Neoclassical architecture in Poland

The Neoclassical architecture in Poland was centered in Warsaw under the reign of Stanisław August Poniatowski,[1][2] while the modern concept of a single capital city was to some extent inapplicable in the decentralized Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[3] Classicism came to Poland in the 18th century as the result of French infiltrations into the Polish millieu.[4] The best-known architects and artists who worked in Poland were Dominik Merlini, Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, Szymon Bogumił Zug, Stanisław Zawadzki, Efraim Szreger, Antonio Corazzi, Jakub Kubicki, Christian Piotr Aigner, Wawrzyniec Gucewicz, Bonifacy Witkowski and Danish Bertel Thorvaldsen.[5]

The first stage, called the Stanislavian style, followed by an almost complete inhibition and a period known as the Congress Kingdom classicism.[6] The palladian patterns were independently interpreted by Szymon Bogumił Zug, who followed an influence of radical French classicism.[7] A palladian by influence was also Piotr Aigner - author of the facade of St. Anne's Church in Warsaw (1786-1788) and St. Alexander Church (1818-1826).[7] Palladian ideas were implemented in a popular type of a palace with a pillared portico.[7]

The most famous buildings of the Stanislavian period include the Royal Castle in Warsaw, rebuilt by Dominik Merlini and Jan Christian Kamsetzer, Palace on the Water, Królikarnia and the palace in Jabłonna. Kamsetzer erected the Amphitheatre in the Royal Baths Park and the Warsaw palaces of the Raczyńskis and Tyszkiewiczs as well as the palace in Iskierniki. Among the most notable works by Szymon Bogumił Zug is a palace in Natolin and Holy Trinity Church and gardens: Solec, Powązki, Mokotów and Arcadia near Nieborów.

From the period of the Congress Kingdom are Koniecpolski Palace and the St. Alexander's Church in Warsaw, the Temple of the Sibyl in Puławy, rebuilding the Łańcut Castle. The leading figure in the Congress Kingdom was Antoni Corrazzi.[7] Corazzi has created a complex of Bank Square in Warsaw, the edifices of the Treasury, Revenue and the Commission of Government, the building of the Staszic Palace, Mostowski Palace and designed the Grand Theatre. Belvedere and Pawłowice were created by Jakub Kubicki, while Lubostroń and Dobrzyca by Stanisław Zawadzki. The notable town halls in Łowicz, Płock, Błonie, Konin and Aleksandrów Łódzki are dating back the first half of the nineteenth century.

POL Kosciol sw Anny w Warszawie 2008 (1)
Warsaw - St. Anna church (1786)
4 Warszawa-Lazienki Krolewskie 062
Roman theater on the Isle (1790-1793), a companion to the Palace on the Water
Potocki palace tulchyn tulczyn panorama
Potocki palace in Tulchyn

Notes

  1. ^ The above mentioned buildings cannot in any way be compared with what was built in Warsaw at that time, because Warsaw become the real artistic capital of Poland. Much of the artistic work done in Warsaw was thanks to the sponsorship of Stanislaus Augustus. The creative artists gathered there and the most outstanding architects of the classicist period were very active. At that time, Cracow become artistically provincial. Michał Rożek, Doris Ronowicz (1988). Cracow: a treasury of Polish culture and art. Interpress Publishers. p. 74. ISBN 83-223-2245-3.
  2. ^ John Stanley (March–June 2004). "Literary Activities and Attitudes in the Stanislavian Age in Poland (1764–1795): A Social System?". findarticles.com. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
  3. ^ Francis W. Carter (1994). Trade and urban development in Poland: an economic geography of Cracow, from its origins to 1795 – Volume 20 of Cambridge studies in historical geography. Cambridge University Press. pp. 186, 187. ISBN 978-0-521-41239-1.
  4. ^ Marek Kwiatkowski (1983). Stanisław August, król-architekt (Stanislaus Augustus, the king-architect). Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. p. 274. ISBN 83-04-00850-5.
  5. ^ Jon Stewart, Jon Bartley Stewart (2003). Kierkegaard and his contemporaries: the culture of golden age Denmark. Walter de Gruyter. p. 394. ISBN 3-11-017762-5.
  6. ^ Manfred Kridl (1967). A survey of Polish literature and culture. Columbia University Press. pp. 192, 343.
  7. ^ a b c d Wojciech Słowakiewicz (2000). Wielka encyklopedia polski (in Polish). Fogra.
Bachorza manor

Bachorza is a manor house located in the village of Bachorza in Masovian Voivodeship, in central-eastern Poland. It was originally built in the late 17th century, but was subsequently redesigned in the mid-19th century. Bachorza was home to many distinguished Polish families and is a good example of neo-classical Polish manorial architecture.

