Network One

Network One was a small "independent" network, consisting of mostly low-powered television stations, scattered across the Continental United States, similar to Urban America Television, America One, or the better-known Ion (formerly PAX). The network was started in the mid-1990s, around the same time as Channel America and the American Independent Network, but shut down in 1998.[1]

Network One logo

"Alternative" programming

Focusing on "alternative" programming,[2] the network consisted of various B-Grade movies, beauty pageants, anime, and episodes of the series Night Flight and Bohemia Afterdark[3] (a Portland, Oregon-based Music Video show). Classic episodes of the 1950s "hard-boiled" crime drama Lock-Up with Macdonald Carey were featured as well. Commercials were filled with advertisements for 1-900 chat lines with a more mature focus.

List of affiliates

Most affiliates have either gone independent, switched affiliations to another television network, or have simply gone off the air. Some, however, have simply turned into rebroadcasters for other stations.

Call Sign Channel Meaning or notes
Albany (New Paltz), NY WNPC cable 17 Now defunct; replaced with PBS affiliate WMHT
Albany (Queensbury), NY WNCE-CA 8 Now an America One affiliate
Albany, GA WBLK cable 35
Atlanta (Norcross), GA Media 1 News cable 33
Baltimore, MD WMJF-LP 61 Now operates on channel 16 as an independent station with MTV2 programming
Buffalo (Olean), NY W20AB 20 Now WVTT-CD channel 25
Chattanooga (Summersville, GA), TN AG-TV cable 39
Chico-Redding, CA KDQT 46 Now defunct
Cleveland (Akron), OH WAOH-LP 29 Now an America One affiliate. Also has repeater, W35AX
Cleveland, OH W35AX 35 Repeater of WAOH-CD
Dayton, OH WUCT-LP 51 Now WRCX-LP channel 40, an America One affiliate
Detroit, MI/Windsor, Ontario WADL 38 Now an independent station with Jewelry TV and Word Network programming. Almost became a CBS affiliate in 1994.
Evansville (Webster, KY), IN WEBSTER cable 2
Florence-Myrtle Beach, SC WEYB-LP 56 Later became WPDF-LP, now defunct
Ft. Myers, FL WEVU-CA 7 Now operates on channel 4 as a repeater for Univision affiliate WUVF-LP; channel 7 is now WBSP-CA, a repeater for WEVU and WUVF.
Ft. Smith (Siloam Springs), AR CABLE cable 4
Ft. Wayne (Auburn), IN W07CL 7 Now a 3ABN affiliate
Hartford-New Haven, CT W06BL 6 Now WRNT-LP channel 48, an independent station
Honolulu, HI K56EX 56 Now defunct; replaced by full-service station KMGT (now KUPU).
Huntsville-Decatur (Florence), AL WBCF-LP 3 Now an America One affiliate
Jacksonville, FL W09CF 9 Later became WJKF-CD, now defunct
Joplin-Pittsburg (Carthage), MO K05KD 5 Now KDSI-LP, a Daystar owned-and-operated station.
Los Angeles (Palmdale), CA KPAL-LP 38 Now an independent station
Los Angeles (Temecula/Rainbow), CA KFMG-LP 67 Later became KDIG-LP, now defunct
Los Angeles (Van Nuys), CA K38CY 38 Now KSKJ-CD, a satellite station of KSCI
Medford (Brookings), OR KBSC-LP 49 Was a White Springs Television affiliate, Now Independent
Memphis (Holly Springs, MS), TN WBII-CD 20 Was an affiliate of Pursuit Channel,[4] Now an RTV Affiliate
Miami (Key West), FL WWFD 8 Now WGEN-TV, a Spanish independent
Minneapolis-St. Paul (Bemidji), MN KBSU-LP 17
Montgomery (Alexander City), AL WAXC-LP 64
Montgomery (Wetumpkta), AL WETU-LP 39 Now an ION Television affiliate
Nashville (Murfreesboro), TN WHRT-LP 27 Now defunct
Oklahoma City (Enid), OK K32DZ 32 Now KXOK-LD channel 41, an America One affiliate
Paducah (Union City), KY W09BM 9 Now WUWT-CD, an America One affiliate
Philadelphia, PA W08CC 8 Now WPSJ-CD channel 24, an America One affiliate
Phoenix (Laughlin, NV/Bullhead City), AZ KLBC cable 2 Cable-only station. Now Retro Television Network.
Pittsburgh, PA W69CC 69 Now WPTG-CD, a This TV affiliate.
Raleigh-Durham (Rocky Mount), NC WHIG-LP 57 Now operates on channel 33 as an independent station
Salt Lake City, UT K38CN 38
Salt Lake City (Logan), UT KVWB-LP 12 Now KCVB-CD channel 3, an ION Television affiliate
St. Louis, MO American Cablevision cable 3
Twin Falls, ID Wireless Unknown
Washington (Greenbelt, MD), DC WIAV-LP 58 Was a "flagship" for Network One. Now an independent station.
Wichita Falls, TX Vista Cablevision Unknown

