Nereis

Nereis is a genus of polychaete worms in the family Nereididae. It comprises many species, most of which are marine. Nereis possess setae and parapodia for locomotion. They may have two types of setae, which are found on the parapodia. Acicular setae provide support. Locomotor chaetae are for crawling, and are the bristles that are visible on the exterior of the Polychaeta. They are cylindrical in shape, found in sandy areas, and they are adapted to burrow.

Nereis
Nereis pelagica
Nereis pelagica
Scientific classification
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Nereis

Type species
Nereis pelagica
Linnaeus, 1758

Ecology

Nereis are osmoconformers. Nereids are dioecious and they release their haploid gametes into the water medium, a process called spawning. Moreover, upon fertilization and mitotic divisions of the zygote, Nereids form a larval stage which is similar to that of molluscs – i.e. a trochophore larva.

Species

The genus Nereis contains the following species:[1]

  • Nereis abbreviata Holly, 1935
  • Nereis abyssa Imajima, 2009
  • Nereis abyssicola (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis acustris Linnaeus, 1767
  • Nereis aegyptia (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818)
  • Nereis aestuarensis Knox, 1951
  • Nereis aibuhitensis (Grube, 1878)
  • Nereis albipes Grube, 1873
  • Nereis allenae Pettibone, 1956
  • Nereis amoyensis (Treadwell, 1936)
  • Nereis angelensis Fauchald, 1972
  • Nereis angusta (Kinberg, 1866)
  • Nereis angusticollis Augener, 1913
  • Nereis angusticollis Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis annularis Blainville, 1818
  • Nereis anoculis Hartman, 1960
  • Nereis anoculopsis Fauchald, 1972
  • Nereis anodonta Schmarda, 1861
  • Nereis antipoda Knox, 1960
  • Nereis apaliae Wilson, 1985
  • Nereis arenaceodonta
  • Nereis arroyensis Treadwell, 1901
  • Nereis atlantica McIntosh, 1885
  • Nereis augeneri Gravier & Dantan, 1934
  • Nereis badiotorquata (Grube, 1878)
  • Nereis baliensis (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis baolingi Leon-Gonzalez & Solis-Weiss, 2000
  • Nereis batjanensis (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis bifida Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis bipartita (Bobretzky, 1868)
  • Nereis blainvillei delle Chiaje, 1828
  • Nereis broa Lana & Sovierzovsky, 1987
  • Nereis buitendijki (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis caecoides Hartman, 1965
  • Nereis caerulea Linnaeus, 1758
  • Nereis cagliari Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis calamus Renier, 1804
  • Nereis callaona (Grube, 1857)
  • Nereis caparti Fauvel, 1953
  • Nereis casoae Leon-Gonzalez & Solis-Weiss, 2001
  • Nereis castelnaui Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis caudata
  • Nereis caudipunctata (Grube, 1857)
  • Nereis caymanensis Fauchald, 1977
  • Nereis chlorodes Blanchard in Gay, 1849
  • Nereis chrysocephala Pallas, 1788
  • Nereis cirrhigera Viviani, 1805
  • Nereis cirriseta Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis cockburnenesis Augener, 1913
  • Nereis cockburnensis Augener, 1913
  • Nereis contorta Dalyell, 1853
  • Nereis corallina Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis cornuta Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis costaricaensis Dean, 2001
  • Nereis coutieri Gravier, 1900
  • Nereis coutieri Gravier, 1899
  • Nereis crassa Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1788
  • Nereis crocea Renier, 1804
  • Nereis cuprea delle Chiaje, 1822
  • Nereis cuprea (Schmarda, 1861)
  • Nereis cylindraria
  • Nereis dakarensis Fauvel, 1951
  • Nereis dayana Sun & Shen in Sun, Wu & Shen, 1978
  • Nereis delagica Gmelin in Linnaeus, 1788
  • Nereis delicatula Blanchard in Gay, 1849
  • Nereis delli Knox, 1960
  • Nereis denhamensis Augener, 1913
  • Nereis donghaiensis He & Wu, 1988
  • Nereis dorsolobata Hartmann-Schröder, 1965
  • Nereis edwardsii delle Chiaje, 1828
  • Nereis ehlersiana (Grube, 1878)
  • Nereis ehrenbergi Grube, 1868
  • Nereis erythraeensis
  • Nereis falcaria (Willey, 1905)
  • Nereis falsa Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis fauchaldi Leon-Gonzalez & Diaz-Castaneda, 1998
  • Nereis fauveli Gravier & Dantan, 1934
  • Nereis filicaudata Fauvel, 1951
  • Nereis foliosa Schmarda, 1861
  • Nereis fossae Fauchald, 1972
  • Nereis frontalis Bosc, 1802
  • Nereis fucata (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818)
  • Nereis funchalensis (Langerhans, 1880)
  • Nereis fusifera Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis garwoodi Gonzalez-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003
  • Nereis gayi Blanchard in Gay, 1849
  • Nereis ghardaqae Hartmann-Schröder, 1960
  • Nereis gigantea Linnaeus, 1767
  • Nereis gisserana (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis goajirana Augener, 1933
  • Nereis gracilis (Hansen, 1878)
  • Nereis granulata Day, 1957
  • Nereis gravieri Fauvel, 1900
  • Nereis gravieri Fauvel, 1902
  • Nereis grayi Pettibone, 1956
  • Nereis grubei (Kinberg, 1866)
  • Nereis guangdongensis Wu, Sun & Yang, 1981
  • Nereis heterocirrata Treadwell, 1931
  • Nereis heteromorpha (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis heterophylla Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821
  • Nereis heteropoda Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821
  • Nereis holochaeta Intes & Le Loeuff, 1975
  • Nereis homogompha Rullier, 1972
