Nepali language

Nepali (Devanagari: नेपाली), known by endonym Khas Kura[1] (Nepali: खस कुरा) also known as Gorkhali or Parbatiya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 official languages of India. It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan.[5] In India, Nepali is listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as an Indian language, with official status in the state of Sikkim, and spoken in Northeast Indian states such as Assam and in West Bengal's Darjeeling district. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide.[6] Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence alongside Persian due to its Indo-Iranian roots. [7] However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.[8]

Historically, the language was called Khas Speech (Khas Kurā) and Gorkhali (language of the Gorkha Kingdom) before the term Nepali was adopted.[1] The origin of modern Nepali language is believed to be from Sinja of Jumla. Therefore, the Nepali dialect “Khas Bhasa” is still spoken among the people of the region.[9] It is also known as Khey (the native term for Khas Arya living in the periphery of the Kathmandu valley), Parbate (native term meaning "of the hill") or Partya among the Newar people, and Pahari among the Madhesis and Tharus. Other names include Dzongkha Lhotshammikha ("Southern Language", spoken by the Lhotshampas of Bhutan).

The language currently called 'Nepali' should not be confused with a different language referred to as 'Nepal Bhasa.' While the former is the official title for Khas Kura (or Gorkhali/Parbatiya), the language of the Gorkhali (Khas) people who conquered Nepal and today dominate public affairs in the country, the latter is the language of the indigeneous Newars of Kathmandu valley. The politically dominant Gorkhalis lay claim to the term 'Nepali' since Gorkhali is Nepal's official language and also its lingua franca: Newars demand the continued use of an honorific 'Nepal Bhasa' for their language arguing historical traditions and an indigenous connection to pre-Gorkha Nepal.

Nepali
Gorkhali, Khas-Kura
नेपाली/गनेपालस कुरा
Nepali word in devanagri script
The word "Nepali" written in Devanagari
Native toNepal
EthnicityKhas people[1]
Native speakers
16 million (2011 census)[2]
9 million L2 speakers (2011 census)[2]
Devanagari
Devanagari Braille
Takri (historical)
Signed Nepali
Official status
Official language in
   Nepal
 India (Sikkim, West Bengal)
Regulated byNepal Academy
Language codes
ISO 639-1ne
ISO 639-2nep
ISO 639-3nepinclusive code
Individual codes:
npi – Nepali
dty – Doteli
Glottolognepa1254[3]
nepa1252  duplicate code[4]
Linguasphere59-AAF-d
Nepali language status
World map with significant Nepali language speakers
Dark Blue: Main official language,
Light blue: One of the official languages,
Red: Places with significant population or greater than 20% but without official recognition.

Literature

Bhanubhakta Acharya
Bhanubhakta Acharya, Aadi Kavi in Nepali language literature

Nepali developed a significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. This literary explosion was fueled by Adhyatma Ramayana; Sundarananda Bara (1833); Birsikka, an anonymous collection of folk tales; and a version of the ancient Indian epic Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya (d. 1868). The contribution of trio-laureates Lekhnath Paudyal, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, and Balkrishna Sama took Nepali to the level of other world languages. The contribution of expatriate writers outside Nepal, especially in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is also notable.

In the past decade, there have been many contributions to Nepali literature from the Nepali diaspora in Asia, Europe, America, and India.

Number of speakers

According to the 2011 national census, 44.6 percent of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as a first language.[10] The Ethnologue website reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal (from the 2011 census).[11]

Nepali is traditionally spoken in the Hill Region of Nepal (Pahad, पहाड़), especially in the western part of the country. Although the Nepal Bhasha language dominated the Kathmandu valley, Nepali is currently the most dominant. Nepali is used in government and as the everyday language of a growing portion of the local population. Nevertheless, the exclusive use of Nepali in the courts and government of Nepal is being challenged. Recognition of other languages in Nepal was one of the objectives of the Communist Party of Nepal's long war.[12]

In Bhutan, those who speak Nepali, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at about 35 percent [13] of the population. This number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40 percent, constituting a majority in the south (about 242,000 people).[14] Since the late 1980s, over 100,000 Lhotshampas have been forced out of Bhutan, accused by the government of being illegal immigrants.[13] A large portion of them were expelled in an ethnic cleansing campaign, and presently relocated to United states.