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ NETWORK 1 -
  3. ^ Bohemia Afterdark on Network One internet archive
  4. ^ Pursuit Channel Official Site - Affiliates Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine


Big Ten Network

The Big Ten Network (BTN) is an American sports network based in Chicago, Illinois. The channel is dedicated to coverage of collegiate sports sanctioned by the Big Ten Conference, including live and recorded event telecasts, news, analysis programs, and other content focusing on the conference's member schools. It is a joint venture between Fox Sports and the Big Ten, with Fox Corporation as 51% stakeholder and operating partner, and the Big Ten Conference owning a 49% stake. It is headquartered in the former Montgomery Ward & Co. Catalog House building at 600 West Chicago Avenue in Chicago.Big Ten Network is carried by most major television providers and as of 2014, had an estimated 60 million U.S. subscribers—a number had been boosted by the addition of Rutgers University and the University of Maryland to the conference.Big Ten Network was the second U.S. sports network to be devoted to a single college sports conference, having been preceded by the MountainWest Sports Network one year prior to its launch. BTN was later followed by Pac-12 and SEC cable channels with a similar array of programming.

Bohemia Visual Music

Bohemia Visual Music (also referred to as "BVM" and "BVM TV") is an Internet broadcast music video service in the United States that was formerly a Television Broadcast Station Service.

Canal 1

Channel 1 (in Spanish: Canal 1) is a Colombian State-owned television channel. It started broadcasting on 13 June 1954 on channel 8 VHF in Bogotá. It is owned by the National Radio Television of Colombia and managed by Plural Comunicaciones, S.A.S, a private company. From the late 1950s to 2017, the channel was administered by private programming companies known as programadoras (telly programmers), which bid for time slots with the Colombian State.

In 1963, it became operated by Inravisión, a State-owned telly programmer; until then, it was operated by the National Radio of Colombia. After that, the channel's frequency was moved from channel 8 to channel 7 VHF in Bogotá. Until 1966, when private local channel Teletigre was officially launched, the then Canal Nacional was the only television channel in Colombia.

In 1972, it became the Primera cadena (First network) since Teletigre was nationalised. In the 1980s it would become Cadena uno (Network one) and acquired its current name on 1 January 1998.

Since July 1998, when telly programmers Caracol Televisión and RCN Televisión launched their own television channels, Channel 1's and Canal A's ratings steadily dropped (see below chart). Adding this to the economic recession of the late 1990s the network was suffering, this situation severely affected the telly programmers, which progressively declared bankruptcy or became merely production companies for Caracol Televisión and RCN Televisión. Channel 1 was less affected than Canal A, which became Canal Institucional, a State-controlled channel, in November 2003. RTI Colombia, the only telly programmer remaining on Canal A, was moved to Channel 1 and stood there until 2008.

In February 2014, the channel was rebranded with a new logo, a new graphical package, the removal of infomercials and a 24-hour program schedule. As of 1 May 2017, a quarter of Channel 1's programming is made by telly programmers CM&, NTC Televisión, and RTI Televisión, and a fifth by Hemisphere Media Group, the owner of Puerto Rican station WAPA and several pay-TV channels. The four companies form a joint venture company branded as Plural Comunicaciones.

