Nepotism

Nepotism is the granting of favour to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to important positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Trading parliamentary employment for favors is a modern-day example of nepotism. Criticism of nepotism, however, can be found in ancient Indian texts such as the Kural literature.

Origins

The term comes from the Italian word nepotismo,[1][2] which is based on the Latin word nepos meaning 'nephew'.[3] Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.[4]

Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty".[5] For instance, Pope Callixtus III, head of the Borgia family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI.[6] Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.[7]

Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally limited when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692.[4] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.[8]

According to the ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar, nepotism is both evil and unwise.[9]

Types

Political

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.[10]

Organizational

Nepotism can also occur within organizations when a person is employed due to familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.

In employment

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people.[11] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees,[12] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name."[13] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.

In entertainment

Outside of national politics, accusations of nepotism are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:

Types of partiality

Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to a partner or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  2. ^ "In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History". Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  3. ^ "Article nepos". CTCWeb Glossary. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Article Nepotism". New Catholic Dictionary. Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  5. ^ Gianvittorio Signorotto; Maria Antonietta Visceglia (21 March 2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492–1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-1-139-43141-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  6. ^ "Article Pope Alexander VI". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  7. ^ "Article Pope Paul III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  8. ^ Anura Gurugé (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  9. ^ Sundaram, P. S. (1990). Tiruvalluvar: The Kural (First ed.). Gurgaon: Penguin Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-14-400009-8.
  10. ^ Trahair, R. C. S. (1994). From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN 9780313279614.
  11. ^ "Nepotism at Work". Safeworkers.co.uk. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Family Ties: Handling Nepotism Within Your Business – Perspectives – Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick". Insideindianabusiness.com. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  13. ^ Kneale, Klaus. "Is Nepotism So Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Peaches Geldof bags TV reality show as magazine editor". Sunday Mirror. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  15. ^ "On 'So Notorious,' Tori Spelling Mocks Herself Before You Can". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Tori Spelling admits getting Shannon Doherty fired from Beverly Hills 90210 and lending her dress stained with 'virgin blood' for photoshoot – Independent.ie". Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  17. ^ "EXTRA: Nepotism in the Director's Chair at". Hollywood.com. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Nothing is true, everything is permitted – Coppola nepotism hate". Spiritof1976.livejournal.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  19. ^ Brockes, Emma (20 July 2013). "Nicolas Cage: 'People think I'm not in on the joke'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  20. ^ Judy Nadler and Miriam Schulman. "Favoritism, Cronyism, and Nepotism". Santa Clara University. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
1998 Hull City Council election

The 1998 Hull City Council election took place on 7 May 1998 to elect members of Hull City Council in England. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party kept overall control of the council.In the run up to the election there was controversy as the local Labour party was suspended by the national party over claims of intimidation, nepotism and membership rigging. This controversy made the Liberal Democrats confident of making gains in the election, with the results bearing this out as Labour lost 4 seats on the council.After the election, the composition of the council was

Labour 53

Liberal Democrat 4

Independent 2

Conservative 1

Cardinal-nephew

A cardinal-nephew (Latin: cardinalis nepos; Italian: cardinale nipote; Spanish: valido de su tío; French: prince de fortune) was a cardinal elevated by a pope who was that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull (a papal charter), Romanum decet pontificem (1692), a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule. Every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, and the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son.

The institution of the cardinal-nephew evolved over seven centuries, tracking developments in the history of the papacy and the styles of individual Popes. From 1566 until 1692, a cardinal-nephew held the curial office of the Superintendent of the Ecclesiastical State, known as the Cardinal Nephew, and thus the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The curial office of the Cardinal Nephew as well as the institution of the cardinal-nephew declined as the power of the Cardinal Secretary of State increased and the temporal power of popes decreased in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The list of cardinal-nephews includes at least fifteen, and possibly as many as nineteen popes (Gregory IX, Alexander IV, Adrian V, Gregory XI, Boniface IX, Innocent VII, Eugene IV, Paul II, Alexander VI, Pius III, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, Benedict XIII, and Pius VII; perhaps also John XIX and Benedict IX, if they were really promoted cardinals; as well as Innocent III and Benedict XII, if in fact they were related to their elevators); one antipope (John XXIII); and two or three saints (Charles Borromeo, Guarinus of Palestrina, and perhaps Anselm of Lucca, if he was really a cardinal).

Corruption in Lithuania

Corruption in Lithuania is examined on this page.