There are 2.9 million Nepali language speakers in India.[15]

History

Mandhata Shahi- SAKE-1612
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Khas language using Devanagari script

Around 500 years ago, Khas people from the Karnali-Bheri-Seti basin migrated eastward, bypassing inhospitable Kham highlands to settle in lower valleys of the Gandaki Basin that were well-suited to rice cultivation. One notable extended family settled in the Gorkha Kingdom, a small principality about halfway between Pokhara and Kathmandu. In 1559 AD a Lamjunge prince, Dravya Shah established himself on the throne of Gorkha with the help of local Khas and Magars. He raised an army of khas with the commandership of Bhagirath Panta. Later, in the late 18th century his heir Prithvi Narayan Shah raised and improvised an army of Chhetri, Thakuri, Magars and Gurung people and possibly other hill tribesmen and set out to conquer and consolidate dozens of small principalities in the Himalayan foothills. Since Gorkha had replaced the original Khas homeland, Khaskura was redubbed Gorkhali "language of the Gorkhas".

The most notable military achievement of Prithvi Narayan Shah was the conquest of the urbanized Kathmandu Valley, on the eastern rim of the Gandaki basin. This region was also called Nepal at the time. Kathmandu became Prithvi Narayan's new capital.

The Khas people originally referred to their language as Khas kurā ("Khas speech"), which was also known as Parbatiya (or Parbattia or Paharia, "language of the Hill country").[16][17] The Newar people used the term "Gorkhali" as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors. The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage.[18] The Census of India used the term Naipali at least from 1901 to 1951, the 1961 census replacing it with Nepali.[19][20]

Expansion – particularly to the north, west, and south – brought the growing state into conflict with the British and Chinese. This led to wars that trimmed back the territory to an area roughly corresponding to Nepal's present borders. Both China and Britain understood the value of a buffer state and did not attempt to further reduce the territory of the new country. After the Gorkha conquests, the Kathmandu Valley or Nepal became the new center of political initiative. As the entire conquered territory of the Gorkhas ultimately became 'Nepal', in the early decades of the 20th century, Gorkha language activists in India, especially Darjeeling and Varanasi, began petitioning Indian universities to adopt the name 'Nepali' for the language.[21] Also in an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas background, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur Rana decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term "Nepal" (after Newar) to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the Gorkha government also adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language also came to be known as "Nepali language".[1] By the third decade, the Nepali state finally discontinued the use of the term Gorkhali, substituting it with Nepali, a move that provoked some stifled protest in Kathmandu from Newar intellectuals even during the autocratic Rana period.[22]

In all these years, Nepali has had influences from many languages. While Nepali is technically from the same family as languages like Hindi and Bengali, it has taken many loan words. Words like dhoka "door", jhyāl "window", pasal "shop", and rāngo "water buffalo' have Tibeto-Burmese roots. Words like sahīd "martyr" (ultimately from Arabic) and kānun "law" (ultimately from Greek, came from Persian into Nepali, as the former functioned as the literary language of much of the Muslim world for over a millennium). Many English words are in use today due to the rising popularity of the United States of America in the region and the previous British aid at schools and other fields.

Nepali is spoken indigenously over most of Nepal west of the Gandaki River, then progressively less further to the east.[23]

Dialects

Dialects of Nepali include Acchami, Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali, Bheri, Dadeldhuri, Dailekhi, Darchulali, Darchuli, Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, and Soradi.[11] Doteli (Dotyali), Jhapali, syangjali is a closely related language which is included in the macrolanguage Nepali.[24]

Phonology

In matters of script, Nepali uses Devanagari. On this grammar page Nepali is written in "standard orientalist" transcription as outlined in Masica (1991:xv). Being "primarily a system of transliteration from the Indian scripts, [and] based in turn upon Sanskrit" (cf. IAST), these are its salient features: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h denoting aspirated plosives. Tildes denote nasalized vowels.

