Neophoca is a genus of the family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) of order Carnivora. It is combined by some taxonomists with the genus Phocarctos, the (extant) New Zealand sea lion.[1] Only one species survives:

  • N. cinerea: Australian sea lion. Most subpopulations are small and genetically isolated.[2]

Extinct species:

Sea lion and pup in Seal Bay - Kangaroo Island
N. cinerea, adult and pup
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Clade: Pinnipedia
Family: Otariidae
Subfamily: Otariinae
Genus: Neophoca
Gray 1866
Type species
Arctocephalus lobatus
Gray 1828


  1. ^ Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors), eds. (2005), Wilson & Reeder's Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), Johns Hopkins University PressCS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  2. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
Australian sea lion

The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) also known as the Australian sea-lion or Australian sealion, is a species of sea lion that is the only endemic pinniped in Australia. It is currently monotypic in the genus Neophoca, with the extinct Pleistocene New Zealand sea lion Neophoca palatina the only known congener. These sea lions are sparsely distributed through Houtman Arbrolhos Islands (28°S., 114°E.) in Western Australia and The Pages Islands (35°46’S., 138°18’E) in Southern Australia. With a population estimated at around 14,730 animals, the Wildlife Conservation Act of Western Australia (1950) has listed them as “in need of special protection”. Their Conservation status is listed as endangered. These pinnipeds are specifically known for their abnormal breeding cycles, which are varied between 5 months breeding cycle and a 17-18 month aseasonal breeding cycle, compared to other pinnipeds which fit into a 12-month reproductive cycle. Females are either silver or fawn with a cream underbelly and males are dark chocolate brown with a yellow mane and are bigger than the females.

Avoid Bay Islands Conservation Park

The Avoid Bay Islands Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia occupying three islands located west-southwest of Coffin Bay of Eyre Peninsula. The group, which includes Black Rocks and Sudden Jerk Island (also known as Avoid Island), supports breeding populations of seabirds and marine mammals. Colonies of the endangered Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and protected New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) occur on some of these islands.

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.


Bdeogale is a genus of three species of mongoose native to the rainforests of central and western Africa. They are primarily terrestrial and insectivorous.

Cap Island Conservation Park

Cap Island Conservation Park is located 7.5 km offshore, west of Mount Misery, Eyre Peninsula. The park covers Cap Island's 8ha surface. The island consists of a granite base and a calcarenite mantle; its margins steeply over-hanging and eroded. Typical vegetation is a low Nitre Bush (Nitraria billardierei) shrubland. Cap Island Conservation Park was constituted by statute in 1972 to conserve a sea bird breeding area and Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) haul-out areas.Cap Island also bears the alternative name of Gap Island and historically was also known as Rocky Island.

Eared seal

An eared seal or otariid or otary is any member of the marine mammal family Otariidae, one of three groupings of pinnipeds. They comprise 15 extant species in seven genera (another species became extinct in the 1950s) and are commonly known either as sea lions or fur seals, distinct from true seals (phocids) and the walrus (odobenids). Otariids are adapted to a semiaquatic lifestyle, feeding and migrating in the water, but breeding and resting on land or ice. They reside in subpolar, temperate, and equatorial waters throughout the Pacific and Southern Oceans and the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans. They are conspicuously absent in the north Atlantic.

The words 'otariid' and 'otary' come from the Greek otarion meaning "little ear", referring to the small but visible external ear flaps (pinnae), which distinguishes them from the phocids.

Flat-headed kusimanse

The flat-headed kusimanse (Crossarchus platycephalus) is a dwarf mongoose endemic to Benin, Cameroon and Nigeria. This species was once regarded as a subspecies of the common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus).

Goose Island Conservation Park

Goose Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia, located on Goose Island and other islets in the vicinity of Wardang Island in Spencer Gulf. The constituent islands are located within 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) to 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) in the sector between west and north west of Port Victoria.The conservation park was proclaimed in 1972 to ‘conserve an offshore breeding and refuge area for sea-birds and the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea).’ The conservation park consists of the following islands: Goose Island, Little Goose Island, Seal Rocks and White Rocks located to the immediate north of Wardang Island with Beatrice Rock, Island Point and Rocky Island all located to the east of Wardang Island, and Boat Rock and Bikini Islets being located on the west side of Wardang Island.The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.


The Hemigalinae are a subfamily of the viverrids denominated and first described by John Edward Gray in 1864. This subfamily comprises the four monospecific genera:





Isles of St Francis Conservation Park

Isles of St Francis Conservation Park was a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on islands within the Isles of St Francis off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula about 562 kilometres (349 mi) north-west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south-west of the town of Ceduna.The conservation park consisted of land on ten (sic) islands within the Isles of St Francis which form the south-westerly extension of the Nuyts Archipelago.The land first received protected area status as a pair of fauna conservation reserves proclaimed on 16 March 1967 under the Crown Lands Act 1929 in respect to Freeling Island and Smooth Island. Additional fauna conservation reserves were proclaimed on 4 November 1967 in respect to Dog Island, Egg Island, Fenelon Island, Hart Island, Masillon Island, West Island and all of St Francis Island with exception to section 220 which had been acquired by the Australian government. On 27 April 1972, all of the land proclaimed as fauna conservation reserves was reconstituted as the Isles of St Francis Conservation Park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. On 19 December 1991, additional land was added to the conservation park to extend protection over land located between high tide and low tide. As of 2010, the conservation park covered an area of 12.36 square kilometres (4.77 sq mi).On 25 August 2011, all of the land within the conservation park was constituted as part of the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area with the result that the conservation park ceased to exist.In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:

St Francis Island is the site of a reintroduction program for the endangered brush tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata), which became extinct on the island in the early 1900s. St Francis Island is also one of only two islands in South Australia which has a population of the vulnerable southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). This island also supports a population of the carpet snake (Morelia spilota), which is vulnerable in South Australia and in decline throughout its mainland range. Several rare or uncommon bird species breed on the Isles, including Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae), the second rarest goose species in the world and the banded rail (Rallus philippensis). Significant breeding colonies of Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), one of the rarest marine mammals in the world, occur on Fenelon and West Islands… St Francis granite formation outcrops on eastern St Francis Island and this is a type locality… The Isles also support a large breeding population of short tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris). New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) breed on Fenelon Island...

