the mid-1950s, when fewer television stations existed in a particular market, especially those that would eventually be able to support four commercial outlets).
Historically, the sole commercial station in a market would commonly take affiliations or secondary affiliations from most or all of the major national networks. As a local monopoly, a station could become a primary affiliate of one of the stronger networks, carrying most of that network's programming while remaining free to "cherry-pick" popular programming from any or all of the rival networks. Similarly, some markets that had two commercial stations shared a secondary affiliation with one network, while maintaining separate primary affiliations (such as in the Ada, Oklahoma-Sherman, Texas market, where until 1985, KTEN and KXII shared secondary affiliations with NBC, while the former was primarily affiliated with ABC and the latter with CBS).
As U.S.-marketed television receivers have been required to include factory-installed UHF tuners since 1964, the rapid expansion of broadcast television onto UHF channels in the 1970s and 1980s (along with increased deployment of cable and satellite television systems) has significantly reduced the number of one-station markets (limiting them to those with population densities too small to be able to make any additional stations economically viable), providing networks with a larger selection of stations as potential primary affiliates. A new station which could clear one network's entire programming lineup better serves the network's interests than the former pattern of partial access afforded by mixing various secondary affiliations on the schedule of a single local analog channel.
In 2009, after many years of decline, the era of secondary affiliations to multiple major networks (once common in communities where fewer stations existed than networks seeking carriage) finally came to an end at the smallest-market U.S. station, KXGN-TV in Glendive, Montana (which was affiliated with both CBS and NBC). The digital conversion allowed KXGN to carry CBS and NBC programming side-by-side on separate subchannels, essentially becoming a primary affiliate of both networks.
In larger markets, multiple full-service channels may be operated by the same broadcaster using broadcast automation, either openly as duopoly or twinstick operations, or through the use of local marketing agreements and shared services agreements to operate a second station nominally owned by another broadcaster. These may be supplemented by LPTV or repeater stations to allow more channels to be added without encountering federally imposed limits on concentration of media ownership. Often, the multiple commonly controlled stations will use the same news and local advertising sales operations, but carry different network feeds.
Further, with the ability of digital television stations to offer a distinct programming stream on a digital subchannel, traditional dual affiliation arrangements in which programming from two networks is combined into a single schedule are becoming more rare. KEYC-TV in Mankato, Minnesota is one such example, carrying CBS programming on its 12.1 subchannel and Fox on 12.2. KEYC's Watertown, New York sister station WWNY-TV follows this same pattern (CBS on 7.1 and Fox on 7.2), but supplements this with a 15kW low-power station broadcasting in high definition on the same transmitter tower under the control of the same owners, using the same studios to provide a second high definition channel for the Fox affiliate.
One notable exception to the survival of secondary affiliations are stations owned by West Virginia Media Holdings. WTRF-DT2 in Wheeling and WVNS-DT2 in Beckley, West Virginia both had Fox as their primary affiliation and MyNetworkTV as a secondary affiliation. Until WTRF lost its Fox affiliation in 2014 to NBC affiliate WTOV-TV (leaving WTRF-DT2 with MyNetworkTV and WVNS as the only one with affiliations from both), each network was carried on the second digital subchannel of WTRF-TV and WVNS-TV, respectively, both of which carry CBS programming on their main signals. Another example is WBKB-TV in Alpena, Michigan, owned by Stephan Marks, which also carries CBS programming on its main signal and both Fox and MyNetworkTV on its second digital subchannel. In addition, however, WBKB-TV also has an ABC affiliate on WBKB-DT3, giving the station four different network affiliations between three subchannels.
In Canada, affiliated stations may acquire broadcast rights to programs from a network other than their primary affiliation, but as such an agreement pertains only to a few specific programs, which are chosen individually, they are not normally considered to be affiliated with the second network. CJON-DT in St. John's, Newfoundland, nominally an independent station, uses this model to acquire programming from CTV and the Global Television Network. CJNT-DT in Montreal formerly maintained dual affiliations through both City and Omni Television to satisfy its ethnic programming requirements due to its sale to Rogers Media in 2012. This model eventually ceased as Rogers' was granted a request by the CRTC in late 2012 to change the station's format from a multicultural station to a conventional English-language station, and contribute funding and programming to a new independent multicultural station, CFHD-DT, which signed on in 2013.