Vowels and consonants are outlined in the tables below. Hovering the mouse cursor over them will reveal the appropriate IPA symbol, while in the rest of the article hovering the mouse cursor over underlined forms will reveal the appropriate English translation.

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i/ī u/ū
Mid e a o
Open ā
Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Plosive p
ph
b
bh
t
th
d
dh

ṭh

ḍh
k
kh
g
gh
Affricate c
ch
j
jh
Nasal m n ñ
Fricative s ś h
Tap or Flap r
ṛh
Approximant v y
Lateral
approximant
l

Vowels

Monophthongs

Nepali vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
High i ĩ u ũ
Close-mid e ẽ o
Open-mid ʌ ʌ̃
Open a ã

Nepali distinguishes six oral vowels and five nasal vowels. /o/ does not have a phonemic nasal counterpart, although it is often in free variation with [õ].

Diphthongs

Nepali possesses ten diphthongs: /ui/, /iu/, /ei/, /eu/, /oi/, /ou/, /ʌi/, /ʌu/, /ai/, and /au/.

Consonants

Nepali consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p
b
t
d
ts
tsʰ
dz
dzʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
ɡ
ɡʱ
Fricative s ʂ ɕ ɦ
Rhotic r
Approximant (w) l (j)

[j] and [w] are nonsyllabic allophones of [i] and [u], respectively. Every consonant except [j], [w], /l/, and /ɦ/ has a geminate counterpart between vowels. /ɳ/ and /ʃ/ also exist in some loanwords such as /baɳ/ बाण "arrow" and /nareʃ/ नरेश "king", but these sounds are sometimes replaced with native Nepali phonemes.

Writing

Nepali Language
Nepali letters, transliteration and their pronunciation
Nepali numbers
Numeral Written IAST IPA Etymology
0 शुन्य/सुन्ना śūnya /ʃunjʌ/ Sanskrit śūnya (शून्य)
1 एक ek /ek/ Sanskrit eka (एक)
2 दुई duī /d̪ui/ Sanskrit dvi (द्वि)
3 तीन tīn /t̪in/ Sanskrit tri (त्रि)
4 चार cār /t͡sar/ Sanskrit catúr (चतुर्)
5 पाँच pāṃc /pãt͡s/ Sanskrit pañca (पञ्च)
6 cha /t͡sʰʌ/ Sanskrit ṣáṣ (षष्)
7 सात sat /sat̪/ Sanskrit saptá (सप्त)
8 आठ āṭh /aʈʰ/ Sanskrit aṣṭá (अष्ट)
9 नौ nau /nʌu/ Sanskrit náva (नव)
10 १० दश daś /d̪ʌs/ Sanskrit dáśa दश
11 ११ एघार eghār /eɡʱar/
12 १२ बाह्र bāhr /barʱ/
20 २० बीस vis /bis/
21 २१ एक्काइस ekkāis /ekkais/
22 २२ बाइस bāis /bais/
100 १०० एक सय ek say /ek sʌi/
1 000 १००० एक हजार ek hajār /ek ɦʌd͡zar/
10 000 १०००० दश हजार daś hajār /d̪ʌs ɦʌd͡zar/
100 000 १००००० एक लाख ek lākh /ek lakʰ/ See lakh
1 000 000 १०००००० दश लाख daś lākh /d̪ʌs lakʰ/
10 000 000 १००००००० एक करोड ek karoḍ /ek kʌroɽ/ See crore

