Nest box

A nest box, also spelled nestbox, is a man-made enclosure provided for animals to nest in. Nest boxes are most frequently utilized for birds, in which case they are also called birdhouses or a birdbox/bird box, but some mammalian species may also use them, like bats for example. Placing nestboxes or roosting boxes may also be used to help maintain populations of particular species in an area. The nest box was invented by the British conservationist Charles Waterton in the early 19th century to encourage more birdlife and wildfowl on the nature reserve he set up on his estate.[1]

Nest boxes are getting more attention because industrialization, deforestation and other human activities since the mid-20th century have caused severe declines in birds' natural habitats, introducing hurdles to breeding. A nest box can help prevent bird extinction.[2]

Western Bluebird leaving nest box
Western bluebird leaving a nest box


General construction

Nest boxes are usually wooden, although the purple martin will nest in metal.[3] Some boxes are made from a mixture of wood and concrete, called woodcrete.[4] Ceramic and plastic nestboxes are not suitable.[5]

Nest boxes should be made from untreated wood with an overhanging, sloped roof, a recessed floor, drainage and ventilation holes, a way to access the interior for monitoring and cleaning, and have no outside perches which could assist predators.[6] Boxes may either have an entrance hole or be open-fronted.[7] Some nest boxes can be highly decorated and complex, sometimes mimicking human houses or other structures. They may also contain nest box cameras so that use of, and activity within, the box can be monitored.[8]

Bird nest box construction

Gramercy Park birdhouse
Birdhouses in Gramercy Park, New York City, note the use of different diameter entrance holes

The diameter of the opening in a nest-box has a very strong influence on the species of birds that will use the box. Many small birds select boxes with a hole only just large enough for an adult bird to pass through. This may be an adaptation to prevent other birds from raiding it. In European countries, an opening of 2.5 cm in diameter will attract Poecile palustris, Poecile montanus; an opening of 2.8 cm in diameter will attract Ficedula hypoleuca, and an opening of 3 cm in diameter will attract Parus major, Passer montanus, an opening of 3 cm in diameter will attract Passer domesticus.[9]

The size of the nest box also affects the bird species likely to use the box. Very small boxes attract wrens and treecreepers and very large ones may attract ducks and owls. Seasonally removing old nest material and parasites is important if they are to be successfully re-used.

The material used in the construction may also be significant. Sparrows have been shown to prefer woodcrete boxes rather than wooden ones. Birds nesting in woodcrete sites had earlier clutches, a shorter incubation period, and more reproductive success, perhaps because the synthetic nests were warmer than their wooden counterparts.[10]

Placement of the nest box obviously is also significant. Some birds (including birds of prey[11][12]) prefer their nest box to be at an optimum height. Some birds (such as ducks) prefer nest sites them to be very low or even at ground level. For many birds orientation relative to the sun is of importance with many birds preferring an orientation away from direct sun and sheltered from the prevailing rain.[13]

Bat box construction

Bat box in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (41119)
A typical bat box affixed to a post

Bat boxes differ from bird nest-boxes in typical design, with the larger opening on the underside of the box, and are more often referred to as bat boxes, although in regard to the rearing of young, they serve the same purpose. Some threatened bat species can be locally supported with the provision of appropriately placed bat-boxes, however species that roost in foliage or large cavities will not use bat boxes. Bat boxes are typically made out of wood, and there are several designs for boxes with single or multiple chambers. Directions for making the open bottom bat houses for small and large colonies,[14][15] as well as locations to purchase them are available on the internet.[16] Colour and placement is important to ensuring that bat boxes are used; bat boxes that are too shaded will not heat up enough to attract a maternity colony of bats. Australian bat box projects have been running for over 12 years in particular at the Organ Pipes National Park. Currently there are 42 roost boxes using the "Stebbings Design" which have peaked at 280 bats roosting in them. The biggest problem with roosting boxes of any kind is the ongoing maintenance; problems include boxes falling down, wood deteriorating, and pests such as ants, the occasional rat, possums, and spiders.[17]

Other creatures

An unusual case of two wasp nests inside one nest box purposefully set for Boreal Owls
Two wasp nests inside a nest box set for boreal owls

Nest boxes are marketed not only for birds, but also for butterflies[18][19] and other mammals, especially arboreal ones such as squirrels and opossums. Depending on the animal, these boxes may be used for roosting, breeding, or both. Or, as in the case with butterflies, hibernation.[19]

Wasps may build their nests inside a nest box intended for other animals, and may exclude the intended species.