Corruption in Sudan

Corruption in Sudan is substantial, as it is considered one of the most corrupt nations in the world. On Transparency International's 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index, Sudan ranked 177th out of 183 countries. On the 2010 World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators, on one hundred point scale, it scored in the single digits in every category, including 0.9 for political stability, 6.2 for rule of law, 7.2 for regulatory quality, 6.7 for government effectiveness, and 4.3 for control of corruption. It ranked 174th (out of 177) in the 2013 Corruption Perception Index. In 2011 Freedom House named Sudan as one of the worst nations for human rights.Sudan presents one of the most challenging business environments in the world. Sectors where foreign investments are concentrated, such as construction and transportation, are recognized worldwide as being very prone to corruption. Corruption exists in every sector of the economy and in every level of the Sudanese government. It takes the form of "financial and political corruption, nepotism, and misuse of power". According to the Sudan Democracy First Group, petty corruption is pervasive for citizens seeking government services.One source notes the ubiquity in Sudan of "petty and grand corruption, embezzlement of public funds, and a system of political patronage well entrenched within the fabrics of society", and that the effects of corruption are often obfuscated by constant instability. While patronage negatively affects businesses, police and military corruption infringe on civil rights.In recent years, Sudan has enjoyed rapid economic growth, mainly owing to its natural resources, including several high-demand natural resources, increasing the opportunities for corruption.

Corruption in the Philippines

The Philippines suffers from widespread corruption. Means of corruption include graft, bribery, embezzlement, backdoor deals, nepotism, and patronage.

Cronyism

Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends, family relatives or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations. For instance, this includes appointing "cronies" to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications.Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary such as an appointee are in social or business contact. Often, the appointer needs support in his or her own proposal, job or position of authority, and for this reason the appointer appoints individuals who will not try to weaken his or her proposals, vote against issues, or express views contrary to those of the appointer. Politically, "cronyism" is derogatorily used to imply buying and selling favors, such as: votes in legislative bodies, as doing favors to organizations, giving desirable ambassadorships to exotic places, etc.

Diosdado Cabello

Diosdado Cabello Rondón (born 15 April 1963) is a Venezuelan politician, former member of the National Assembly of Venezuela and a former Speaker of the country's legislature, and active member of the Venezuelan armed forces. He was involved in Hugo Chávez’s return to power after the 2002 coup d'état. He became a leading member of Chavez’s Movimiento V República (MVR), and remains a leading member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, into which MVR was merged in 2007. Governor of Miranda from 2004 to 2008, he lost the 2008 election to Henrique Capriles Radonski and was subsequently appointed Public Works & Housing Minister. In November 2009, he was additionally appointed head of the National Commission of Telecom, a position traditionally independent from the Ministry of Public Works and Housing. In 2010, he was elected a member of parliament by his home state of Monagas. In 2011, President Hugo Chávez named him Vice-President of Venezuela’s ruling party, the PSUV. In 2012, he was elected and sworn in as President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, the country’s parliament.

Ethnic nepotism

In sociology, the term ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for in-group bias or in-group favouritism applied by nepotism for people with the same ethnicity within a multi-ethnic society.

The term was coined in the 1960s in the context of the ethnic (tribal) tensions and rivalry in the then-recently independent states in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Nigeria.

Hereditary monarchy

Hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family. It represents an institutionalised form of nepotism.It is historically the most common type of monarchy and remains the dominant form in extant monarchies. It has the advantages of continuity of the concentration of power and wealth and predictability of who one can expect to control the means of governance and patronage. Provided that a monarch is competent, not oppressive, and maintains an appropriate royal dignity, it might also offer the stabilizing factors of popular affection for and loyalty to a royal family. The adjudication of what constitutes oppressive, dignified and popular tends to remain in the purview of the monarch. A major disadvantage of hereditary monarchy arises when the heir apparent may be physically or temperamentally unfit to rule. Other disadvantages include the inability of a people to choose their head of state, the ossified distribution of wealth and power across a broad spectrum of society, and the continuation of outmoded religious and social-economic structures mainly for the benefit of monarchs, their families, and supporters.In most extant hereditary monarchies, the typical order of succession uses some form of primogeniture, but there exist other methods such as seniority and tanistry (in which an heir-apparent is nominated from among qualified candidates).

Korean Air

Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd. (Hangul: 대한항공; RR: Daehan Hanggong), operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights. The airline's global headquarters are located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air was founded as Korean National Airlines in 1946. After several years of service and expansion, the airline was fully privatized in 1969.

Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 127 cities in 44 countries, while its domestic division serves 12 destinations. It is among the top 20 airlines in the world in terms of passengers carried and is also the top-ranked international cargo airline. Incheon International Airport serves as Korean Air's international hub. Korean Air also maintains a satellite headquarters campus at Incheon. The majority of Korean Air's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Seoul.

Korean Air is the parent company of Jin Air and is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. It was voted Asia's best airline by Business Traveler readers in 2012.

Lee Hsien Loong

Lee Hsien Loong (Chinese: 李显龙; Tamil: லீ சியன் லூங்; born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004. He took over the leadership of the People's Action Party (PAP) when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee then led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections. He began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Singapore's first Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew.

Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 (gaining a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction as well) and later earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general. He won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.

Nepotism (The Office)

"Nepotism" is the seventh season premiere of the American comedy television series The Office and the show's 127th episode overall. Written by Daniel Chun and directed by Jeffrey Blitz, the episode aired on NBC in the United States on September 23, 2010. The episode guest stars Kathy Bates as Jo Bennett, Evan Peters as Luke Cooper, and Hugh Dane as Hank.