Greetings

English Nepali Transliteration
Hello (informal/to someone of older age) नमस्ते / नमस्कार namaste / namaskār
Nice to meet you तपाईंलाई भेटेर खुशी लाग्याे tapāī lāī bheṭera khuśī lāgyo
How are you? तपाईँलाई कस्तो छ ? tapāī lāī kasto chha?
My name is Bryan Butler. मेराे नाम ब्रायन बट्लर हाे । mero nām brayan batlar ho
I am from America. म अमेरिकाबाट हुँ । ma amerikābāṭ hung
Good morning to all of you सबैजनालाई शुभ-प्रभात । sabejanālāī shubh-prabhāt
Goodnight शुभ-रात्री shubh-ratrī
Day दिन । din
Evening साँझ sāṃjh
I am feeling thirsty. म तिर्खाएकाे छु । ma tirkhāeko chu
I am feeling hungry. म भाेकाएकाे छु । ma bhokāeko chu
Tasty मिठो / स्वादिलो mitho / swadilo
I am sorry. (formal) म क्षमा प्रार्थी छु । ma kṣamā prarthi chu
Where is the place to bath? नुहाउने ठाउँ कहाँ छ ? nuhāune ṭhāu kahā cha
Thank you धन्यवाद Dhanyavād

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118-119.
  2. ^ a b Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Nepali at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Doteli at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nepali [1]". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nepali [2]". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Language Gulper: Languages and Ethnic Groups of Bhutan (2014).
  6. ^ "Official Nepali language in Sikkim & Darjeeling" (PDF). CensusIndia.gov.in.
  7. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OtCPAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA546&dq=nepali+persian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjo_LKu6dffAhWzRBUIHUDzBQUQ6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=nepali%20persian&f=false
  8. ^ Hodgson, Brian Houghton (2013). Essays on the Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepál and Tibet (Reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781108056083. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  9. ^ The origin of Nepali language is Sinja of Jumla. Therefore, the Nepali dialect “Khas Bhasa” is still spoken among the people in this region., retrieved Feb 25, 2018
  10. ^ "Major highlights" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Nepali (npi)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  12. ^ Gurung, Dr. Harka (19–20 January 2005). "Social Exclusion and Maoist Insurgency". Retrieved 13 April 2012. Page 5.
  13. ^ a b "Background Note: Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
  14. ^ Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6: Bhutan - Ethnic Groups". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. p. 424. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
  15. ^ "Census of India". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-07.
  16. ^ Balfour, Edward (1871). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Printed at the Scottish & Adelphi presses. p. 529.
  17. ^ Cust, Robert N. (1878). A Sketch of the Modern Languages of the East Indies. Routledge. p. 51. ISBN 9781136384691.
  18. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 118.
  19. ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1967). Census of India, 1961: Tripura. Manager of Publications. p. 336. Nepali (Naipali in 1951)
  20. ^ Commissioner, India Census; Gait, Edward Albert (1902). Census of India, 1901. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India. p. 91. Naipali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the upper classes in Nepal, whereas the minor Nepalese languages, such as Gurung, Magar, Jimdar, Yakha, etc., are members of the Tibeto-Burman family;
  21. ^ Onta, Pratyoush (1996) "Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jati Improvement, Rediscovery of Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bir History" in Studies in Nepali History and Society 1(1), p. 37-76.
  22. ^ "Languages of Nepal".
  23. ^ "Nepal". Ethnologue. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  24. ^ "Nepali (nep)". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2016.

Bibliography

  • Richard Burghart (1984). "The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal". The Journal of Asian Studies. 44 (1): 101–125. JSTOR 2056748.