See also


  1. ^ "Charles Waterton (1782–1865)". Birdhouse Planet. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  2. ^ "Birdhouse Basics – Birdhouse Planet". Birdhouse Planet. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  3. ^ "Before Buying a Birdhouse". Duncraft's Wild Bird Blog. 2010-03-10. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  4. ^ Browne, Stephen J. (2006-07-01). "Effect of nestbox construction and colour on the occupancy and breeding success of nesting tits Parus spp". Bird Study. 53 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1080/00063650609461432. ISSN 0006-3657.
  5. ^ "Details". The RSPB.
  6. ^ "Attracting Birds With Nest Boxes". The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Cornell University. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Putting up a nest box | BTO - British Trust for Ornithology". Retrieved 2017-03-05.
  8. ^ Phillips, Tina; Cooper, Caren. "Lights, Camera, Action! Nest Box Cam technology reveals rarely seen events". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Cornell University. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  9. ^ Pauline Pears (2005), HDRA encyclopedia of organic gardening, Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 978-1405308915
  10. ^ García-Navas, Vicente; Arroyo, Luis; Sanz, Juan José; Díaz, Mario (2008). "Effect of nestbox type on occupancy and breeding biology of tree sparrows Passer montanus in central Spain". Ibis. 150 (2): 356–364. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2008.00799.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-30.
  11. ^ "Falcon nest box position".
  12. ^ "Various nest box designs (various species)".
  13. ^ "Siting a nest-box". RSPB.
  14. ^ "Single chamber bat house (wall mounted)". Bat Conservation International. Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  15. ^ Brown, Carla. "Why I Built A Bat House". National Wildlife Federation. Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  16. ^ Boleky, Vaughan (2005–2006). "Why Are Bat Houses Important?". Organization for Bat Conservation. Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  17. ^ Tuttle, Merlin D.; Kiser, Mark; Kiser, Selena (2013). The Bat House Builder's Handbook (PDF). Bat Conservation International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-19. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  18. ^ Johnson, Terry W. "Out My Backdoor: Do Butterfly Boxes Work?". Out My Backdoor. GA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  19. ^ a b Bergström, Nina (2011-06-19). "Fixa fint för fjärilarna". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 June 2011.

External links

Barn owl

The barn owl (Tyto alba) is the most widely distributed species of owl and one of the most widespread of all birds. It is also referred to as the common barn owl, to distinguish it from other species in its family, Tytonidae, which forms one of the two main lineages of living owls, the other being the typical owls (Strigidae). The barn owl is found almost everywhere in the world except polar and desert regions, in Asia north of the Himalayas, most of Indonesia, and some Pacific islands.Phylogenetic evidence shows that there are at least three major lineages of barn owl, one in Europe, western Asia and Africa, one in southeast Asia and Australasia, and one in the Americas, and some highly divergent taxa on islands. Accordingly, some authorities split the group into the western barn owl for the group in Europe, western Asia and Africa, the American barn owl for the group in the Americas, and the eastern barn owl for the group in southeast Asia and Australasia. Some taxonomic authorities further split the group, recognising up to five species, and further research needs to be done to clarify the position. There is a considerable variation between the sizes and colour of the approximately 28 subspecies but most are between 33 and 39 cm (13 and 15 in) in length with wingspans ranging from 80 to 95 cm (31 to 37 in). The plumage on head and back is a mottled shade of grey or brown, the underparts vary from white to brown and are sometimes speckled with dark markings. The face is characteristically heart-shaped and is white in most subspecies. This owl does not hoot, but utters an eerie, drawn-out shriek.