This was also done by MyNetworkTV in the 2009-10 season in Des Moines, Iowa and Memphis, Tennessee after it lost their individual affiliates in those markets to other networks as it offered the network's last season of WWE Friday Night Smackdown to the local CW affiliates in both cities without forcing them to carry the remainder of MyNetworkTV's schedule.
As of September 1, 2016, the largest current-day market example of a dual affiliation is with Fox Television Stations's WPWR-TV, a Gary, Indiana-licensed station serving the entire Chicago market, which carries a primary affiliation with The CW, while maintaining Fox's MyNetworkTV programming service in a late night timeslot.
The 1994–96 United States broadcast television realignment consisted of a series of events, primarily involving affiliation switches between television stations, that resulted from a multimillion-dollar deal between the Fox Broadcasting Company (commonly known as simply Fox) and New World Communications, a media company that – through its then-recently formed broadcasting division – owned several VHF television stations affiliated with major broadcast television networks, primarily CBS.
The major impetus for the changes was to allow Fox to improve its local affiliate coverage, in preparation for the commencement of its rights to the National Football Conference (NFC) television package, which the National Football League (NFL) awarded to the fledgling network in December 1993. As a result of various other deals that followed as a result of the affiliation switches created by the deal between Fox and New World, most notably the buyout of CBS by Westinghouse, the switches constituted some of the most sweeping changes in American television history. As a result of this realignment, Fox ascended to the status of a major television network, comparable in influence to the Big Three television networks (CBS, NBC and ABC).
Nearly 70 stations in 30 media markets throughout the United States changed affiliations starting in September 1994 and continuing through September 1996 (although an additional affiliation switch would occur in February 1997, through the launch of an upstart station that gained its network partner through one of the ancillary deals), which – along with the concurrent January 1995 launches of The WB Television Network (a joint venture between Time Warner, the Tribune Company and the network's founding chief executive officer, Jamie Kellner) and the United Paramount Network (UPN) (founded by Chris-Craft/United Television, through a programming partnership with Paramount Television), both of which affiliated with certain stations that lost their previous network partners through the various affiliation agreements – marked some of the most expansive changes ever to have occurred in American television.Affiliation
Affiliation or affiliate may refer to:
Affiliate (commerce), a legal form of entity relationship used in Business Law
Affiliation (family law), a legal form of family relationship
Affiliate network or affiliation platform, a website connecting advertisers and affiliates
Affiliated trade union, in British politics, a trade union that has an affiliation to the British Labour Party
Network affiliate, a relationship between broadcasting companies
Need for affiliation, a person's need to feel a sense of involvement and "belonging" within a social group
Political party affiliation
Social affiliation (tend and befriend)
Affiliated trade union
Affiliated operator, in math
Affiliated institution, organizations in Japan
AffiliationQuebec a registered political party in Quebec
Affiliated (album), 2006 rap album by MC EihtKAAN (AM)
KAAN (870 kHz) is a commercial radio station located in Bethany, Missouri, and serving northwest Missouri and southern Iowa. The station broadcasts a sports radio format. KAAN is owned by Alpha Media and has a daytime-only license. WWL in New Orleans is the 50,000-watt Class A clear-channel station on 870 AM, so KAAN must sign off at sunset to avoid interfering with WWL. KAAN can also be heard on an FM translator station K279AP at 103.7 MHz. The translator operates 24 hours a day, even when the AM station is off the air at night.
The transmitter tower is located six miles west of Bethany on U.S. Route 136 at West 140th Avenue.KAAN is a network affiliate of ESPN Radio with some programming from CBS Sports Radio. It also carries NFL games from the Kansas City Chiefs and MLB games from the St. Louis Cardinals. It first signed on the air on December 3, 1983.KABE-CD
KABE-CD, virtual and UHF digital channel 39, is a low-powered, Class A Univision owned-and-operated television station licensed to Bakersfield, California, United States. Owned by the Univision Local Media subsidiary of Univision Communications, it is a sister station to Justice Network affiliate KUVI-DT (channel 45) and Class A UniMás owned-and-operated station KBTF-CD (channel 31). The three stations share studios on Truxtun Avenue in the western section of Bakersfield; KABE-CD's transmitter is located atop Breckenridge Mountain.