Further reading

  • पोखरेल, मा. प्र. (2000), ध्वनिविज्ञान र नेपाली भाषाको ध्वनि परिचय, नेपाल राजकीय प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान, काठमाडौँ
  • Schmidt, R. L. (1993) A Practical Dictionary of Modern Nepali.
  • Turner, R. L. (1931) A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language.
  • Clements, G.N. & Khatiwada, R. (2007). “Phonetic realization of contrastively aspirated affricates in Nepali.” In Proceedings of ICPhS XVI (Saarbrücken, 6–10 August 2007), 629- 632. [1]
  • Hutt, M. & Subedi, A. (2003) Teach Yourself Nepali.
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009). "Nepali". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1017/S0025100309990181.
  • Manders, C. J. (2007) नेपाली व्याकरणमा आधार A Foundation in Nepali Grammar.
  • Dr. Dashrath Kharel, "Nepali linguistics spoken in Darjeeling-Sikkim"

External links

Crore

A crore (; abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

Gaunpalika

Gaunpalika or gaupalika (Nepali: गाउँपालिका, translit. gāunpālikā| translation: Rural municipal) is the newly formed lower administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (Nepal) dissolved the existing village development committees and announced the establishment of this new local body. There are currently 460 rural municipalities .

Jahada, Morang

Jahada (Nepali: जहदा गाउँपालिका) is a rural municipality (gaunpalika) out of eight rural municipality located in Laxminiya Bazzar Morang District of Province No. 1 of Nepal. There are a total of 17 municipalities in Morang in which 9 are urban and 8 are rural.

According to Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Developme Jahada has an area of 62.38 square kilometres (24.09 sq mi) and the total population of the municipality is 41819 as of Census of Nepal 2011.Bhathigach, Majhare, Sisawanijahada, Pokhariya and Budhanagar which previously were all separate Village development committee merged to form this new local level body. Fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level body (Municipality).The rural municipality is divided into total 7 wards and the headquarter of this newly formed rural municipality is situated in Majhare.

Janakpur Zone

Janakpur (Nepali: जनकपुर अञ्चल Listen ) is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal, reaching from the Indian border in the south to the Tibetan border in the north and Sagarmatha Zone in the east and Bagmati and Naryani Zones in the west.

The headquarters of Janakpur Zone and its main city is Janakpur. Close to the Indian border, it is a historic city of Hinduism. The city was believed to be the capital city of King Janaka, the father in law of Lord Rama, the son of the then king of Ayodhya, Dasharatha. The city was then called 'Mithila Nagari'. The name of this zone is related to the historic King Janaka and his capital Janakpur.

Other cities within Janakpur Zone are Kamalamai (in Inner Terai) and Bhimeshwor and Bardibas, Dhalkebar, Jaleshwor, Malangwa, Gaushala Bazar and Matihani (Outer Terai).

Kathmandu District

Kathmandu District (Nepali: काठमाडौं जिल्लाListen ; Nepal Bhasa: ये: जिल्ला) is a district located in Kathmandu Valley, Province No. 3 of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia. It is one of the 77 districts of Nepal, covers an area of 395 km2 (153 sq mi), and is the most densely populated district of Nepal with 1,081,845 inhabitants in 2001 and 1,744,240 in 2011. The district's headquarter is Kathmandu Metropolitan City, also the capital of Nepal. It is also a famous tourist spot as there are many religious temples, attracting places.

Lakh

A lakh (; abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs; Devanāgarī: लाख) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105). In the Indian convention of digit grouping, it is written as 1,00,000. For example, in India 150,000 rupees becomes 1.5 lakh rupees, written as ₹1,50,000 or INR 1,50,000.

It is widely used both in official and other contexts in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It is often used in Indian, Pakistani, and Sri Lankan English. In Pakistan, the word lakh is used mostly in local languages rather than in English media.

List of Nepalese films

Despite of short film history, the Nepali film industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country. Most Nepali films are narrative, and are shot on 16-millimeter film. The film industry is also known as Kallywood.The first Nepali-language film was Satya Harischandra, which was released in 1951 in Darjeeling, India, and produced by D. B. Pariyar. The first Nepali-language movie made in Nepal was Aama, which was released in 1964 produced by the Nepalese government. However, the first Nepali-language movie made by the Nepalese private sector was Maitighar, which starred Mala Sinha and was released in 1966. The first color Nepali-language movie was Kumari.

List of districts of Nepal

Districts in Nepal are second level of administrative divisions after provinces. Districts are subdivided in municipalities and rural municipalities. There are seven provinces and 77 districts in Nepal.