The barn owl is nocturnal over most of its range, but in Britain and some Pacific islands, it also hunts by day. Barn owls specialise in hunting animals on the ground and nearly all of their food consists of small mammals which they locate by sound, their hearing being very acute. They usually mate for life unless one of the pair is killed, when a new pair bond may be formed. Breeding takes place at varying times of year according to locality, with a clutch, averaging about four eggs, being laid in a nest in a hollow tree, old building or fissure in a cliff. The female does all the incubation, and she and the young chicks are reliant on the male for food. When large numbers of small prey are readily available, barn owl populations can expand rapidly, and globally the bird is considered to be of least conservation concern. Some subspecies with restricted ranges are more threatened.


The budgerigar (; Melopsittacus undulatus) is a long-tailed, seed-eating parrot usually nicknamed the budgie, or in American English, the parakeet. Budgies are the only species in the genus Melopsittacus. Naturally, the species is green and yellow with black, scalloped markings on the nape, back, and wings. Budgies are bred in captivity with colouring of blues, whites, yellows, greys, and even with small crests. Juveniles and chicks are monomorphic, while adults are told apart by their cere colouring, and their behaviour.

The origin of the budgie's name is unclear. First recorded in 1805, budgerigars are popular pets around the world due to their small size, low cost, and ability to mimic human speech. They are the third most popular pet in the world, after the domesticated dog and cat. Budgies are nomadic flock parakeets that have been bred in captivity since the 19th century. In both captivity and the wild, budgerigars breed opportunistically and in pairs.

Found wild throughout the drier parts of Australia, prior to colonisation they had survived harsh inland conditions for five million years. The budgerigar is closely related to lories and the fig parrots.

Consumer demand tests (animals)

Consumer demand tests for animals are studies designed to measure the relative strength of an animal's motivation to obtain resources such as different food items. The test results are analogous to human patterns of purchasing resources with a limited income. For humans, the cost of resources is usually measured in money; in animal studies the cost is usually represented by energy required, time taken or a risk of injury. Costs of resources can be imposed on animals by an operant task (e.g. lever-pressing), a natural aversion (e.g. crossing water), or a homeostatic challenge (e.g. increased body temperature). Humans usually decrease the amount of an item purchased (or consumed) as the cost of that item increases. Similarly, animals tend to consume less of an item as the cost of that item increases (e.g. more lever presses required).

Such demand tests quantify the strength of motivation animals have for resources whilst avoiding anthropomorphism and anthropocentrism.Using consumer demand tests one can empirically determine the strength of motivation animals have for a definite need (e.g. food, water) and also for resources we humans might perceive as a luxury or unnecessary but animals might not (e.g. sand for dustbathing or additional space for caged mice). By comparing the strength of motivation for the resource with that for a definite

need, we can measure the importance of a resource as perceived by the animals. Animals will be most highly motivated to interact with resources they absolutely need, highly motivated for resources that they perceive as most improving their welfare, and less motivated for resources they perceive as less important. Furthermore, Argument by analogy indicates that as with humans, it is more likely that animals will experience negative affective states (e.g. frustration, anxiety) if they are not provided with the resources for which they show high motivation.Various other aspects of the animal's behaviour can be measured to aid understanding of motivation for resources, e.g. latency (delay) to approach the point of access, speed of incurring the cost, time with each resource, or the range of activities with each of the resources. These measures can be recorded either by the experimenter or by motion detecting software. Prior to testing, the animals are usually given the opportunity to explore the apparatus and variants to habituate and reduce the effects of novelty.

Dusky-headed parakeet

The dusky-headed parakeet (Aratinga weddellii), also known as Weddell's conure or dusky conure in aviculture, is a small green Neotropical parrot with dusty grey head found in wooded habitats in the western Amazon basin of South America. Its range extends from southeastern Colombia south through eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru and southwest Amazonian Brazil, to central Bolivia. It prefers semiopen habitats such as várzea, forest edge, and forest remnants, but can also be found in coffee plantations. It is generally common and its habitat preference makes it less vulnerable than many other Amazonian species. Consequently, it is considered to be of least concern by BirdLife International and IUCN.