  • Nereis huanghaiensis Wu, Sun & Yang, 1981
  • Nereis icosiensis Gravier & Dantan, 1928
  • Nereis ignota Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis imajimai Leon-Gonzalez & Diaz-Castaneda, 1998
  • Nereis imbecillis Grube, 1840
  • Nereis imperfecta Gravier & Dantan, 1936
  • Nereis inflata Leon-Gonzalez & Solis-Weiss, 2001
  • Nereis iris Stimpson, 1854
  • Nereis irrorata
  • Nereis izukai Okuda, 1939
  • Nereis jacksoni Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis krebsii Grube, 1857
  • Nereis lamellosa Ehlers, 1864
  • Nereis languida Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis latescens Chamberlin, 1919
  • Nereis leuca Chamberlin, 1919
  • Nereis ligulata Hilbig, 1992
  • Nereis lineata delle Chiaje, 1827
  • Nereis lingulata Hilbig, 1992
  • Nereis lithothamnica Annenkova, 1938
  • Nereis litoralis Leach in Johnston, 1865
  • Nereis longilingulis Monro, 1937
  • Nereis longior Chlebovitsch & Wu, 1962
  • Nereis longisetis McIntosh, 1885
  • Nereis macropis Ehlers, 1920
  • Nereis maculosa Renier, 1804
  • Nereis madreporae
  • Nereis margarita Montagu, 1804
  • Nereis marginata Grube, 1857
  • Nereis mariae Holly, 1935
  • Nereis marioni Audouin & Milne-Edwards, 1833
  • Nereis maroccensis Amoureux, 1976
  • Nereis maxillodentata Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis mediator Chamberlin, 1918
  • Nereis mendocinana Chamberlin, 1919
  • Nereis microcera Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis minima Lamarck, 1801
  • Nereis mirabilis Kinberg, 1866
  • Nereis mollis Linnaeus, 1761
  • Nereis monoceros Dalyell, 1853
  • Nereis monroi Reish, 1953
  • Nereis moroccensis Amoureux, 1976
  • Nereis mortenseni Augener, 1923
  • Nereis multignatha Imajima & Hartman, 1964
  • Nereis myersi Holly, 1935
  • Nereis nancaurica Ehlers, 1904
  • Nereis nanciae Day, 1949
  • Nereis natans Hartman, 1936
  • Nereis neoneanthes Hartman, 1948
  • Nereis neozealanica Knox, 1951
  • Nereis nichollsi Kott, 1951
  • Nereis nigripes Ehlers, 1868
  • Nereis noctiluca Linnaeus, 1761
  • Nereis nouhuysi Horst, 1918
  • Nereis obscura Gravier & Dantan, 1934
  • Nereis ochotica Grube, 1850
  • Nereis ockenii delle Chiaje, 1828
  • Nereis octentaculata Montagu, 1804
  • Nereis oligohalina (Rioja, 1946)
  • Nereis onychophora Horst, 1918
  • Nereis otto delle Chiaje, 1828
  • Nereis ovarius Read, 1980
  • Nereis pachychaeta Fauvel, 1919
  • Nereis panamensis Fauchald, 1977
  • Nereis pannosa (Grube, 1857)
  • Nereis parabifida Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis paucignatha Hartman, 1940
  • Nereis paulina Grube, 1868
  • Nereis pectinata Dalyell, 1853
  • Nereis pelagica Linnaeus, 1758
  • Nereis perivisceralis Claparède, 1868
  • Nereis peroniensis Kott, 1951
  • Nereis persica Fauvel, 1911
  • Nereis peruviana Ehlers, 1868
  • Nereis phosphorescens Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis phyllophorus Ross, 1819
  • Nereis pinnata Müller, 1776
  • Nereis piscesae Blake & Hillbig, 1990
  • Nereis posidoniae Hutchings & Rainer, 1979
  • Nereis procera Ehlers, 1868
  • Nereis profundi Kirkegaard, 1956
  • Nereis pseudomoniliformis Santos & Lana, 2003
  • Nereis pulsatoria (Savigny, 1822)
  • Nereis punctata Dalyell, 1853
  • Nereis puncturata Grube, 1857
  • Nereis quadricorna delle Chiaje, 1841
  • Nereis quoyii Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis radiata Viviani in Grube, 1850
  • Nereis ranzani delle Chiaje, 1828
  • Nereis rava Ehlers, 1864
  • Nereis regia Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis rigida Grube, 1857
  • Nereis riisei Grube, 1857
  • Nereis robusta Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis rufa Pennant, 1812
  • Nereis rupta Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis sandersi Blake, 1985
  • Nereis sarsoensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1960
  • Nereis schmardae Hartmann-Schröder, 1962
  • Nereis scolopendrina Blainville, 1825
  • Nereis scolopendroides Hansen, 1882
  • Nereis segrex Chamberlin, 1919
  • Nereis semperiana (Grube, 1878)
  • Nereis serrata Santos & Lana, 2003
  • Nereis sertularias
  • Nereis sieboldii Grube, 1873
  • Nereis sinensis Wu, Sun & Yang, 1981
  • Nereis singularis Wesenberg-Lund, 1949
  • Nereis spinigera Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis splendida Blainville, 1825
  • Nereis splendida Grube, 1840
  • Nereis sumbawaensis (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis surugaense Imajima, 1972
  • Nereis talehsapensis Fauvel, 1932
  • Nereis tenuipalpa Pflugfelder, 1933
  • Nereis tenuis Webster & Benedict, 1884
  • Nereis tethycola delle Chiaje, 1831
  • Nereis thompsoni (Kott, 1951)
  • Nereis thysanota Ehlers, 1920
  • Nereis tiedmanni delle Chiaje, 1841
  • Nereis tigrina Zachs, 1933
  • Nereis toporoki Khlebovich, 1996
  • Nereis torta Fauvel, 1934
  • Nereis translucens Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis triangularis Hutchings & Turvey, 1982
  • Nereis tydemani (Horst, 1924)
  • Nereis uncia Holly, 1935
  • Nereis usticensis Cantone, Catalono & Badalamenti, 2003
  • Nereis variegata Renier, 1804
  • Nereis veleronis Hartman, 1940
  • Nereis ventilabrum Quatrefages, 1866
  • Nereis vexillosa Grube, 1851
  • Nereis victoriana Augener, 1918
  • Nereis villosa Dalyell, 1853
  • Nereis vitiensis Grube, 1870
  • Nereis willey Day, 1934
  • Nereis zhongshaensis Shen & Sun in Sun, Wu & Shen, 1978
  • Nereis zonata Malmgren, 1867