Click Energy

Click Energy, is an Australian energy retailer selling electricity to private and business customers in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland. The company is unique in being a dedicated online energy retailer.The company was established in April 2006, and in June 2006 it acquired its electricity licence. Click Energy started in Victoria and received its electricity licence in June 2006, with its first customer transfers in January 2007. In March 2007, Click Energy entered the Queensland electricity market and in March 2013 the New South Wales electricity market.The company was acquired by Nu Energy in July 2012 and formed a partnership with the American energy technology company Stem in April 2013.In July 2013 Click Energy reached an agreement with consumer-driven network One Big Switch to offer an electricity deal to One Big Switch members in Queensland.One Big Switch and Click Energy collaborated again in October 2013, when they offered electricity at a discounted rate to New South Wales residents.In October 2017 Click Energy was acquired by Amaysim for $120m

Cumberland Mine Railroad

The Cumberland Mine Railroad is a private carrier mine railroad operating at the Cumberland Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. The railroad is owned by Foundation Coal and transports coal to a barge dock on the Monongahela River. It is an isolated railroad, not connected to the North American railroad network. One EMD SD38-2 locomotive is used to pull the coal trains.

The line was once owned by United States Steel, as most of the coal was used downriver in primary steelmaking.Locomotive 22 is painted in USS blue colors and is the only locomotive used on this route.

The line has 2 SD38-2 Locomotives and a fleet of leased and owned coal cars. Most trips are 37-39 coal cars with one or both locomotives. The track extends 17 miles from the river terminal to the preparation plant located about 2 miles west of Kirby.

In 2009 Foundation was purchased by Alpha Natural Resources(NYSE: ANR).

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane

Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (previously Ferrovie dello Stato), (English: Italian State Railways) is a state-owned holding company that manages infrastructure and services on the Italian rail network.One of the subsidiaries of the company, Trenitalia, is the main rail operator in Italy, and another, TrainOSE, is a rail operator in Greece.

HSV (TV station)

HSV is a television station in Melbourne. It is part of the Seven Network, one of the three main commercial television networks in Australia, and its first and oldest station, having been launched in time for the 1956 Summer Olympic Games in Melbourne. HSV-7 is the home of the AFL coverage.

The HSV building (also known as 'Broadcast Centre Melbourne') is the network's operations hub, where the Master Control Room is located for all metropolitan and regional feeds to be controlled. Programming line-up, advertisement output, feed switching, time zone monitoring and national transmission output are delivered here. All Seven Network owned and operated studios have their LIVE signals relayed here (e.g.) ATN's output is fed to HSV and then transmitted via satellite or fibre optic to the towers around metropolitan Sydney. In 2020 however, this function will transfer to a new play-out centre in Sydney as part of a joint venture with the Nine Network.


KXPA (1540 kHz) is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Bellevue, Washington, and serving the Seattle metropolitan area. It is part of the nationwide Multicultural Radio Broadcasting network, one of 30 stations owned by Arthur Liu, which cater to minority and immigrant communities with programs in their native languages.

The transmitter is located off 118th Avenue SE in Bellevue, near Kelsey Creek. KXPA is powered at 5,000 watts. But at night, to avoid interfering with other stations on 1540, KXPA uses a directional antenna, with much of the signal pointed east over Seattle and Puget Sound.

Kerry Stokes

Kerry Matthew Stokes, (born John Patrick Alford on 13 September 1940) is an Australian businessman. He holds business interests in a diverse range of industries including electronic and print media, property, mining, and construction equipment. He is most widely known as the chairman of the Seven Network, one of the largest broadcast repeating corporations in Australia. He was invested as a Companion in the General Division of the Order of Australia (AC) in recognition of his contributions to Australian business.

Mobile VoIP

Mobile VoIP or simply mVoIP is an extension of mobility to a Voice over IP network. Two types of communication are generally supported: cordless/DECT/PCS protocols for short range or campus communications where all base stations are linked into the same LAN, and wider area communications using 3G/4G protocols.