This long-tailed species is generally green in color (both lutino and blue mutations are rare, but do exist in captivity) with a gray-brown head, a blue-tipped tail, and remiges that are dark gray from below, mainly blue from above. The bill is black, and it has a broad, bare, white (sometimes yellow-tinged) eye-ring. With a typical length of 25–28 cm (10–11 in) and a weight around 100 grams, it is slightly smaller than the sun conure. Many people call these conures minimacaws because they have skin near their beak and eyes, similar to the macaw.

It is social, and usually found in pairs or small groups. It may even flock with different species of conures. When food is plentiful, it may form flocks of up to 100 members. It eats fruit, seeds, and flowers, and searches decaying wood for insect larvae. It also ingests mineral-rich soil, e.g., from a clay lick, as a supplement. A pair raises their offspring together, nesting in woodpecker holes in trees or arboreal termite nests.

Consuming clay is believed to provide a mineral supplement and neutralise toxins in their diet. Their predators (along with many other neotropical parrots) include many birds of prey, monkeys, and in some cases, jaguars.

They do well in captivity. They are fairly easy to breed if provided with a durable nest box, and will lay up to three clutches per year. They are known to be quiet, compared to other conure species, but still very energetic and clownish, like most conures. These conures' lifespans range from 25 to 50 years, though their typical lifespans are usually 35–40 years.Recently, they have been sighted as a colony in coastal districts of Lima, Perú. They probably came as pets, and have settled in this city.

Dymock Woods SSSI

Dymock Woods (grid reference SO684288, SO692290, SO697283) is a 53-hectare (130-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Gloucestershire, notified in 1990. The site is listed in the 'Forest of Dean Local Plan Review' as a Key Wildlife Site (KWS).The site is divided into three units of assessment and includes the Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust nature reserve known as Betty Daw's Wood which is unit 3.

High House, Purfleet

High House is the collective name for a group of historic buildings in Purfleet, Thurrock, Essex, which was used as a farm for hundreds of years, with a Grade II listed house and barn, but with the addition of one of the best dovecotes (dove houses) in Southern England, which is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and notable for its nest box array. This property includes the house, coachman's cottage, chaise house, stable, granary, barn, workshop, cart sheds, dovecote, and inner and outer walled gardens. Known by many names in its past, the farm has been called Le Vineyards, because grape vines were grown on one of its south facing slopes. Its current name comes from the fact that it is a house high on the hill, which commands great views over the River Thames.

Juniper titmouse

The juniper titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The American Ornithologists' Union split the plain titmouse into the oak titmouse and the juniper titmouse in 1996, due to distinct differences in song, preferred habitat, and genetic makeup.The juniper titmouse is a small, gray bird with small tuft or crest. The face is plain, and the undersides are a lighter gray. Sexes are similar.

This titmouse lives year-round primarily in the Great Basin, but is resident from southeastern Oregon and central Colorado south to the eastern Mojave Desert in California and central Arizona, as far as west Texas and extreme northeastern Sonora, Mexico-(the Madrean sky islands). Prefers open woodlands of warm, dry pinyon-juniper, juniper and desert riparian woods.

Juniper titmice will sleep in cavities, dense foliage, or birdhouses. When roosting in foliage, the titmouse chooses a twig surrounded by dense foliage or an accumulation of dead pine needles, simulating a roost in a cavity. It forms pairs or small groups, but does not form large flocks. It may join mixed-species flocks after breeding season for foraging.

The juniper titmouse eats insects and spiders, sometimes seen catching insects in mid air. It also takes berries, acorns, and some seeds, sometimes hammering seeds against branches to open them. The bird forages on foliage, twigs, branches, trunks, and occasionally on the ground. Strong legs and feet allows it to hang upside down to forage. Juniper titmouse is attracted to feeders with suet, peanut butter and sunflower seeds.

The song of the juniper titmouse is a rolling series of notes given on the same pitch. Its call sounds like a raspy tschick-adee.

This species builds its nest in a woodpecker hole, natural cavity, or nest box, lining it with grass, moss, mud, hair, feathers, and fur. It breeds from March into July, with peak activity in April and May, laying 3–9 eggs, usually 4–7. The female is the primary incubator, the process of which takes 14–16 days. Young are altricial, and are tended by both parents in nest for 16–21 days. Parents continue to tend to young for another three to four weeks after the young leave the nest.