The series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. In the episode, the office turns against Michael Scott when he refuses to fire the new office assistant, Luke (Peters), who has a terrible attitude and happens to be Michael's nephew. Meanwhile, after accidentally ruining one of Jim Halpert's (John Krasinski) pranks, Pam Halpert (Jenna Fischer) tries to prank Dwight Schrute (Rainn Wilson) in return.

"Nepotism" received generally positive reviews from television critics; many commented upon the episode's opening lip dub, although some noted it did not advance any story arcs. According to Nielsen ratings, the episode was watched by 8.4 million viewers, a slight increase from the sixth season premiere, "Gossip", and it finished second in its timeslot.

Placid Casual

Placid Casual is the Cardiff based record label set up in 1998 by Super Furry Animals. It is named after a track on their album Radiator.

According to the label's website "Placid Casual retains an amateur status and an a&r policy of blatant nepotism. We exist to expose to the world (when we can be bothered), songs that come our way that may be ignored otherwise." The Independent has described the label as an "enterprise run by passion not for profit".Super Furry Animals released their Welsh language album Mwng on the label before leaving to sign with Epic Records.Gruff Rhys also released his debut solo album, Yr Atal Genhedlaeth, on the label in 2005.

Pope Innocent XII

Pope Innocent XII (Latin: Innocentius XII; 13 March 1615 – 27 September 1700), born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 12 July 1691 to his death in 1700.

He took a hard stance against nepotism in the church, continuing the policies of Pope Innocent XI, who started the battle against nepotism but which did not gain traction under Pope Alexander VIII. To that end, he issued a papal bull strictly forbidding it. The pope also used this bull to ensure that no revenue or land could be bestowed to relatives.

Pope Sixtus IV

Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was a Pope and botanist from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. A patron of the arts, the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age.

Sixtus aided the Spanish Inquisition though he fought to prevent abuses therein, and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy.

Prohibited degree of kinship

In law, a prohibited degree of kinship refers to a degree of consanguinity (blood relatedness) and sometimes affinity (relation by marriage or sexual relationship) between persons that results in certain actions between them becoming illegal. Two major examples of prohibited degrees are found in incest and nepotism. Incest refers to sexual relations and marriage between closely related individuals; nepotism is the preference of blood-relations in the distribution of a rank or office.

An incest taboo against relations between parent and child or two full-blooded siblings is a cultural universal. Taboos against sexual relations between individuals of other degrees of close relationship vary between the world's cultures, but stigmatization of unions with full siblings and with direct descendants are widespread.

Temasek Holdings

Temasek Holdings Private Limited (abbreviated as Temasek) is a Singaporean holding company owned by the Government of Singapore. Incorporated in 1974 as a Commercial Investment Company, Temasek owns and manages a net portfolio of $308 billion (as of 31 March 2018), with S$16 billion divested and S$29 billion invested during the year, and 68% exposure to Asia – 27% Singapore and 41% Asia ex-Singapore. It is an active shareholder and investor, and its investments are guided by four key themes – transforming economies, growing middle income populations, deepening comparative advantages and emerging champions. Its portfolio covers a broad spectrum of sectors including financial services, telecommunications, media and technology, transportation and industrials, life sciences and agribusiness, consumer and real estate, energy and resources, as well as multi-sector funds. Headquartered in Singapore, Temasek has a multinational team of 730 people, in 11 global offices including 2 offices in Beijing, and 1 office in Shanghai, Mumbai, Hanoi, London, New York, San Francisco, Mexico City, Washington, D.C., Sao Paulo.Temasek differs from many sovereign wealth funds because it invests mostly in equities, is the outright owner of many assets, and pays taxes like other commercial investment firms.Temasek has credit ratings of “AAA/Aaa” by Standard & Poor's Global Ratings and Moody's Investors Service respectively since their inaugural ratings in 2004. Temasek has also attained perfect quarterly scores on the Linaburg-Maduell Transparency Index, a measure of the openness of government-owned investment funds.

Walkelin

Walkelin (died 1098) was the first Norman bishop of Winchester.

Wasta

Wasta or wasata (Arabic: واسِطة wāsiṭah) is an Arabic word that loosely translates into nepotism, 'clout' or 'who you know'. It refers to using one’s connections and/or influence to get things done, including government transactions such as the quick renewal of a passport, waiving of traffic fines, and getting hired for or promoted in a job.

In other words, it amounts to getting something through favoritism rather than merit, or what is informally spoken of in English as "pull" from connections (the opposite of "push"). The English word cronyism overlaps in meaning but is not precisely the same. Roughly equivalent words in other languages include sociolismo in Cuba; blat in Russia; guanxi in Chinese and Vetternwirtschaft in German, protektzia in Israeli slang, un pituto in Chilean Spanish, In Brazilian-Portuguese it is referred to as "pistolão", "QI" (Quem Indica, or Who Indicates), or in the slang "peixada", "Pidi Padu" in Malayalam, "arka" or "destek" in Turkish, "plecy" in Polish, "štela" in Bosnian.

General forms
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Ethnic/National
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