There are several methodologies that allow a mobile handset to be integrated into a VoIP network. One implementation turns the mobile device into a standard SIP client, which then uses a data network to send and receive SIP messaging, and to send and receive RTP for the voice path. This methodology of turning a mobile handset into a standard SIP client requires that the mobile handset support, at minimum, high speed IP communications. In this application, standard VoIP protocols (typically SIP) are used over any broadband IP-capable wireless network connection such as EVDO rev A (which is symmetrical high speed — both high speed up and down), HSPA, Wi-Fi or WiMAX.

Another implementation of mobile integration uses a soft-switch like gateway to bridge SIP and RTP into the mobile network's SS7 infrastructure. In this implementation, the mobile handset continues to operate as it always has (as a GSM or CDMA based device), but now it can be controlled by a SIP application server which can now provide advanced SIP-based services to it. Several vendors offer this kind of capability today.

Mobile VoIP will require a compromise between economy and mobility. For example, voice over Wi-Fi offers potentially free service but is only available within the coverage area of a single Wi-Fi access point. Cordless protocols offer excellent voice support and even support base station handoff, but require all base stations to communicate on one LAN as the handoff protocol is generally not supported by carriers or most devices.

High speed services from mobile operators using EVDO rev A or HSPA may have better audio quality and capabilities for metropolitan-wide coverage including fast handoffs among mobile base stations, yet may cost more than Wi-Fi-based VoIP services.

As device manufacturers exploited more powerful processors and less costly memory, smartphones became capable of sending and receiving email, browsing the web (albeit at low rates) and allowing a user to watch TV. Mobile VoIP users were predicted to exceed 100 million by 2012 and InStat projects 288 million subscribers by 2013.The mobile operator industry business model conflicts with the expectations of Internet users that access is free and fast without extra charges for visiting specific sites, however far away they may be hosted. Because of this, most innovations in mobile VoIP will likely come from campus and corporate networks, open source projects like Asterisk, and applications where the benefits are high enough to justify expensive experiments (medical, military, etc.). is an English-language fan website established in 1996 to contain information discussed on the Miyazaki Mailing List and to be a general resource for information regarding Hayao Miyazaki, Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli, and related topics. It is named after one of Miyazaki's films, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.

The site was originally named The Miyazaki Web and was hosted from 1994 on before being moved to a dedicated host by Jeremy Blackman in 1996. Team Ghiblink, the group of volunteers who maintain the site, was formed in 1996 from people on the Miyazaki Mailing list (which was established in 1991). The site is used as a major source of Studio Ghibli information by anime news sources such as Anime News Network.One of the major efforts by was the creation and distribution of press kits for the Kiki's Delivery Service video release and the Princess Mononoke theatrical release. The site also hosts a searchable archive index of the Miyazaki Mailing list.The site was hacked in October 1998 and was mostly recovered and relaunched in early 1999 through the efforts of many people who used the site as well as through backups made by early versions of Google Search.

Network Ten

Network 10 (commonly known as Channel 10 or simply 10) is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country. The network is owned by Ten Network Holdings, a subsidiary of CBS Studios International.


Pipex was the United Kingdom's first commercial Internet service provider (ISP). It was formed in 1990 and helped to develop the ISP market in the UK. In 1992 it began operating a 64k transatlantic leased line and built a connection to the UK government's JANET network. One of its first customers was Demon Internet which popularised dial up modem based internet access in the UK. It was also one of the key players in the development of the London Internet Exchange through a meeting with BT in 1994.

The company went through a number of mergers and acquisitions and by 2007 had dropped to be the sixth largest ISP in the UK. The Pipex name was used by a number of companies within the group, which were gradually renamed following the sale of its home broadband business to Tiscali UK in 2007. In 2009, the former Pipex Wireless business, rebranded as Freedom4, bought the former Pipex Business, known as Vialtus. Freedom4 also purchased Daisy Group through a reverse takeover, and the three companies were brought together as Daisy.

Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra

The Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra (Swedish: Sveriges Radios Symfoniorkester) is a Swedish radio orchestra based in Stockholm, affiliated with Sveriges Radio (Swedish Radio). Its principal performing venue is the Berwaldhallen (Berwald Hall). The orchestra broadcasts concerts on the Swedish Radio-P2 network.

One of the precursor ensembles to the current orchestra was the Radioorkestern (Radio Orchestra), whose chief conductors included Nils Grevillius (1927-1939) and Tor Mann (1939-1959). In 1965, the Radioorkestern was merged with another orchestra from Swedish Radio, the Underhållningsorkestern (Entertainment Orchestra), under the new name of the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra. Sergiu Celibidache was the newly formed orchestra's first principal conductor, from 1965 to 1971. In 1979, the orchestra took up residence at the Berwaldhallen.

Since 2007, the orchestra's principal conductor is Daniel Harding. In September 2009, the orchestra announced the first extension of Harding's contract as principal conductor, through 2012. In April 2013, the orchestra announced a second extension of Harding's contract through 2015. In October 2018, the orchestra announced the extension of Harding's contract as principal conductor through 2023, along with granting him the new title of konstnärlig ledare (artistic leader).Herbert Blomstedt, principal conductor of the orchestra from 1977 to 1982, now has the title of förste hedersdirigent (first honorary conductor) with the orchestra. Valery Gergiev and Esa-Pekka Salonen also hold the title of hedersdirigent (honorary conductor) with the orchestra. In December 2017, the orchestra announced the appointment of Klaus Mäkelä as its next principal guest conductor, effective with the 2018-2019 season. Mäkelä is the youngest-ever appointment to a titled post with the orchestra.

The Voice Belgique

The Voice Belgique is a francophone Belgian reality television singing competition. The TV show is part of the international "Voice" franchise that started in the Netherlands as The Voice of Holland. It kicked off on December 20, 2011, one month after its Flemish Belgian counterpart, The Voice van Vlaanderen went on air. It is currently airing on La Une from RTBF network.One of the important premises of the show is the quality of the singing talent. Four coaches, themselves popular performing artists, train the talents in their group and occasionally perform with them. Talents are selected in blind auditions, where the coaches cannot see, but only hear the auditioner.

USA Network

USA Network (commonly referred to as simply USA, stylized as usa since 2005) is an American pay television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. It was originally launched in 1977 as Madison Square Garden Sports Network, one of the first national sports cable television channels, before being relaunched as USA Network in 1980. Once a minor player in basic-tier pay television, USA has steadily gained popularity due to its original programming; it is one of 4 major subscription-television networks (with TBS, TNT and FX) that also broadcasts syndicated reruns of current and former "network television" (i.e., terrestrial) series and theatrically-released feature films, as well as limited sports programming and WWE.

As of January 2016, USA Network is available to 94.3 million households in the US.


WEYS-LP is a low-power television station in Miami, Florida, United States, broadcasting locally on channel 6 as an Almavision owned-and-operated station.


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Their web site can be found here:


WNYJ-TV, virtual channel 66 (UHF digital channel 29), was an independent non-commercial educational television station licensed to West Milford, New Jersey, United States. The station's transmitting facilities were located in West Orange, New Jersey. Its broadcast license was owned by the Oakland, California-based Christian broadcast ministry Family Stations, who from 1996 through 2013 operated it as WFME-TV, a religious television station.

WNYJ-TV carried programming from CNC World, an English-language news channel based in Beijing, on its main channel, 66.1. On WNYJ's digital subchannel 66.2 it aired MHz WorldView, a non-commercial television network owned by Virginia-based Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation. An additional subchannel carried the audio from WFME-FM in Mount Kisco, New York, which broadcasts the Family Radio religious network. One WNYJ subchannel had carried France 24, an English-language news channel from Paris, although that service has been discontinued.

In April 2017, it was announced that WNYJ had sold its spectrum in the FCC's incentive auction and would be going off the air. WNYJ-TV ceased operations October 25, 2017.


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