The oak titmouse and juniper titmouse appear almost identical, but differ in voice as well as range. The oak titmouse has a browner back than the juniper titmouse. The oak titmouse gives a repeated series of three to seven syllables, each composed of one low and one high note, while the juniper titmouse song consists of a series of rapid syllables on the same note. Ranges overlap only in a small area in California. The tufted titmouse, which does not overlap in range, has whiter belly, rusty flanks, and black on the forehead.

Kodak Tower

Kodak Tower is a 19-story skyscraper in the High Falls District of Rochester, New York, and is part of the Eastman Kodak Headquarters complex. It has a roof height of 340 ft (103.6 m) and stands 366 ft (111.6 m) with its antenna spire included. It was Rochester, NY’s tallest building for over 50 years from its completion in 1914 until the Xerox Square Tower surpassed it in the late 1960s. Today, it is the 4th tallest building in Rochester, NY and is the 9th tallest building in New York State outside NYC.

The Kodak Tower has long been recognized as a landmark in the Rochester Skyline, and an icon in the world of film photography. The building has also been called the "nerve center of photography".The Eastman Kodak Company owns the skyscraper, and it remains the company's headquarters. In 2008, Kodak undertook work to repair and restore the exterior of the building.

List of Afghan films of 2014

The Afghan film industry produced fifteen feature films in 2014. This article fully lists all non-pornographic films, including short films, that had a release date in that year and which were at least partly made by Afghanistan. It does not include films first released in previous years that had release dates in 2014. Also included is an overview of the major events in Afghan film, including film festivals and awards ceremonies, as well as lists of those films that have been particularly well received, both critically and financially.


Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets. There are two extant species referred to as "mink": the American mink and the European mink. The extinct sea mink is related to the American mink, but was much larger. The American mink is larger and more adaptable than the European mink but, due to variations in size, an individual mink usually cannot be determined as European or American with certainty without looking at the skeleton; however, all European mink have a large white patch on their upper lip, whereas only some American mink have this marking: therefore, any mink without the patch is certainly of the American species. Taxonomically, both American and European mink were placed in the same genus Mustela, but most recently, the American mink has been reclassified as belonging to its own genus, Neovison.The American mink's fur has been highly prized for use in clothing, with hunting giving way to farming. Their treatment on fur farms has been a focus of animal rights and animal welfare activism. American mink have established populations in Europe (including Great Britain) and South America, after being released from mink farms by animal rights activists, or otherwise escaping from captivity. In the UK, under the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981, it is illegal to release mink into the wild. In some countries, any live mink caught in traps must be humanely killed.American mink are believed by some to have contributed to the decline of the less hardy European mink through competition (though not through hybridization—native European mink are in fact more closely related to polecats than to North American mink). Trapping is used to control or eliminate introduced American mink populations.Mink oil is used in some medical products and cosmetics, as well as to treat, preserve and waterproof leather.

Nest box camera

A nest box camera, also known as a bird box camera, is a photographic device fitted inside a nest box in order to monitor its inhabitants. Many Internet sites broadcast video streams and still images of nesting birds in real time.

Oak titmouse

The oak titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The American Ornithologists' Union split the plain titmouse into the oak titmouse and the juniper titmouse in 1996, due to distinct differences in song, preferred habitat, and genetic makeup.The oak titmouse is a small, brown-tinged gray bird with small tuft or crest. The face is plain, and the undersides are a lighter gray. Sexes are similar, as there is very little to no sexual dimorphism.

This species lives year-round on the Pacific slope, resident from southern Oregon south through California west of the Sierra Nevada to Baja California, but its range surrounds the central San Joaquin Valley. It prefers open woodlands of warm, dry oak and oak-pine at low to mid-elevations but can also be found in forests as long as adequate oak trees are present.

The oak titmouse will sleep in cavities, dense foliage or birdhouses. When roosting in foliage, the titmouse chooses a twig surrounded by dense foliage or an accumulation of dead pine needles, simulating a roost in a cavity. It forms pairs or small groups, but does not form large flocks. It may join mixed-species flocks after breeding season for foraging. Pairs stay together after the breeding season.