This group of nine islands lies off the coast of South Australia near Ceduna, beyond the Nuyts Archipelago group of islands. The total area covered by the group is 1,312 ha, the largest islands in the group being St Francis Island (809ha), Masillon Island (202 ha) and Egg, Dog and West Islands (all 60 ha in area). The islands consist of limestone and sand over granite bases. Nuyts Volcanics formation outcrops on western St Francis Island, and St Francis Granite formation outcrops on eastern St Francis Island. Both are considered geological monuments. The vegetation on the larger islands consists mostly of coast saltbush (Atriplex cinerea) shrubland on the low-lying areas, with grassland and scattered low shrubs covering the remainder. Populations of bush rat (Rattus fuscipes) occur on Dog and Masillon Islands. St Francis is also the site of a breeding population of short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris). Other birds which breed on the Isles include Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae), banded rail (Rallus philippensis), rock parrot (Neophema petrophila) and little penguin (Eudyptula minor). Significant breeding colonies of Australian sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) occur on Fenelon and West Islands and New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) breed on Fenelon Island…

For most of these islands, pastoral leases have been held since the late 1800s. St Francis Island is the most disturbed of the group, a large part of it having been cleared and the whole island grazed by sheep, but the vegetation is now recovering. Introduced plants are common on St Francis Island. The remaining islands are in their natural state.

The conservation park was classified in 2010 as being an IUCN Category Ia protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.

King genet

The king genet (Genetta poensis) is a small carnivoran native to the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Liberia, Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. As it has not been recorded since 1946, it is listed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List. It probably inhabits only tropical rainforest.


Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mephitis (genus)

The genus Mephitis is one of several genera of skunks, which has two species and a North American distribution.


Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Pleistocene New Zealand sea lion

Pleistocene New Zealand sea lion (Neophoca palatina) is an extinct species of pinniped known from a nearly-complete adult male skull found at Ohope Beach on the North Island in 1937. It was found in a stratum from the late Castlecliffian stage, suggesting an approximate age of 400,000 years. It was not recognised as representing a new species until 1983, distinguishable from the extant Australian sea lion and New Zealand sea lion by the short palate (leading Dr. J. A. Berry to suggest the species name), lack of processes on the ethmoid bulla and the very wide basiocciptal. A more advanced morphometric analysis in 2016 strongly confirmed that the skull represented a distinct species, closely related to the Australian sea lion. Paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that N. palatina was more tolerant of cold water temperatures than N. cinerea, the only other known member of the genus.


Pusa is a genus of the earless seals, within the family Phocidae. The three species of this genus were split from the genus Phoca, and some sources still give Phoca as an acceptable synonym for Pusa.

The three species in this genus are found in Arctic and subarctic regions, as well as around the Caspian Sea. This includes these countries and regions: Russia, Scandinavia, Britain, Greenland, Canada, the United States, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Japan. Due to changing local environmental conditions, the ringed seals found in the Canadian region has varied patterns of growth. The northern Canadian ringed seals grow slowly to a larger size, while the southern seals grow quickly to a smaller size.

Only the Caspian seal is endangered.

Sea lion

Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly. Together with the fur seals, they comprise the family Otariidae, eared seals, which contains six extant and one extinct species (the Japanese sea lion) in five genera. Their range extends from the subarctic to tropical waters of the global ocean in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, with the notable exception of the northern Atlantic Ocean. They have an average lifespan of 20–30 years. A male California sea lion weighs on average about 300 kg (660 lb) and is about 8 ft (2.4 m) long, while the female sea lion weighs 100 kg (220 lb) and is 6 ft (1.8 m) long. The largest sea lion is Steller's sea lion, which can weigh 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) and grow to a length of 10 ft (3.0 m). Sea lions consume large quantities of food at a time and are known to eat about 5–8% of their body weight (about 15–35 lb (6.8–15.9 kg)) at a single feeding. Sea lions can go around 16 knots in water and at their fastest they can go up to 30 knots. Three species, the Australian sea lion, the Galápagos sea lion and the New Zealand sea lion are listed as Endangered.


Speothos is a genus of canid found in Central and South America. The genus includes the living bush dog, Speothos venaticus, and an extinct Pleistocene species, Speothos pacivorus. Unusually, the fossil species was identified and named before the extant species was discovered, with the result that the type species of Speothos is S. pacivorus.


Viverra is a mammalian genus that was first nominated and described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 as comprising several species including the large Indian civet (V. zibetha). The genus was subordinated to the viverrid family by John Edward Gray in 1821.

Whidbey Isles Conservation Park

The Whidbey Isles Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia which consists of seven islands located west-southwest of Coffin Bay, lower Eyre Peninsula. The group, which includes the Four Hummocks group, Perforated Island, Price Island and Golden Island, supports breeding populations of seabirds and marine mammals. Colonies of the endangered Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and protected New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) occur on some of these islands. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.

Extant Carnivora species

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