After the state's reconstruction of administrative divisions, Nawalparasi District and Rukum District were divided into Parasi District and Nawalpur District, and Eastern Rukum District and Western Rukum District respectively.

District official include:

Chief District Officer, an official under Ministry of Home Affairs is appointed by the government as the highest administrative officer in a district. The C.D.O is responsible for proper inspection of all the departments in a district such as health, education, security and all other government offices.

District Coordination Committee acts as an executive to the District Assembly. The DCC coordinates with the Provincial Assembly to establish coordination between the Provincial Assembly and rural municipalities and municipalities and to settle disputes, if any, of political nature. It also maintains coordination between the provincial and Federal government and the local bodies in the district.

Lumbini Zone

Lumbini (Nepali: लुम्बिनी अञ्चलListen ) was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restruction of zones to Provinces. It is home to the Lumbini site, the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became the historical Buddha and founder of the Buddhist philosophy. The zone's headquarters was Butwal.

Makwanpur District

Makawanpur District(Nepali: मकवानपुर जिल्लाListen , a part of Province No. 3, earlier a part of Narayani Zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district, with Hetauda as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,426 km² and had a population of 392,604 in 2001 and 420,477 in 2011.

Nepali literature

Nepali literature (Nepali: नेपाली साहित्य) refers to the literature of Nepal written in the Nepali language. The Nepali language has been the national language of Nepal since 1958.Nepali language evolved from Sanskrit and it is difficult to exactly date the history of Nepali language literature since most of the early scholars wrote in Sanskrit. It is, however, possible to roughly divide Nepali literature into five periods.

Provinces of Nepal

The Provinces of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालका प्रदेशहरू Nepalka Pradeshaharu) were formed on 20 September 2015 in accordance with Schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. The seven provinces were formed by grouping the existing districts. The current system of seven provinces replaced an earlier system where Nepal was divided into 14 Administrative Zones which were grouped into five Development Regions.

Sagarmatha Zone

Sagarmāthā (Nepali: सगरमाथा अञ्चलListen ) was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् (sagar) meaning "sky" and माथा (māthā) meaning "head".It includes mountain districts of the Himalayas (including Mount Everest) in the north, hill districts in the center, and valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west.

Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts:

The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj which was also the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Okhaldhunga, Diktel, Salleri and Namche Bazaar; while Kathauna, Lahan, Fatepur, Rajbiraj and Siraha are in the outer Terai. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone.Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, which is located in the very north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park (1,148 km²) in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky".

Sakela, Khotang

Sakela (Nepali: साकेला गाउँपालिका) is a rural municipality (gaunpalika) out of eight rural municipality located in Khotang District of Province No. 1 of Nepal. There are a total of 10 municipalities in Khotang in which 2 are urban and 8 are rural.

According to Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Developme Sakela has an area of 79.99 square kilometres (30.88 sq mi) and the total population of the municipality is 11594 as of Census of Nepal 2011. Khidima, Chyandanda, Mattim Birta and Ratancha Majhagaun which previously were all separate Village development committee merged to form this new local level body. Fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level body (Municipality).The rural municipality is divided into total 5 wards and the headquarter of this newly formed rural municipality is situated in Mattim Birta.

Seti Zone

Seti (Nepali: सेती अञ्चलListen ) is one of the fourteen zones located in the Far-Western Development Region of Nepal.

Seti is divided into five districts:

Dhangadhi in the Terai is the major city of Seti Zone, headquarters are in Dipayal-Silgadhi.

Village development committee (Nepal)

A village Rural Municipality committee (RM) (Nepali: गाउँपालिका; ‘’’’) in Nepal was the lower administrative part of its Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. Each district had several VDCs, similar to municipalities but with greater public-government interaction and administration. There are currently 3,157 village development committees in Nepal. Each VDC was further divided into several wards (Nepali: वडा) depending on the population of the district; the average being nine wards.

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