Oak titmice eat insects and spiders, and are sometimes seen catching insects in mid air. They will also take berries, acorns, and some seeds. This species forages on foliage, twigs, branches, trunks, and occasionally on ground, sometimes hanging upside down to forage, and hammering seeds against branches to open them. Oak titmice are attracted to feeders with suet, peanut butter and sunflower seeds.

The song of the oak titmouse is a series of repeated whistled notes of three to seven syllables, with first syllable higher in pitch than the following one. The call is a scratchy tsicka-dee-dee.

The oak titmouse builds its nest in a woodpecker hole, a natural cavity, or a nest box, using grass, moss, mud, hair, feathers, and fur. It breeds from March into July, with peak activity in April and May, laying 3–9 eggs, usually 6–8. The female is the primary incubator, with incubation taking 14–16 days. Young are altricial and are tended by both parents in nest for 16–21 days. Parents continue to tend to young for another three to four weeks after they leave the nest.

The oak titmouse and juniper titmouse appear almost identical, but differ in voice as well as range. The oak titmouse has a browner back than the juniper titmouse. The oak titmouse gives a repeated series of three to seven syllables, each comprising one low and one high note, while the juniper titmouse song consists of a series of rapid syllables on the same note. Ranges overlap only in a small area in California. The tufted titmouse, which does not overlap in range, has a whiter belly, rusty flanks, and black on the forehead.

Senegal parrot

The Senegal parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) is a parrot which is a resident breeder across a wide range of west Africa. It makes migrations within west Africa, according to the availability of the fruit, seeds and blossoms which make up its diet. It is considered a farm pest in Africa, often feeding on maize or millet. It is popular in aviculture.

St George's Church, Portobello

St George's Church, Portobello, is a former Church of England parish church in the City of Sheffield, England. It is now part of the University of Sheffield and is a lecture theatre and student housing.

St George's is the first of three Commissioners' churches to have been built in Sheffield under the Church Building Act 1818. The other two are St Mary's Church, Bramall Lane and St Philip's Church, Netherthorpe (demolished 1951). St George's is a Gothic Revival building designed by the architects Woodhead and Hurst in a Perpendicular Gothic style. It was built at a cost of £15,181 (equivalent to £1,220,000 in 2018), the whole cost being met by the Church Building Commission.The building is 122 feet (37 m) long and 67 feet (20 m) wide, and consisted of a flat-ceilinged nave with six bays, a single-bay chancel, and a 140 feet (43 m)-high tower. Galleries extended the length of the north and south walls, and there was a two-tiered gallery on the west wall. In total the church could seat 380 people. The foundation stone was laid on 19 July 1821, and the church was consecrated by Archbishop Vernon Harcourt on 29 June 1825.

The church was declared redundant and closed in 1981. It stood unused for a number of years until the University of Sheffield acquired it and in 1994 had it converted into a lecture theatre and student accommodation. Prior to this it had been the last of the Commissioners' churches in Sheffield to retain its original form. It is a Grade II listed building.In 2010 a nest-box was placed on the church rooftop, which is now home to a breeding pair of peregrine falcons that can be seen via live stream webcam.


Stærekassen (lit. "The Starling Nest Box"), also known as Ny Scene (English: New Stage) is a theatre building annexed to the Royal Danish Theatre on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen, Denmark. It opened in 1931 to serve a dual purpose as an additional stage for the Royal Theatre and the first home of the new Danish Broadcasting Corporation. The colloquial name, which has now obtained official status, refers to the design of the stage tower in the shape of a box suspended above the street, and in the initial design proposals with a large round window high up as the dominating ornamental feature of the facade.

Sussex Heights

Sussex Heights is a residential tower block in the centre of Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. Built between 1966 and 1968 on the site of a historic church, it rises to 334 feet (102 m)— as of March 2013 Sussex Heights is the 48th tallest building in the UK. Until 2005 it was the tallest residential tower in the UK outside London. Richard Seifert's design has been criticised for its overbearing scale and contrast with neighbouring Regency architecture, but it is acknowledged as an "imposing and prestigious" luxury apartment block with good facilities. Peregrine falcons have been resident at the top of the tower for several years, and have successfully bred.