References

  1. ^ Geoffrey Read, Kristian Fauchald & Gérard Bellan (2012). Read G, Fauchald K, eds. "Nereis". World Polychaeta database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
Alitta succinea

Alitta succinea (known as the pile worm or clam worm) is a species of marine annelid in the family Nereididae ( commonly known as ragworms or sandworms). It has been recorded throughout the North West Atlantic, as well as in the Gulf of Maine and South Africa.

Alitta virens

Alitta virens (common names include sandworm and king ragworm; older scientific names including Nereis virens are still frequently used) is an annelid worm that burrows in wet sand and mud. It is classified as a polychaete in the family Nereididae.Sandworms make up a large part of the live sea-bait industry. To fulfill the needs of this industry, some sandworms are commercially grown. "Sandworming", or the harvesting of sandworms from mudflats, employs over 1,000 people in Maine. As of 2006, the population of sandworms had diminished greatly over the preceding few years due in large part to overharvesting before the worms are able to reproduce by spawning.Sandworms eat seaweed and microorganisms. They have many distinctive traits, including

often reaching great lengths, sometimes exceeding four feet

numerous, highly vascularized parapodia along both sides of their bodies

blue heads with two large pincer teeth which are capable of biting humansThe parapodia function both as external gills (the animal's primary respiratory surfaces), and as means of locomotion (appearing much like short legs).

Chloroclystis nereis

Chloroclystis nereis is a moth in the Geometridae family. It was described by Edward Meyrick in 1888. It is endemic to New Zealand. The habitat consists of mountainous areas.The wings are dusky grey with numerous black and dull white wavy transverse lines. Adults are on wing in January and February.The larvae feed inside the flower heads of Celmisia lindsayi.