In addition to its own digital signal, KABE-CD is simulcast in high definition on the second digital subchannel of KUVI (UHF channel 45.2 or virtual channel 39.2 via PSIP) from a transmitter atop Mount Adelaide.KHVM-LD
KHVM-LD channel 48 is a digital low-power television station in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its main affiliation is with the Global Christian Network. It broadcasts with a 15 kW signal from its Arden Hills, Minnesota tower, which it shares with sister station KTCJ-LD channel 50, a Cornerstone Television Network affiliate, and Daystar Television Network affiliate WDMI-LD channel 62. The station's tower was hit by lightning around Memorial Day 2010, forcing both stations KHVM-LD and KTCJ-LD to go silent (WDMI converted from analog to digital about the same time).
KHVM previously broadcast a highly directional signal on channel 28 that carried southwest, to possibly to avoid signal conflicts with Wisconsin Public Television station WHWC-TV channel 28 in Menomonie, Wisconsin. KHVM gained an FCC "Special Temporary Authority" (STA) to broadcast at 0.35 kW power. In addition, KAWB in Brainerd, Minnesota, which also broadcasts on channel 28, displaced KHVM. KHVM began broadcasting on channel 48 over the last weekend in July 2011 following a construction permit to move to the channel. The station has been off air since August, 2017.KMAJ (AM)
KMAJ (The Big Talker) is an AM radio station in Topeka, Kansas broadcasting on the frequency of 1440 kHz. KMAJ is an ABC News & Talk network affiliate that is owned by Cumulus Media.KMBD-LD
KMBD-LD is a low-powered digital television station that is licensed to and serving Minneapolis, Minnesota. The station was formerly a Bounce TV network affiliate owned and operated by HC2 Holdings. The station broadcast its digital signal on UHF channel 43 from atop the IDS Center. The station holds a construction permit to move its signal to channel 20.KTCJ-LD
KTCJ-LD channel 50 was a digital low-power television station in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its main affiliation is with the Cornerstone Television network. It broadcasts with a 15 kW signal from its Arden Hills, Minnesota tower, which it shares with sister station KHVM-LD channel 48, a Global Christian Network affiliate, and Daystar Television Network affiliate WDMI-LD channel 62. The station's tower was hit by lightning around Memorial Day 2010, forcing both KHVM-LD and KTCJ-LD to go silent (WDMI converted from analog to digital about the same time). The station has been off air since August, 2017.KWKW
KWKW (1330 kHz, "Radio Deportes") is an AM radio station licensed to Los Angeles, California. The station is owned by Lotus Communications, through licensee Lotus Los Angeles Corp.
KWKW was one of the first Spanish-language radio stations in the Greater Los Angeles area. Currently, the station broadcasts an all-sports format as a network affiliate of ESPN Deportes Radio.
The station operates with 5,000 watts around the clock, although at night, to avoid interfering with other stations on AM 1330, it uses a directional antenna. The studios and offices are on Barham Avenue in Los Angeles. The transmitter is off Chesapeake Avenue, also in Los Angeles.KXLK-CD
KXLK-CD, (virtual channel 40, UHF digital channel 23) is a digital Class A television channel in Austin. Previously, it was an affiliate of "The Word Network", the largest African-American religious television network in the world. Until September 2014, KXLK-CA was the Home Shopping Network affiliate for the Austin, Texas area. The station is owned and operated by Univision Local Media, Inc and is sister to stations KAKW-DT and KTFO-CD.
After the 2016-2017 FCC TV spectrum auction, KXLK-CD will move from RF channel 23 to RF channel 14 for testing starting in April 2019. The switch is to be complete by June 21, 2019 On October 17, 2017, Univision announced their intent to purchase KXLK-CD from Radio Spectrum Partners for $2.55 million. KXLK-CD is not available on cable or satellite at this time.