Until 2015, it was the tallest structure in Brighton, however it has now been exceeded by the i360 Tower, which stands at 162 metres.

Travelers Tower

Travelers Tower is a 24-story, 160.63 m (527.0 ft) skyscraper in downtown Hartford, Connecticut. Travelers Tower was the seventh tallest building in the world when it was constructed in 1919, and is currently the second tallest building in Hartford. Travelers Tower is the fourth headquarters of Travelers Insurance Company. The architect of Travelers Tower was Donn Barber, who also designed the Connecticut State Library, Supreme Court Building and The Hartford Times Building.The tower is actually an extension of two other buildings of which it begins at the tenth floor so it is sometimes considered to have 34 floors. At the 27th floor is an open observation deck. The top of the building has become a nesting spot for peregrine falcons, which are observed by web cameras. Due to maintenance to the tower, the web cameras have been taken offline and the nest box has been relocated to the Travelers Plaza Building.

Tufted titmouse

The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) is a small songbird from North America, a species in the tit and chickadee family (Paridae). Relatively "larger than a chickadee", the black-crested titmouse, found from central and southern Texas southwards, was included as a subspecies but is now considered a separate species (Baeolophus atricristatus).These small birds are approximately 6 inches in length, with a white front, and grey upper body outlined with rust colored flanks. Other characteristics include their black forehead, and the tufted grey crest on their head.The song of the tufted titmouse is usually described as a whistled peter-peter-peter, though this song can vary in approximately 20 notable ways.The bird's habitat is deciduous and mixed woods as well as gardens, parks and shrublands. Though the tufted titmouse is non-migratory and originally native to Ohio and Mississippi, factors such as bird feeders have caused these birds to occupy a larger amount of territory across the United States and stretching into Ontario, Canada. From 1966 - 2015 the tufted titmouse population has increased by more than 1.5% per year throughout the northeastern US, Michigan and Wisconsin.The tufted titmouse forages on branches and sometimes on the ground. It eats mainly insects, especially caterpillars, but also seeds, nuts, and berries, and will store food for later use. It can be curious about humans and will sometimes perch on a window ledge and seem to be peering into the house. It is a regular visitor around bird feeders. Its normal pattern is to scout a feeder from cover, fly in to take a seed, then fly back to cover to eat it.Tufted titmice nest in a hole in a tree, either a natural cavity, a man-made nest box, or sometimes an old woodpecker nest. They line the nest with soft materials, sometimes plucking hair from a live animal such as a dog. If they find shed snake skin, they will try to incorporate pieces of it in their nest. Their eggs are under an inch long and are white or cream-colored with brownish or purplish spots.The lifespan of the tufted titmouse is approximately 2.1 years, though they can live for more than 10 years. These birds will on average have a clutch size of 5 to 7 eggs. Unlike many birds, the offspring of tufted titmice will often stay with their parents during the winter, and even after the first year of their life. Sometimes, a bird born the year before will help its parents raise the next year's young.

William of Orange (pigeon)

William of Orange was a male war pigeon of British military intelligence service MI14. He was awarded the 21st Dickin Medal for delivering a message from the Arnhem Airborne Operation. This message saved more than 2000 soldiers at the time of the Battle of Arnhem in September 1944. Its official name in military record is NPS.42.NS.15125. He received the Dickin Medal in May 1945.Communications in that battle were a problem for the Allied units; German troops had surrounded the airborne forces and the few radio sets present malfunctioned. William of Orange was released by British soldiers at 10:30 on 19 September 1944 and arrived at his nest box in England at 14:55. He flew over 400 km (250 mi) and the message he carried was one of few to make their way back to the United Kingdom.

William of Orange was bred by Sir William Proctor Smith of Cheshire and trained by the Army Pigeon Service of the Royal Signals. Smith bought him out of service for £185 and ten years later reported that William was "the grandfather of many outstanding racing pigeons".


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