Fairy tern

The name fairy tern can also refer to the white tern (Gygis alba)

The fairy tern (Sternula nereis) is a small tern which is native to the southwestern Pacific. It is listed as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN and the New Zealand subspecies is "Critically Endangered".

There are three subspecies:

Australian fairy tern, Sternula nereis nereis (Gould, 1843) – breeds in Australia

New Caledonian fairy tern, Sternula nereis exsul (Mathews, 1912) – breeds in New Caledonia

New Zealand fairy tern, Sternula nereis davisae (Mathews & Iredale, 1913) – breeds in northern New Zealand

Grey-backed storm petrel

The grey-backed storm petrel (Garrodia nereis) is a species of seabird in the austral storm petrel family Oceanitidae. It is monotypic within the genus Garrodia. It is found in Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Chile, Falkland Islands, French Southern Territories, New Zealand, Saint Helena, South Africa, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Its natural habitat is open seas.The genus Garrodia was created by William Alexander Forbes in 1881 and named after English zoologist Alfred Henry Garrod, while the specific descriptor is an allusion to the Nereids, the sea nymphs of Greek mythology.

Hesperocharis nera

Hesperocharis nera, the Nera white, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is found in Trinidad, Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Suriname, the Guianas, Brazil and Bolivia.

Laparus doris

Laparus doris, the Doris longwing or Doris, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae and only member (i.e., monotypic) of the genus Laparus. It is found from Central America to the Amazon. There is considerable colour and pattern variation, even at sub-species level.

It is found from sea level to 1200 metres in forest clearings.The larvae primarily feed on granadilla species. Adults feed on nectar from Lantana flowers, with the females also collecting pollen from Psiguria and Psychotia flowers.

Neanthes fucata

Neanthes fucata is a species of marine polychaete worm in the family Nereididae. It lives in association with a hermit crab such as Pagurus bernhardus. It occurs in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

Nereid

In Greek mythology, the Nereids ( NEER-ee-idz; Greek: Νηρηΐδες Nereides, sg. Νηρηΐς Nereis) are sea nymphs (female spirits of sea waters), the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites. They often accompany Poseidon, the god of the sea, and can be friendly and helpful to sailors, like the Argonauts in their search for the Golden Fleece.

Nereididae

Nereididae (formerly spelled Nereidae) are a family of polychaete worms. It contains about 500 – mostly marine – species grouped into 42 genera. They may be commonly called ragworms or clam worms.

Nereis of Epirus

Nereis of Epirus was a daughter of Pyrrhus II. She was married, apparently after her father's death, to Gelo, son of Hiero II, king of Syracuse, by whom she became the mother of the king Hieronymus of Syracuse. It appears that she outlived her sister Deidamia, and was thus the last surviving descendant of the royal house of the Aeacidae. Her name is found in an inscription in the theatre of Syracuse, from which it appears that she bore the title of queen. Justin erroneously supposes her to be a sister of the Deidameia (or Laodameia, as he calls her) who was assassinated by Milon. That she was a daughter of the elder Pyrrhus, see Droysen, vol. ii. p. 275, note.

Nereis vexillosa

Nereis vexillosa belongs to the phylum Annelida, a group known as the segmented worms. It is generally iridescent green and can reach 30 cm in length. It can be distinguished by the size of the upper ligules on the notopodia of the posterior region of the body. The upper ligules are much larger than the lower ligules. It is also without a collar-like structure around the peristomium.

Neriad horseshoe bat

The neriad horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus nereis) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae.

It is endemic to Siantan Island of the Anambas Islands, and to the North Natuna Islands, west of Borneo in the South China Sea within Indonesia. Nothing is known about the ecology or total population size of the species.

Neruda aoede

Neruda aoede, the Aoede longwing, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It was described by Jacob Hübner in 1813. It is found in the Amazon basin. The habitat consists of deep forests.

The larvae feed on Dilkea and Mitostemma species.

New Zealand fairy tern

The New Zealand fairy tern (Sternula nereis davisae), also known as the tara-iti, is a small tern which breeds between Whangarei and Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand. It is considered critically endangered with an estimated 45 individuals and 12 breeding pairs. It is the smallest tern breeding in New Zealand and is a subspecies of the fairy tern.

Ophionereis reticulata

Ophionereis reticulata, the reticulated brittle star, is a brittle star in the family Ophionereididae. It is found in shallow parts of the western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

Pierella nereis

Pierella nereis is a butterfly species from the subfamily Satyrinae in the family Nymphalidae. It was first described by Dru Drury in 1782 from Brazil.

Stalachtis phaedusa

Stalachtis phaedusa is a species of butterfly of the family Riodinidae. It is found in South America.

Thryogenes nereis

Thryogenes nereis is a species of weevil native to Europe.

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