KXLK-CD is multiplexed with channel 40.2 broadcasting Escape.List of Radio Philippines Network affiliate stations
These are the nationwide via satellite-reach TV and Radio stations of the Radio Philippines Network (CNN Philippines).Michigan IMG Sports Network
The Michigan IMG Sports Network is an American radio network consisting of 46 radio stations which carry coverage of Michigan Wolverines football and men's basketball. WWJ/Detroit (950 AM) serves as the network's flagship station. The network also includes 45 affiliates in the U.S. states of Michigan and Ohio: 28 AM stations, 4 of which extend their signals with low-power FM translators; and 17 full-power FM stations (WXYT-FM/Detroit and WQQO/Toledo generally only broadcast Michigan content over their HD Radio digital subchannels).Ohio State IMG Sports Network
The Ohio State IMG Sports Network is an American radio network consisting of 68 radio stations which carry coverage of Ohio State Buckeyes football and men's basketball. WBNS/Columbus (1460 AM) and sister station WBNS-FM/Columbus (97.1 FM) serve as the network's 2 flagship stations. The network also includes 66 affiliates in the U.S. states of Ohio and West Virginia: 40 AM stations, 3 of which extend their signals with low-power FM translators; and 26 full-power FM stations. Paul Keels has served as play-by-play announcer for both football and men's basketball since 1998; former Ohio State offensive guard Jim Lachey currently serves as color analyst for football; and former Ohio State point guard Ron Stokes currently serves as color analyst for men's basketball.Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center
Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center (founded 1898) is a cancer research and treatment center and a New York State public-benefit corporation located in Buffalo, New York and founded by Roswell Park. Candace S. Johnson is President & Chief Executive Officer of Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Roswell Park was the first dedicated medical facility for cancer treatment and research in the United States, and is the only upstate New York facility to hold the National Cancer Institute designation of "comprehensive cancer center." Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, which conducts clinical research on cancer as well as developing new drugs, provides advanced treatment for all forms of adult and pediatric cancer and serves as a member of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
The Roswell Park campus, spread out in 15 separate buildings of approximately two million square feet, occupies 28 acres (11 ha) on the 100-acre (40 ha) Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus (BNMC) in downtown Buffalo, and includes 1,500,000 square feet (140,000 m2) of space equally distributed between clinical programs and research/education functions. A separate hospital building, completed in 1998, houses a diagnostic and treatment center. The campus also includes a medical research complex as well as research and education focused space.WBMQ
WBMQ (630 kHz) is a commercial AM radio station in Savannah, Georgia. It is owned by Cumulus Media and airs a talk radio format. The studios and offices are on Television Circle in Savannah. The transmitter is off Dulany Avenue near the Savannah River.WBMQ's weekday schedule is made up of mostly syndicated conservative talk shows from the co-owned Westwood One Network. They include Michael Savage, Chris Plante, Mark Levin, Clark Howard, Phil Valentine, John Batchelor, Red Eye Radio and America in the Morning with John Trout. Most hours begin with Westwood One News. NBC-TV network affiliate WSAV-TV 3 supplies WBMQ with some local news and weather. (At one time, the two stations had been co-owned.)WFEF-LD
WFEF-LD is a digital low-powered television station located in Orlando, Florida, USA. The station is owned and operated by DTV America Corporation. The station is a Comet network affiliate whose digital signal is broadcast over UHF channel 50, but consumer television receivers display the station’s channel number as Virtual channel 28 via PSIP. WFEF’s digital signal originates from a transmitter located near the Silver Star Terrace neighborhood of Orlando just off Florida State Road 438.WFPA-CD
WFPA-CD, UHF digital channel 28, is a low-power, Class A UniMás owned-and-operated television station licensed to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The station is owned by the Univision Local Media subsidiary of Univision Communications, and is sister to Vineland, New Jersey-licensed Univision owned-and-operated station WUVP-DT (channel 65) and Wildwood, New Jersey-licensed Justice Network affiliate WMGM-TV (channel 40). WFPA-CD and WUVP-DT share studios located on Delsea Drive in Franklin Township; WFPA-CD's transmitter is located in the Roxborough section of Philadelphia.WGTE-FM
WGTE-FM (91.3 MHz) is a public radio station in Toledo, Ohio, and is the radio partner of Channel 30 WGTE-TV, Toledo's PBS network affiliate. It features news, talk, classical music, jazz and folk music. It also airs programs from National Public Radio (NPR) and Public Radio International (PRI).
Public Radio FM 91 is simulcast on three other radio stations: WGBE (90.9 FM) in Bryan, Ohio, WGDE (91.9 FM) in Defiance, Ohio and WGLE (90.7 FM) in Lima, Ohio. Several times each year, WGTE-FM does on-air fundraisers to ask for listener support for the radio stations.WTLX
WTLX (100.5 MHz "100.5 FM ESPN") is a commercial FM radio station, licensed to Monona, Wisconsin and serving the Madison metropolitan area. The station is owned by Good Karma Broadcasting, LLC, and runs a Sports Talk radio format as a network affiliate of ESPN Radio. Studios and offices are on North Pinckney Street in Madison. The transmitter is off Tower Road, using an antenna on the water tower at the Mendota Mental Health Institute in Madison.
U.S. broadcast categories
|Affiliates and stations|