Bejsce

Bejsce [ˈbɛi̯st͡sɛ] is a village in Kazimierza County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina (administrative district) called Gmina Bejsce. It lies approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) east of Kazimierza Wielka and 71 km (44 mi) south of the regional capital Kielce.Bejsce belongs to Lesser Poland, and has a long history, which dates back to the early years of the Kingdom of Poland. In the 10th century, a defensive gord probably existed here, with a chapel, which later was expanded into a church. First mention of Bejsce comes from the year 1063, in a document by Bishop of Kraków Lambert. In 1190, new church was blessed by another Bishop of Kraków, Fulko. Current St. Nicholas church was funded in 1340 by a local nobleman Ostasz Firlej. Throughout the centuries, the church was remodelled and expanded several times. Its oldest part consists of a presbytery with a sacristy. In ca. 1600 late Renaissance-style chapel was added. In the presbytery, there are fragments of Gothic polychrome, which present Byblical scenes. The 1600 chapel was built as a tomb for Voivode of Kraków Mikołaj Firlej and his wife Elżbieta née Ligęza. It was modelled after Wawel’s Sigismund's Chapel, and the Bejsce chapel is regarded as one of the finest examples of Renaissance chapels in Poland.

Apart from St. Nicholas church and chapel, Bejsce has a neoclassical palace, built in 1802 by architect Jakub Kubicki for Marcin Badeni, Minister of Justice in the Governments of the Duchy of Warsaw and Congress Poland. Currently the palace houses a Senior Citizen House (see also Neoclassical architecture in Poland).

Enlightenment in Poland

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later than in Western Europe, as the Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Liberty) were in deep crisis. The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s, peaked in the reign of Poland's last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski (second half of the 18th century), went into decline with the Third Partition of Poland (1795) – a national tragedy inspiring a short period of sentimental writing – and ended in 1822, replaced by Romanticism.

Lelewel Palace

Lelewel Palace (Polish: Pałac Lelewelów) was a rococo palace on the Miodowa Street in the Warsaw Old Town, which was also unofficially named "Palace Street" (ulica Pałacowa). Lelewel Palace was built in 1755 by Efraim Szreger on an estate documented to have been property of King John III Sobieski and maintaining the original Corps de logis. The client and owner until 1787 was Constance Lelewel née Jauch.

Myślewicki Palace

The Myślewicki Palace (Polish: Pałac Myślewicki) is a rococo-neoclassical palace in Warsaw's Royal Baths Park. It was created for King Stanisław August Poniatowski as one of the first buildings in the Royal Baths. Its name derives from that of the nearby now nonexistent village of Myślewice.

Nożyk Synagogue

The Nożyk Synagogue (Polish: Synagoga Nożyków) is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland. It was built in 1898-1902 and was restored after World War II. It is still operational and currently houses the Warsaw Jewish Commune, as well as other Jewish organizations.

Outline of classical architecture

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical architecture:

Classical architecture – architecture of classical antiquity, that is, ancient Greek architecture and the architecture of ancient Rome. It also refers to the style or styles of architecture influenced by those. For example, most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture.

The Princely Pheasantry

The Princely Pheasantry is a late 18th-century neoclassical building in Poręba, Pszczyna County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It was founded by the Prince of Pszczyna Frederick Erdmann, designed by Wilhelm Pusch and built between 1792 and 1800.

White Stork Synagogue

The White Stork Synagogue is a nineteenth-century synagogue in Wrocław, Poland. Rededicated in 2010 after a decade-long renovation, it is the religious and cultural centre of the local Jewish community, under the auspices of the Union of Jewish Religious Communities in Poland. It is the only synagogue in Wrocław to have survived the Holocaust.

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